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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(6): 3624-3633, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663207

RESUMO

A current theory in environmental science states that dissolved anxiolytics (oxazepam) from wastewater effluents can reduce anti-predator behavior in fish with potentially negative impacts on prey fish populations. Here, we hypothesize that European perch (Perca fluviatilis) populations being exposed to oxazepam in situ show reduced anti-predator behavior, which has previously been observed for exposed isolated fish in laboratory studies. We tested our hypothesis by exposing a whole-lake ecosystem, containing both perch (prey) and northern pike (Esox lucius; predator), to oxazepam while tracking fish behavior before and after exposure in the exposed lake as well as in an unexposed nearby lake (control). Oxazepam concentrations in the exposed lake ranged between 11 and 24 µg L-1, which is >200 times higher than concentrations reported for European rivers. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not observe an oxazepam-induced reduction in anti-predator behavior, inferred from perch swimming activity, distance to predators, distance to conspecifics, home-range size, and habitat use. In fact, exposure to oxazepam instead stimulated anti-predator behavior (decreased activity, decreased distance to conspecifics, and increased littoral habitat use) when using behavior in the control lake as a reference. Shoal dynamics and temperature changes may have masked modest reductions in anti-predator behavior due to oxazepam. Although we cannot fully resolve the mechanism(s) behind our observations, our results indicate that the effects of oxazepam on perch behavior in a familiar natural ecosystem are negligible in comparison to the effects of other environmental conditions.

2.
Environ Int ; 150: 106436, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592450

RESUMO

There is a risk that residues of antibiotics and other antimicrobials in hospital and municipal wastewaters could select for resistant bacteria. Still, direct experimental evidence for selection is lacking. Here, we investigated if effluent from a large Swedish hospital, as well as influent and effluent from the connected municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) select for antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in three controlled experimental setups. Exposure of sterile-filtered hospital effluent to a planktonic mix of 149 different E. coli wastewater isolates showed a strong selection of multi-resistant strains. Accordingly, exposure to a complex wastewater community selected for strains resistant to several antibiotic classes. Exposing individual strains with variable resistance patterns revealed a rapid bactericidal effect of hospital effluent on susceptible, but not multi-resistant E. coli. No selection was observed after exposure to WWTP effluent, while exposure to WWTP influent indicated a small selective effect for ceftazidime and cefadroxil resistant strains, and only in the E. coli mix assay. An analysis of commonly used antibiotics and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals in combination with growth and resistance pattern of individual E. coli isolates suggested a possible contribution of ciprofloxacin and ß-lactams to the selection by hospital effluent. However, more research is needed to clarify the contribution from different selective agents. While this study does not indicate selection by the studied WWTP effluent, there is some indications of selective effects by municipal influent on ß-lactam-resistant strains. Such effects may be more pronounced in countries with higher antibiotic use than Sweden. Despite the limited antibiotic use in Sweden, the hospital effluent strongly and consistently selected for multi-resistance, indicating widespread risks. Hence, there is an urgent need for further evaluation of risks for resistance selection in hospital sewers, as well as for strategies to remove selective agents and resistant bacteria.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116733, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631686

RESUMO

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. In sewer systems, human-associated and environmental bacteria are mixed together and exposed to many substances known to increase HGT, including various antibacterial compounds. In wastewaters, those substances are most often detected below concentrations known to induce HGT individually. Still, it is possible that such wastewaters induce HGT, for example via mixture effects. Here, a panel of antibiotics, biocides and other pharmaceuticals was measured in filter-sterilized municipal and hospital wastewater samples from Gothenburg, Sweden. The effects on HGT of the chemical mixtures in these samples were investigated by exposing a complex bacterial donor community together with a GFP-tagged E. coli recipient strain. Recipients that captured sulfonamide resistance-conferring mobile genetic elements (MGEs) from the bacterial community were enumerated and characterized by replicon typing, antibiotic susceptibility testing and long read sequencing. While exposure to municipal wastewater did not result in any detectable change in HGT rates, exposure to hospital wastewater was associated with an increase in the proportion of recipients that acquired sulfonamide resistance but also a drastic decrease in the total number of recipients. Although, concentrations were generally higher in hospital than municipal wastewater, none of the measured substances could individually explain the observed effects of hospital wastewater. The great majority of the MGEs captured were IncN plasmids, and resistance to several antibiotics was co-transferred in most cases. Taken together, the data show no evidence that chemicals present in the studied municipal wastewater induce HGT. Still, the increased relative abundance of transconjugants after exposure to hospital wastewater could have implications for the risks of both emergence and transmission of resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli/genética , Hospitais , Humanos , Plasmídeos , Suécia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515146

RESUMO

Aquatic pollution resulting from anthropogenic activities requires adequate environmental monitoring strategies in sentinel organisms. Thus, biochemical biomarkers have been used as early-warning tools of biological effects in aquatic organisms. However, before using these markers for environmental monitoring, knowledge about their developmental variation is vital. In this study, we assessed baseline levels and developmental variations of a group of potential biomarkers, oxylipins, during the lifespan of the Northern damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Effects of wastewater exposure on baseline levels were studied in a subset of damselflies to investigate the responsiveness due to anthropogenic pollution. Thirty-eight oxylipins deriving from four polyunsaturated fatty acids via two enzymatic pathways were detected in damselflies at three larval stages and in the adult form. Overall, oxylipin baseline levels showed developmental variation, which was lowest in the intermediate larval stages. Effects of exposure to wastewater effluent on oxylipin baseline levels were dependent on the life stage and were greatest in the early and intermediate larval stages. The study provides first insights into oxylipin profiles of damselflies at different stages of development and their developmental variation. Based on our results, we propose further strategies for incorporating oxylipins in damselfly larvae as biochemical markers for anthropogenic pollution.

