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1.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(Suppl 2): 727-732, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431711

RESUMO

Posttransplant treatment strategies are narrowed by the vulnerability of bone marrow. Building on immune cells with antitumor activity is a growing field in cancer therapy. Thus, transfer of expanded and preactivated immune cells is a promising intensification of treatment in high-risk tumor patients. We tested ex vivo expanded NK-, γδT-, and CIK cells that were generated by coincubation with irradiated K562-mb15-41BBL and Il2 and compared the expansion conditions of PBMCs versus CD3-depleted PBMCs as well as static versus semi-automated expansion. The median fold expansion was significantly higher using PBMCs and static expansion conditions. Expanded cells were preactivated with a CD56brightCD69high immunophenotype exerting excellent direct cellular cytotoxicity as well as ADCC in various tumor entities. We established a large-scale clinical-grade ex vivo expansion and activation protocol of NK-, γδT-, and CIK cells from donor-derived PBMCs of patients after haploidentical HSCT. In a patient with AML, NK/γδT/CIK cell transfer was associated with MRD response. A significant increase of direct antitumor activity and ADCC post cell transfer was documented. The results that we report here provide the rationale for clinical testing of expanded, preactivated NK/γδT/CIK cells for cancer therapy.

2.
Cytotherapy ; 21(9): 973-986, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and adolescence. Although some patients present with distinct genetic alterations, such as mutated TP53 or MYC amplification, pediatric medulloblastoma is a tumor entity with minimal mutational load and low immunogenicity. METHODS: We identified tumor-specific mutations using next-generation sequencing of medulloblastoma DNA and RNA derived from primary tumor samples from pediatric patients. Tumor-specific mutations were confirmed using deep sequencing and in silico analyses predicted high binding affinity of the neoantigen-derived peptides to the patients' human leukocyte antigen molecules. Tumor-specific peptides were synthesized and used to induce a de novo T-cell response characterized by interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha release of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in vitro. RESULTS: Despite low mutational tumor burden, at least two immunogenic tumor-specific peptides were identified in each patient. T cells showed a balanced CD4/CD8 ratio and mostly effector memory phenotype. Induction of a CD8-specific T-cell response was achieved for the neoepitopes derived from Histidine Ammonia-Lyase (HAL), Neuraminidase 2 (NEU2), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin (PCSK9), Programmed Cell Death 10 (PDCD10), Supervillin (SVIL) and tRNA Splicing Endonuclease Subunit 54 (TSEN54) variants. CONCLUSION: Detection of patient-specific, tumor-derived neoantigens confirms that even in tumors with low mutational load a molecular design of targets for specific T-cell immunotherapy is possible. The identified neoantigens may guide future approaches of adoptive T-cell transfer, transgenic T-cell receptor transfer or tumor vaccination.

3.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(11): 1847-1858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089287

RESUMO

Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) provides high cure rates for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), relapses remain the main cause of treatment failure. Whereas donor killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype was shown to impact on relapse incidence in adult myeloid leukaemia similar studies in paediatric ALL are largely missing. Effect of donor KIR genotype on transplant outcome was evaluated in 317 children receiving a first myeloablative HSCT from an HLA-matched unrelated donor or sibling within the prospective ALL-SCT-BFM-2003 trial. Analysis of donor KIR gene polymorphism revealed that centromeric presence and telomeric absence of KIR B haplotypes was associated with reduced relapse risk. A centromeric/telomeric KIR score (ct-KIR score) integrating these observations correlated with relapse risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.58; P = 0.002) while it had no impact on graft-versus-host disease or non-relapse mortality. In multivariable analyses ct-KIR score was associated with reduced relapse risk (HR 0.58; P = 0.003) and a trend towards improved event-free survival (HR 0.76; P = 0.059). This effect proved independent of MRD level prior to HSCT. Our data suggest that in children with ALL undergoing HSCT after myeloablative conditioning, donor selection based on KIR genotyping holds promise to improve clinical outcome by decreasing relapse risk and prolonged event-free survival.

