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1.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-28, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins, measured in serum, alters protein synthesis, reducing serum protein and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), increasing inflammation and infection, leading to child linear growth failure. DESIGN: Children 6-35 months, stratified by baseline stunting, were subsampled from an intervention trial on quality protein maize consumption and evaluated at two time points. SETTING: Blood samples and anthropometric data were collected in the pre-harvest (August-September 2015) and post-harvest (February 2016) seasons in rural Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: 102 children (50 stunted and 52 non-stunted). RESULTS: Proportions of children exposed to aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, and aflatoxin M1 were higher in the pre-harvest (8%, 33%, and 7%, respectively) compared to post-harvest season (4%, 28%, and 4%, respectively). The proportion of children exposed to any aflatoxin was higher in the pre-harvest than post-harvest season (51% vs. 41%). Fumonisin exposure ranged from 0-11%. In joint statistical tests, aflatoxin exposure was associated with serum biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, α-1-glycoprotein) and protein status (transthyretin, lysine, tryptophan), IGF-1, and linear growth (all p<0.01). However, exposure to specific aflatoxins was not significantly associated with any biomarkers or outcomes (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Aflatoxin exposure among rural Ethiopian children was high, with large variation between seasons and individual aflatoxins. Fumonisin exposure was low. There was no clear association between aflatoxin exposure and protein status, inflammation, or linear growth. A larger study may be needed to examine potential biological interactions, and assessment of aflatoxins in food is needed to determine sources of high exposure.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintenance of high physical performance during aging might be supported by an adequate dietary intake of niacin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and folate because these B vitamins are involved in multiple processes related to muscle functioning. However, not much is known about the association between dietary intake of these B vitamins and physical performance. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between dietary intake of niacin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and folate and physical performance in older adults and to explore mediation by niacin status and homocysteine concentrations. METHODS: We used baseline data from the New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE) trial, which included n = 1249 healthy older adults (aged 65-79 y) with complete data on dietary intake measured with 7-d food records and questionnaires on vitamin supplement use and physical performance measured with the short physical performance battery and handgrip dynamometry. Associations were assessed by adjusted linear mixed models. RESULTS: Intake of vitamin B-6 was related to lower chair rise test time [ß: -0.033 ± 0.016 s (log); P = 0.043]. Vitamin B-6 intake was also significantly associated with handgrip strength, but for this association, a significant interaction effect between vitamin B-6 intake and physical activity level was found. In participants with the lowest level of physical activity, higher intake of vitamin B-6 tended to be associated with greater handgrip strength (ß: 1.5 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.051), whereas in participants in the highest quartile of physical activity, higher intake was associated with lower handgrip strength (ß: -1.4 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.041). No evidence was found for an association between intake of niacin, vitamin B-12, or folate and physical performance or for mediation by niacin status or homocysteine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin B-6 intake was associated with better chair rise test time in a population of European healthy older adults and also with greater handgrip strength in participants with low physical activity only. Homocysteine concentrations did not mediate these associations. The NU-AGE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(2): 391-400, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate on whether fructose plays a role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fructose restriction on intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content in a double-blind randomized controlled trial using an isocaloric comparator. METHODS: Between March 2017 and October 2019, 44 adult overweight individuals with a fatty liver index ≥ 60 consumed a 6-wk fructose-restricted diet (<7.5 g/meal and <10 g/d) and were randomly assigned to supplementation with sachets of glucose (= intervention group) or fructose (= control group) 3 times daily. Participants and assessors were blinded to the allocation. IHL content, assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, was the primary outcome and glucose tolerance and serum lipids were the secondary outcomes. All measurements were conducted in Maastricht University Medical Center. RESULTS: Thirty-seven participants completed the study protocol. After 6 wk of fructose restriction, dietary fructose intake and urinary fructose excretion were significantly lower in the intervention group (difference: -57.0 g/d; 95% CI: -77.9, -39.5 g/d; and -38.8 µmol/d; 95% CI: -91.2, -10.7 µmol/d, respectively). Although IHL content decreased in both the intervention and control groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively), the change in IHL content was more pronounced in the intervention group (difference: -0.7% point, 95% CI: -2.0, -0.03% point). The changes in glucose tolerance and serum lipids were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Six weeks of fructose restriction per se led to a small, but statistically significant, decrease in IHL content in comparison with an isocaloric control group.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03067428.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255223