6.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 13, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can expose patients to a transient but marked immunosuppression, during which viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells is an attractive approach to restore protective T -cell immunity in patients with refractory viral infections after allogeneic HSCT. OBJECTIVES: This narrative review summarizes clinical evidence and developments of almost 30 years of adoptive T -cell transfer. The review is based on evidence extracted from PubMed searches and the clinical and experimental work of the authors. CONTENT: Viral infections after HSCT are frequently caused by the endogenous reactivation of persistent pathogens such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus (AdV). Current antiviral medication is not satisfactory and does not treat the underlying pathophysiology which is the lack of specific T -cell immunity. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells could be a potentially curative, pathogen-specific, and non-toxic treatment providing long-term immunity against the virus. The isolation of virus-specific T cells from a healthy donor and infusion into a recipient is known as adoptive T -cell transfer and has been performed in many patients using different treatment protocols. Based on basic research, new isolation protocols aim at a safe and fast availability of cellular products for adoptive T -cell transfer. We summarize preclinical and clinical data on each of the main pathogens and on the technical approaches currently available to target either single antigens or even multiple pathogens. CONCLUSION: Cellular therapy is considered as one of the major recent breakthroughs in medicine. Translation of this individualized treatment into first-line clinical routine is still limited. Main hurdles are availability of the technique, limited compatibility of classical phase III designs with cellular therapy, and regulatory restrictions. Multinational efforts are required to clarify the status of cellular treatment in first-line clinical routine with the overall objective to strengthen evidence-based treatment guidelines for the treatment of refractory viral infections post HSCT.

7.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(10): 1632-1642, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804489

RESUMO

This multivariable analysis from the AdVance multicenter observational study assessed adenovirus (AdV) viremia peak, duration, and overall AdV viral burden-measured as time-averaged area under the viremia curve over 16 weeks (AAUC0-16)-as predictors of all-cause mortality in pediatric allo-HCT recipients with AdV viremia. In the 6 months following allo-HCT, 241 patients had AdV viremia ≥ 1000 copies/ml. Among these, 18% (43/241) died within 6 months of first AdV ≥ 1000 copies/ml. Measures of AdV viral peak, duration, and overall burden of infection consistently correlate with all-cause mortality. In multivariable analyses, controlling for lymphocyte recovery, patients with AdV AAUC0-16 in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio of 11.1 versus the lowest quartile (confidence interval 5.3-23.6); for peak AdV viremia, the hazard ratio was 2.2 for the highest versus lowest quartile. Both the peak level and duration of AdV viremia were correlated with short-term mortality, independent of other known risk factors for AdV-related mortality, such as lymphocyte recovery. AdV AAUC0-16, which assesses both peak and duration of AdV viremia, is highly correlated with mortality under the current standard of care. New therapeutic agents that decrease AdV AAUC0-16 have the potential of reducing mortality in this at-risk patient population.

8.
Cells ; 8(1)2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646564

RESUMO

Adverse outcomes following virus-associated disease in patients receiving allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have encouraged strategies to control viral reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. However, despite timely treatment with antiviral medication, some viral infections remain refractory to treatment, which hampers outcomes after HSCT, and are responsible for a high proportion of transplant-related morbidity and mortality. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived lymphocytes aims to improve cellular immunity and to prevent or treat viral diseases after HSCT. Early reports described the feasibility of transferring nonspecific lymphocytes from donors, which led to the development of cell therapy approaches based on virus-specific T cells, allowing a targeted treatment of infections, while limiting adverse events such as graft versus host disease (GvHD). Both expansion and direct selection techniques have yielded comparable results in terms of efficacy (around 70⁻80%), but efficacy is difficult to predict for individual cases. Generating bespoke products for each donor⁻recipient pair can be expensive, and there remains the major obstacle of generating products from seronegative or poorly responsive donors. More recent studies have focused on the feasibility of collecting and infusing partially matched third-party virus-specific T cells, reporting response rates of 60⁻70%. Future development of this approach will involve the broadening of applicability to multiple viruses, the optimization and cost-control of manufacturing, larger multicentred efficacy trials, and finally the creation of cell banks that can provide prompt access to virus-specific cellular product. The aim of this review is to summarise present knowledge on adoptive T cell manufacturing, efficacy and potential future developments.