RESUMO

While an adequate protein intake is important for the maintenance of muscle mass during ageing, the amount and source of protein necessary for optimal prevention of sarcopenia remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the amount and source of dietary proteins on sarcopenia risk in a cohort of 65-79-year-old European adults within the frame of the NU-AGE study. A total of 986 participants were included in the analysis. Skeletal muscle index (SMI), assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and handgrip strength (HG) were employed to create a continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS). Total amount together with animal- and plant-derived sources of proteins were obtained from a 7-day food record. Differences in SRS were analysed across groups of total protein intake (<0.8 g/body weight (BW); 0.8-<1.0 g/BW; 1.0-<1.2 g/BW; and ≥1.2 g/BW). The association between SRS and the different sources of protein was assessed using isocaloric substitution models adjusted by demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A significant linear dose-response relationship was observed, with a lower SRS linked to higher protein intakes. Based on the isocaloric substitution modelling, a reduced SRS was observed when increasing plant protein to the detriment of animal protein, while holding total protein intake constant. Further, this result remained significant after stratifying the analysis by adherence to different levels of protein intake. Our findings suggest that older adults may benefit from increasing protein intakes above current recommendations. Besides total amount, protein source should be considered when promoting health dietary habits in older adults for the prevention of sarcopenia.

5.
Obes Rev ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283419

RESUMO

This systematic review synthesized the qualitative evidence on factors influencing obesogenic behaviours in adolescent girls and women of reproductive age in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This qualitative evidence synthesis followed the framework synthesis approach to extract, analyse and synthesize data. Electronic searches were conducted in the Web of Science, SCOPUS, CABI Abstracts, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. Studies were eligible if they were conducted in LMICs, of qualitative nature, and reported obesogenic behaviours of female adolescents (10-19 years of age) or women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age). The review resulted in 71 included studies from 27 different countries. Thirty-two studies focused on dietary behaviours, 17 on physical activity and 22 on both behaviours. Gender norms and failures to recognize the importance of healthy behaviours across the life cycle were important factors. The abundance and promotion of affordable but unhealthy food, food safety concerns, taste preferences and social desirability of foods drive consumption of unhealthy foods. Busy lives and limited exercise spaces keep girls and women from being physically active. Obesogenic behaviours of adolescent girls and women of reproductive age are influenced by factors at individual, social, physical and environmental levels and require diverse solutions to address these factors in LMICs.