9.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 68(S 01): S12-S13, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453365
10.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(9): e1481558, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228952

RESUMO

Immunotherapy can revolutionize anti-cancer therapy if specific targets are available. Immunogenic peptides encoded by cancer-specific genes (CSGs) may enable targeted immunotherapy, even of oligo-mutated cancers, which lack neo-antigens generated by protein-coding missense mutations. Here, we describe an algorithm and user-friendly software named RAVEN (Rich Analysis of Variable gene Expressions in Numerous tissues) that automatizes the systematic and fast identification of CSG-encoded peptides highly affine to Major Histocompatibility Complexes (MHC) starting from transcriptome data. We applied RAVEN to a dataset assembled from 2,678 simultaneously normalized gene expression microarrays comprising 50 tumor entities, with a focus on oligo-mutated pediatric cancers, and 71 normal tissue types. RAVEN performed a transcriptome-wide scan in each cancer entity for gender-specific CSGs, and identified several established CSGs, but also many novel candidates potentially suitable for targeting multiple cancer types. The specific expression of the most promising CSGs was validated in cancer cell lines and in a comprehensive tissue-microarray. Subsequently, RAVEN identified likely immunogenic CSG-encoded peptides by predicting their affinity to MHCs and excluded sequence identity to abundantly expressed proteins by interrogating the UniProt protein-database. The predicted affinity of selected peptides was validated in T2-cell peptide-binding assays in which many showed binding-kinetics like a very immunogenic influenza control peptide. Collectively, we provide an exquisitely curated catalogue of cancer-specific and highly MHC-affine peptides across 50 cancer types, and a freely available software (https://github.com/JSGerke/RAVENsoftware) to easily apply our algorithm to any gene expression dataset. We anticipate that our peptide libraries and software constitute a rich resource to advance anti-cancer immunotherapy.

11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-9, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966458

RESUMO

Anthracyclines are integral components of antileukemic treatment. Apart from cardiotoxicity, myelosuppression and infectious complications have been described for doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DNR) as predominant side effects, but little is known about their differential toxicities. To address the question whether DNR is associated with a lower rate of infectious complications compared with DOX, 307 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, enrolled in trial CoALL 08-09, were randomized to receive either DOX 30 mg/m2 (n = 153) or DNR 36 mg/m2 (n = 154) in delayed intensification. Hematologic toxicities and stomatitis were less frequent in the DNR group resulting in a significantly lower rate of infections in the DNR arm (27% vs. 59%, p < .0001). Survival was equal in both arms (95% SE 2%) (p = .55), with an insignificant difference in the relapse rate (RR 0.12 (SE = 0.03) in the DOX arm vs. 0.16 (SE = 0.04) in the DNR arm; p = .37; Hazard ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 0.7-2.6). In conclusion, DNR given in delayed intensification is associated with a lower incidence of infectious complications without loss of efficacy.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795418

RESUMO

Transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched unrelated donors (MUD) is still associated with a significant risk for graft vs. host disease (GvHD), especially in pediatric patients receiving grafts from adult donors containing high amounts of T cells. Here, we present long-term follow-up results on 25 pediatric patients, (acute leukemia n = 15, NHL n = 3, CML n = 3, MDS n = 5), transplanted with CD34 or CD133 positively selected PBSC from MUDs supplemented with an add-back of 1 × 107/kg body weight (kgBW) unselected T cells resulting in a median T-cell depletion (TCD) of 1.97 log. A total of 24/25 (96%) patients had primary engraftment. Early T-cell recovery was significantly improved compared to patients receiving CD34-selected grafts without T-cell add-back and similar to patients receiving unmanipulated bone marrow. GvHD incidence was low with 8/4% aGvHD grade II/III, no grade IV and 13% limited cGvHD. In total, 16/25 (64%) patients are alive after a median follow-up of 10 years. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 68%, relapse probability 24% and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) 12%. Thus, in PBSC allotransplants from MUD, partial TCD with serotherapy and CSA/MTX prophylaxis, can effectively reduce GvHD without hampering engraftment and immune reconstitution.

13.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(7): 1053-1066, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605883

RESUMO

Relapsed/refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) remains a major therapeutic challenge. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are promising treatment options. Central memory T cells (Tcm) and stem cell-like memory T cells (Tscm) are known to promote sustained proliferation and persistence after T-cell therapy, constituting essential preconditions for treatment efficacy. Therefore, we set up a protocol for anti-CD19 CAR T-cell generation aiming at high Tcm/Tscm numbers. 100 ml peripheral blood from pediatric pre-B ALL patients was processed including CD4+/CD8+-separation, T-cell activation with modified anti-CD3/-CD28 reagents and transduction with a 4-1BB-based second generation CAR lentiviral vector. The process was performed on a closed, automated device requiring additional manual/open steps under clean room conditions. The clinical situation of these critically ill and refractory patients with leukemia leads to inconsistent cellular compositions at start of the procedure including high blast counts and low T-cell numbers with exhausted phenotype. Nevertheless, a robust T-cell product was achieved (mean CD4+ = 50%, CD8+ = 39%, transduction = 27%, Tcm = 50%, Tscm = 46%). Strong proliferative potential (up to > 100-fold), specific cytotoxicity and low expression of co-inhibitory molecules were documented. CAR T cells significantly released TH1 cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 upon target-recognition. In conclusion, partly automated GMP-generation of CAR T cells from critically small blood samples was feasible with a new stimulation protocol that leads to high functionality and expansion potential, balanced CD4/CD8 ratios and a conversion to a Tcm/Tscm phenotype.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/transplante , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Adolescente , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Ativação Linfocitária , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(5): 1005-1012, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307718

RESUMO

Pediatric patients with refractory or relapsed metastatic neuroblastoma (NBL) have a poor prognosis despite autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT). Allogeneic SCT from a haploidentical donor has a remarkable alloreactive effect in patients with leukemia; thus, we evaluated this approach in children with very high-risk NBL. We analyzed data from 2 prospective phase I/II trials. A total of 26 patients with refractory (n = 5), metastatic relapsed (n = 20), or locally relapsed MYCN-positive (n = 1) NBL received a median of 17 × 106/kg T/B cell-depleted CD34+ stem cells with 68 × 103/kg residual T cells and 107 × 106/kg natural killer cells. The conditioning regimen comprised melphalan, fludarabine, thiotepa, OKT3, and a short course of mycophenolate mofetil post-transplantation. Engraftment occurred in 96% of the patients. Event-free survival and overall survival at 5 years were 19% and 23%, respectively. No transplantation-related mortality was observed, and the single death was due to progression/subsequent relapse. The median duration of follow-up was 8.1 years. Patients in complete remission before SCT had a significantly better prognosis than those with residual tumor load (P < .01). All patients with progressive disease before SCT relapsed within 1 year. Grade II and grade III acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 31% and 12% of the patients, respectively. Chronic limited and extensive GVHD occurred in 28% and 10%, respectively. Our data indicate that haploidentical SCT is a feasible treatment option that can induce long-term remission in some patients with NBL with tolerable side effects, and may enable the development of further post-transplantation therapeutic strategies based on the donor-derived immune system.

15.
Br J Haematol ; 180(1): 90-99, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205259

RESUMO

Poor graft function (PGF) is a severe complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and administration of donor stem cell boosts (SCBs) represents a therapeutic option. We report 50 paediatric patients with PGF who received 61 boosts with CD34+ selected peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) after transplantation from matched unrelated (n = 25) or mismatched related (n = 25) donors. Within 8 weeks, a significant increase in median neutrophil counts (0·6 vs. 1·516 × 109 /l, P < 0·05) and a decrease in red blood cell and platelet transfusion requirement (median frequencies 1 and 7 vs. 0, P < 0·0001 and <0·001), were observed, and 78·8% of patients resolved one or two of their cytopenias. 36·5% had a complete haematological response. Median lymphocyte counts for CD3+ , CD3+ CD4+ , CD19+ and CD56+ increased 8·3-, 14·2-, 22.- and 1·6-fold. The rate of de novo acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grade I-III was only 6% and resolved completely. No GvHD grade IV or chronic GvHD occurred. Patients who responded to SCB displayed a trend toward better overall survival (OS) (P = 0·07). Thus, administration of CD34+ selected SCBs from alternative donors is safe and effective. Further studies are warranted to clarify the impact on immune reconstitution and survival.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Hematopoese , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Quimeras de Transplante , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