6.
BMC Nutr ; 6(1): 69, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans have a long history of consuming fermented foods. However, their prevalence in human diets remains largely undetermined, and there is a lack of validated dietary assessment tools assessing the intake of different fermented products. This study aimed to identify fermented foods consumed in The Netherlands and determine the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) compared to multiple 24-h recalls for estimating their intake. METHODS: The validation population consisted of 809 participants (53.1 ± 11.9 years) from a Dutch observational cohort (NQplus) who completed a FFQ and multiple 24-h recalls. Fermented foods from the FFQ and recalls were identified and aggregated into conventional food groups. Percent difference in mean intakes, quintile cross-classification, Spearman's correlations, and Bland-Altman analyses were used to evaluate the agreement between the two dietary assessment methods. RESULTS: Approximately 16-18% of foods consumed by this population were fermented, and a further 9-14% were dishes containing a fermented ingredient. Fermented foods with the highest consumption included coffee (~ 453 g/day;~ 0.5% of daily energy intake), yoghurts (~ 88 g/day;~ 2.2%), beer (~ 84 g/day;~ 1.7%), wholegrain bread (~ 81 g/day;~ 9.4%), wine (~ 65 g/day;~ 2.7%), and cheese (~ 32 g/day;~ 5.0%). Mean percent difference between the FFQ and recalls was small for fermented beverages (coffee), breads (brown, white, wholegrain, rye), and fermented dairy (cheeses) (0.3-2.8%), but large for buttermilk and quark (≥53%). All fermented food groups had > 50% of participants classified into the same or adjacent quintile of intake (58%-buttermilk to 89%-fermented beverages). Strong Spearman's correlations (crude/energy-adjusted rs ≥ 0.50) were obtained for fermented beverages (coffee, beer, wine), cereals/grains (wholegrain bread), and dairy (yoghurts). For 'other bread', quark, and buttermilk, correlations were low (rs < 0.20). Bland-Altman analyses revealed good agreement for fermented beverages (coffee, beer), breads (brown, wholegrain, rye, other), pastries, chocolate, and fermented dairy (cheeses) (mean difference: 0.1-9.3). CONCLUSIONS: Fermented food groups with acceptable or good validity across all measures included commonly consumed foods in The Netherlands: fermented beverages (coffee), wholegrain and rye bread, and fermented dairy (cheeses). However, for less frequently consumed foods, such as quark and buttermilk, the levels of agreement were poor and estimates of intake should be interpreted with caution. This report provides the basis for developing a FFQ specific for fermented foods.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050316

RESUMO

Dietary fat subtypes may play an important role in the regulation of muscle mass and function during ageing. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of isocaloric macronutrient substitutions, including different fat subtypes, on sarcopenia risk in older men and women, while accounting for physical activity (PA) and metabolic risk. A total of 986 participants, aged 65-79 years, completed a 7-day food record and wore an accelerometer for a week. A continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS), including skeletal muscle mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and handgrip strength, was derived. The impact of the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) by either mono- (MUFAs) or poly-unsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids on SRS was determined using regression analysis based on the whole sample and stratified by adherence to a recommended protein intake (1.1 g/BW). Isocaloric reduction of SFAs for the benefit of PUFAs was associated with a lower SRS in the whole population, and in those with a protein intake below 1.1 g/BW, after accounting for age, smoking habits, metabolic disturbances, and adherence to PA guidelines. The present study highlighted the potential of promoting healthy diets with optimised fat subtype distribution in the prevention of sarcopenia in older adults.

9.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(4): 195-203, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885771

RESUMO

Our current society is characterized by an increased availability of industrially processed foods with high salt, fat and sugar content. How is it that some people prefer these unhealthy foods while others prefer more healthy foods? It is suggested that both genetic and environmental factors play a role. The aim of this study was to (1) identify food preference clusters in the largest twin-family study into food preference to date and (2) determine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in food preference in the Netherlands. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the preference clusters by using data on food liking/disliking from 16,541 adult multiples and their family members. To estimate the heritability of food preference, the data of 7833 twins were used in structural equation models. We identified seven food preference clusters (Meat, Fish, Fruits, Vegetables, Savory snacks, Sweet snacks and Spices) and one cluster with Drinks. Broad-sense heritability (additive [A] + dominant [D] genetic factors) for these clusters varied between .36 and .60. Dominant genetic effects were found for the clusters Fruit, Fish (males only) and Spices. Quantitative sex differences were found for Meat, Fish and Savory snacks and Drinks. To conclude, our study convincingly showed that genetic factors play a significant role in food preference. A next important step is to identify these genes because genetic vulnerability for food preference is expected to be linked to actual food consumption and different diet-related disorders.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911770

RESUMO

The sex differences in malnutrition and hypertension during adolescence is largely inconclusive. There is also a paucity of data on the sex-specific correlates of malnutrition and hypertension for adolescents. Hence, this study aimed to assess the association between malnutrition, pre-hypertension/hypertension (PHH) and sex among adolescents. The study also aimed to determine and contrast the factors associated with these risks in Ghana. We analysed data of non-pregnant adolescent girls (n = 857) and adolescent boys (n = 870) aged 15-19 years from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). We modelled the prevalence risk ratio (PRR) of malnutrition and PHH using Cox proportional hazard models. Compared to adolescent girls, boys were more than twice likely to be stunted (PRR = 2.58, 95% C.I (1.77, 3.76)) and underweight (PRR = 2.67, 95% C.I (1.41, 5.09)) but less likely to be overweight/obese (PRR = 0.85, 95% C.I (0.08, 0.29)). Boys were also about twice likely to have PHH (PRR = 1.96, 95% C.I (1.47, 2.59)) compared to their female peers. Girls were more at risk of the detrimental effects of poor education on stunting and PHH. Empowerment index while protective of stunting for girls (PRR = 0.82, 95% C.I (0.67, 0.99)) also increased their risk of overweight/obesity (PRR = 1.31, 95% C.I (1.02, 1.68)). A higher household wealth index (HWI) increased the risk of overweight/obesity for adolescent girls but was protective of stunting and PHH for adolescent boys. Improvement in household water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH) reduced the risk of stunting by 15% for adolescent boys. Overall, our findings suggest a double-burden of malnutrition with an up-coming non-communicable disease burden for adolescents in Ghana. Our findings may also be highlighting the need to target adolescent boys alongside girls in nutrition and health intervention programmes.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635332

RESUMO

Maternal nutrition is essential for the development and lifelong health of the offspring. Antenatal care provides unique opportunities for nutrition communication, and health promotion tools (e.g., guidelines, instruments, packages, or resources) might help to overcome several concurrent barriers. We conducted a systematic literature review to map tools that are available for the promotion of a healthy dietary intake in healthy pregnant women in Western countries, and to identify what makes these tools feasible and effective for these women and their healthcare providers. Seventeen studies were included, evaluating tools with various delivery modes, content, and providers. Nine studies employed multiple, complementary delivery methods and almost all studies (n = 14) tailored the content to varying degrees, based on the individual characteristics and lifestyle behaviors of the participants. We found that the feasibility of a tool was dependent on practical issues, time investment, and providers' motivation, skills, and knowledge, while the effectiveness was related more to the type of provider and the content. Most effective interventions were provided by dietitians and nutritionists, and were highly tailored. Based on the results of this review, we believe that custom tools that are sensitive to inequalities are needed to support all women in obtaining or maintaining a healthy diet during pregnancy.

12.
Adv Nutr ; 11(5): 1384-1391, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392308

RESUMO

Funding of research by industry in general can lead to sponsorship bias. The aim of the current study was to conduct an initial exploration of the impact of sponsorship bias in observational alcohol research by focusing on a broad spectrum of health outcomes. The purpose was to determine whether the outcome depended on funding source. We focused on moderate alcohol consumption and used meta-analyses that are the basis of several international alcohol guidelines. These meta-analyses included observational studies that investigated the association of alcohol consumption with 14 different health outcomes, including all-cause mortality, several cardiovascular diseases and cancers, dementia, and type 2 diabetes. Subgroup analyses and metaregressions were conducted to investigate the association between moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of different health outcomes, comparing findings of studies funded by the alcohol industry, ones not funded by the alcohol industry, and studies with an unknown funding source. A total of 386 observational studies were included. Twenty-one studies (5.4%) were funded by the alcohol industry, 309 studies (80.1%) were not funded by the alcohol industry, and for the remaining 56 studies (14.5%) the funding source was unknown. Subgroup analyses and metaregressions did not show an effect of funding source on the association between moderate alcohol intake and different health outcomes. In conclusion, only a small proportion of observational studies in meta-analyses, referred to by several international alcohol guidelines, are funded by the alcohol industry. Based on this selection of observational studies the association between moderate alcohol consumption and different health outcomes does not seem to be related to funding source.