17.
Ann Hematol ; 96(8): 1373-1377, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573314

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the possibility of cure for sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Unfortunately, the probability of finding an HLA-matched donor for SCD patients is low. HSCT from HLA-haploidentical donors using reduced intensity conditioning, unmanipulated bone marrow and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (ptCy) has resulted in negligible toxicity but high rates of graft rejection. We hypothesized that combining ptCy with a myeloablative reduced toxicity conditioning including serotherapy to increase immune ablation would allow for better engraftment. In a pilot approach, we treated three patients with SCD (5, 8, and 20 years old) lacking a matched donor. All patients had severe disease-related complications despite standard treatment. They received unmanipulated bone marrow from parental HLA-haploidentical donors. Conditioning consisted of alemtuzumab 0.2 mg/kg/day on days -9 and -8, fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day on days -7 to -3, treosulfan 14 g/m2/day on days -7 to -5, thiotepa 2 × 5 mg/kg/day on day -4, and cyclophosphamide 14.5 mg/kg/day on days -3 and -2. GVHD prophylaxis was performed using cyclophosphamide 2 × 50 mg/kg on days +3 and +4 and mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus from day +5. After a follow-up of 11, 14, and 30 months, all three patients are alive and well, off immunosuppression, and without symptoms of SCD. One patient experienced mild skin GVHD grade I, none showed chronic GVHD. Asymptomatic CMV reactivation was seen in two patients. HLA-haploidentical HSCT can extend the donor pool for patients with SCD. Whether intensification of the conditioning regimen and intensive immunosuppression leads to improvement in engraftment rates while still allowing a favorable toxicity profile deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Agonistas Mieloablativos/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 143(7): 1281-1292, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Paediatric recipients of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a high risk for invasive fungal infections. Posaconazole oral suspension has proven to be effective in antifungal prophylaxis in adult and paediatric patients. A new posaconazole tablet formulation with absorption independent of the gastric conditions was approved by the FDA in 2013. This is the first report on the use of posaconazole tablets in paediatric patients. METHODS: This single-centre study included 63 paediatric patients with haemato-oncological malignancies who received posaconazole for antifungal prophylaxis after HSCT. They were analysed for efficacy, feasibility and the safety of posaconazole. Out of 63 patients, 31 received posaconazole oral suspension and 32 received posaconazole tablets up to 200 days after transplantation. Analyses of the posaconazole trough levels were determined. RESULTS: No possible, probable or proven invasive fungal infection was observed in either group. Posaconazole trough levels were significantly higher in the tablet group than in the suspension group at all analysed time points. Drug-related adverse events were similarly low in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Posaconazole tablets are effective in preventing invasive fungal infections in paediatric patients. As early as day 3 after starting posaconazole tablets, over 50% of the posaconazole trough levels were >500 ng/mL, while this was observed on day 14 after start with posaconazole suspension. The administration of posaconazole tablets was safe, effective and feasible as antifungal prophylaxis in paediatric patients after HSCT.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Micoses/imunologia , Comprimidos , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/farmacocinética
20.
Med Mycol ; 55(4): 375-384, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27703016

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections are one of the major complications in pediatric patients during prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the triazole posaconazole in these patients is missing. This multicenter survey analyzed trough concentrations of 33 pediatric patients with a median age of 8 years during 108 neutropenic episodes who received prophylactic posaconazole oral suspension. A total of 172 posaconazole trough levels were determined to median 438 ng/ml (range 111-2011 ng/ml; mean 468 ± 244 ng/ml). Age and gender had no influence on posaconazole plasma levels. Posaconazole was not discontinued due to adverse events in any of the patients. Only hepatic parameters significantly increased beyond the upper normal limit to median values of ALT of 87 U/l (P < .0001), and AST of 67 U/l (P < .0001). One patient with a median posaconazole trough concentration of 306 ng/ml experienced an invasive fungal infection. In conclusion, posaconazole was effective, safe and feasible in 33 pediatric patients with neutropenia ≥5 days after chemotherapy. Median posaconazole plasma concentrations were approximately 1.6-fold lower than the recommended plasma level of 700 ng/ml. Larger patient cohorts are needed to evaluate these findings.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Neutropenia/complicações , Plasma/química , Triazóis/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/efeitos adversos
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