13.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 23: 100600, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426234

RESUMO

Objective: Previous studies have shown that patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) are characterized by a greater intrahepatic triglyceride content, despite a fructose-restricted diet. The present study aimed to examine the long-term consequences of HFI on other aldolase-B-expressing organs, i.e. the kidney and vascular endothelium. Methods: Fifteen adult HFI patients were compared to healthy control individuals matched for age, sex and body mass index. Aortic stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and endothelial function by peripheral arterial tonometry, skin laser doppler flowmetry and the endothelial function biomarkers soluble E-selectin [sE-selectin] and von Willebrand factor. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Urinary glucose and amino acid excretion and the ratio of tubular maximum reabsorption of phosphate to GFR (TmP/GFR) were determined as measures of proximal tubular function. Results: Median systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in HFI patients (127 versus 122 mmHg, p = .045). Pulse pressure and cf-PWV did not differ between the groups (p = .37 and p = .49, respectively). Of all endothelial function markers, only sE-selectin was significantly higher in HFI patients (p = .004). eGFR was significantly higher in HFI patients than healthy controls (119 versus 104 ml/min/1.73m2, p = .001, respectively). All measurements of proximal tubular function did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions: Adult HFI patients treated with a fructose-restricted diet are characterized by a higher sE-selectin level and slightly higher systolic blood pressure, which in time could contribute to a greater cardiovascular risk. The exact cause and, hence, clinical consequences of the higher eGFR in HFI patients, deserves further study.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295007

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is characterised by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical function as well as related metabolic disturbances. While fibre-rich diets can influence metabolic health outcomes, the impact on skeletal muscle mass and function is yet to be determined, and the moderating effects by physical activity (PA) need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to examine links between fibre intake, skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a cohort of older adults from the NU-AGE study. In 981 older adults (71 ± 4 years, 58% female), physical function was assessed using the short-physical performance battery test and handgrip strength. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary fibre intake (FI) was assessed by 7-day food record and PA was objectively determined by accelerometery. General linear models accounting for covariates including PA level, protein intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Women above the median FI had significantly higher SMI compared to those below, which remained in fully adjusted models (24.7 ± 0.2% vs. 24.2 ± 0.1%, p = 0.011, η2p = 0.012). In men, the same association was only evident in those without MetS (above median FI: 32.4 ± 0.3% vs. below median FI: 31.3 ± 0.3%, p = 0.005, η2p = 0.035). There was no significant impact of FI on physical function outcomes. The findings from this study suggest a beneficial impact of FI on skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Importantly, this impact is independent of adherence to guidelines for protein intake and PA, which further strengthens the potential role of dietary fibre in preventing sarcopenia. Further experimental work is warranted in order to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the action of dietary fibre on the regulation of muscle mass.

15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(10): e1900818, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271991

RESUMO

SCOPE: Abdominal obesity is one of the main modifiable risk factors of age-related cardiometabolic disease. Cardiometabolic disease risk and its associated high abdominal fat mass, cholesterol, and glucose concentrations can be reduced by a healthier lifestyle. Hence, the aim is to understand the relation between lifestyle-induced changes in body composition, and specifically abdominal fat, and accompanying changes in circulating metabolic biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Growing Old Together (GOTO) study was used, which is a single arm lifestyle intervention in which 164 older adults (mean age 63 years, BMI 23-35 kg/m2 ) changed their lifestyle during 13 weeks by 12.5% caloric restriction plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure. It is shown here that levels of circulating metabolic biomarkers, even after adjustment for body mass index, specifically associate with abdominal fat mass. The applied lifestyle intervention mainly reduces abdominal fat mass (-2.6%, SD = 3.0) and this reduction, when adjusted for general weight loss, is highly associated with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter. CONCLUSION: The lifestyle-induced reduction of abdominal fat mass is particularly associated, independent of body mass index or general weight loss, with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter.

16.
FASEB J ; 34(4): 5525-5537, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141137

RESUMO

Skeletal muscles control posture, mobility and strength, and influence whole-body metabolism. Muscles are built of different types of myofibers, each having specific metabolic, molecular, and contractile properties. Fiber classification is, therefore, regarded the key for understanding muscle biology, (patho-) physiology. The expression of three myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, MyHC-1, MyHC-2A, and MyHC-2X, marks myofibers in humans. Typically, myofiber classification is performed by an eye-based histological analysis. This classical approach is insufficient to capture complex fiber classes, expressing more than one MyHC-isoform. We, therefore, developed a methodological procedure for high-throughput characterization of myofibers on the basis of multiple isoforms. The mean fluorescence intensity of the three most abundant MyHC isoforms was measured per myofiber in muscle biopsies of 56 healthy elderly adults, and myofiber classes were identified using computational biology tools. Unsupervised clustering revealed the existence of six distinct myofiber clusters. A comparison with the visual assessment of myofibers using the same images showed that some of these myofiber clusters could not be detected or were frequently misclassified. The presence of these six clusters was reinforced by RNA expressions levels of sarcomeric genes. In addition, one of the clusters, expressing all three MyHC isoforms, correlated with histological measures of muscle health. To conclude, this methodological procedure enables deep characterization of the complex muscle heterogeneity. This study opens opportunities to further investigate myofiber composition in comparative studies.

18.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069791

RESUMO

Various dairy nutrients have been associated with cognitive performance. Several observational studies have explored associations between the intake of total dairy or some dairy subgroups and cognitive performance. However, studies on the potential impact of a broad variety of dairy subclasses are scarce. We examined cross-sectional associations between a wide assortment of dairy products and cognitive performance. A total of 619 Dutch community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years completed a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cognitive performance was assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery; the tests were clustered into cognitive domains using z-scores. Linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, habitual physical activity, total energy intake, and dietary factors, were performed to quantify the associations. The Benjamini-Hochberg method was used to correct for multiple testing. After full adjustment, higher skimmed dairy (ß ± SD: 0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.06), fermented dairy (0.04 ± 0.02, p = 0.09), and buttermilk (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.19) consumption were associated with better executive functioning. Logistic regression analyses indicated that a 30 g increase in Dutch cheese intake was associated with a 33% lower probability of poor information processing speed (PR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.97). No associations were observed between dairy consumption and attention and working memory or episodic memory.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Cognição , Laticínios/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Vida Independente/psicologia , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder, with a heritability of around 34%. Molecular genetic studies made significant progress and identified genetic markers associated with the risk of MDD; however, progress is slowed down by substantial heterogeneity as MDD is assessed differently across international cohorts. Here, we used a standardized online approach to measure MDD in multiple cohorts in the Netherlands and evaluated whether this approach can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression. METHODS: Within the Biobank Netherlands Internet Collaboration (BIONIC) project, we collected MDD data in eight cohorts involving 31 936 participants, using the online Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), and estimated the prevalence of current and lifetime MDD in 22 623 unrelated individuals. In a large Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) twin-family dataset (n ≈ 18 000), we estimated the heritability of MDD, and the prediction of MDD in a subset (n = 4782) through Polygenic Risk Score (PRS). RESULTS: Estimates of current and lifetime MDD prevalence were 6.7% and 18.1%, respectively, in line with population estimates based on validated psychiatric interviews. In the NTR heritability estimates were 0.34/0.30 (s.e. = 0.02/0.02) for current/lifetime MDD, respectively, showing that the LIDAS gives similar heritability rates for MDD as reported in the literature. The PRS predicted risk of MDD (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32, R2 = 1.47%). CONCLUSIONS: By assessing MDD status in the Netherlands using the LIDAS instrument, we were able to confirm previously reported MDD prevalence and heritability estimates, which suggests that this instrument can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.

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