5.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142991, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121787

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical substances present at low concentrations in the environment may cause effects on biological systems such as microbial consortia living on solid riverbed substrates. These consortia are an important part of the river ecosystem as they form part of the food chain. This case study aims to contribute to an increased understanding of how low levels of pharmaceuticals in freshwater streams may influence sessile bacterial consortia. An important point source for pharmaceutical release into the environment is treated household sewage water. In order to investigate what types of effects may occur, we collected water samples as well as riverbed substrates from a small stream in the south of Sweden, Knivstaån, upstream and downstream from a sewage treatment plant (STP). Data from these samples formed the base of this case study where we investigated both the presence of pharmaceuticals in the water and bacterial composition on riverbed substrates. In the water downstream from the STP, 19 different pharmaceuticals were detected at levels below 800 ng/dm3. The microbial composition was obtained from sequencing 16S rRNA genes directly from substrates as well as from cultivated isolates. The cultivated strains showed reduced species variability compared with the data obtained directly from the substrates. No systematic differences were observed following the sampling season. However, differences could be seen between samples upstream and downstream from the STP effluent. We further observed large similarities in bacterial composition on natural stones compared to sterile stones introduced into the river approximately two months prior to sampling, giving indications for future sampling methodology of biofilms.

7.
Environ Int ; 144: 106083, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890888

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance presents a serious and still growing threat to human health. Environmental exposure levels required to select for resistance are unknown for most antibiotics. Here, we evaluated different experimental approaches and ways to interpret effect measures, in order to identify what concentration of trimethoprim that are likely to select for resistance in aquatic environments. When grown in complex biofilms, selection for resistant E. coli increased at 100 µg/L, whereas there was only a non-significant trend with regards to changes in taxonomic composition within the tested range (0-100 µg/L). Planktonic co-culturing of 149 different E. coli strains isolated from sewage again confirmed selection at 100 µg/L. Finally, pairwise competition experiments were performed with engineered E. coli strains carrying different trimethoprim resistance genes (dfr) and their sensitive counterparts. While strains with introduced resistance genes grew slower than the sensitive ones at 0 and 10 µg/L, a significant reduction in cost was found already at 10 µg/L. Defining lowest effect concentrations by comparing proportion of resistant strains to sensitive ones at the same time point, rather than to their initial ratios, will reflect the advantage a resistance factor can bring, while ignoring exposure-independent fitness costs. As costs are likely to be highly dependent on the specific environmental and genetic contexts, the former approach might be more suitable as a basis for defining exposure limits with the intention to prevent selection for resistance. Based on the present and other studies, we propose that 1 µg/L would be a reasonably protective exposure limit for trimethoprim in aquatic environments.

8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105583, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835849

RESUMO

The presence of diclofenac in the aquatic environment and the risks for aquatic wildlife, especially fish, have been raised in several studies. One way to manage risks without enforcing improved wastewater treatment would be to substitute diclofenac (when suitable from a clinical perspective) with another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) associated with less environmental risk. While there are many ecotoxicity-studies of different NSAIDs, they vary extensively in set-up, species studied, endpoints and reporting format, making direct comparisons difficult. We previously published a comprehensive study on the effects of diclofenac in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Our present aim was to generate relevant effect data for another NSAID (naproxen) using a very similar setup, which also allowed direct comparisons with diclofenac regarding hazards and risks. Sticklebacks were therefore exposed to naproxen in flow-through systems for 27 days. Triplicate aquaria with 20 fish per aquarium were used for each concentration (0, 18, 70, 299 or 1232 µg/L). We investigated bioconcentration, hepatic gene expression, jaw lesions, kidney and liver histology. On day 21, mortalities in the highest exposure concentration group unexpectedly reached ≥ 25 % in all three replicate aquaria, leading us to terminate and sample that group the same day. On the last day (day 27), the mortality was also significantly increased in the second highest exposure concentration group. Increased renal hematopoietic hyperplasia was observed in fish exposed to 299 and 1232 µg/L. This represents considerably higher concentrations than those expected in surface waters as a result of naproxen use. Such effects were observed already at 4.6 µg/L in the experiment with diclofenac (lowest tested concentration). Similar to the responses to diclofenac, a concentration-dependent increase in both relative hepatic gene expression of c7 (complement component 7) and jaw lesions were observed, again at concentrations considerably higher than expected in surface waters. Naproxen bioconcentrated less than diclofenac, in line with the observed effect data. An analysis of recent sales data and reported concentrations in treated sewage effluent in Sweden suggest that despite higher dosages used for naproxen, a complete substitution would only be expected to double naproxen emissions. In summary, naproxen and diclofenac produce highly similar effects in fish but the environmental hazards and risks are clearly lower for naproxen. Hence, if there are concerns for environmental risks to fish with diclofenac, a substitution would be advisable when naproxen presents an adequate alternative from a clinical point-of-view.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Naproxeno/toxicidade , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Naproxeno/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha/genética , Suécia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25572-25581, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356053

RESUMO

Activated carbon (AC) and activated biochar (ABC) are widely used as sorbents for micropollutant removal during water and wastewater treatment. Spent adsorbents can be treated in several ways, e.g., by incineration, disposal in landfills, or reactivation. Regeneration is an attractive and potentially more economically viable alternative to modern post-treatment practices. Current strategies for assessing the performance of regeneration techniques often involve only repeated adsorption and regeneration cycles, and rarely involve direct measurements of micropollutants remaining on the adsorbent after regeneration. However, the use of regenerated adsorbents containing such residual micropollutants could present an environmental risk. In this study, the extraction of eight active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) commonly found in treated effluents was evaluated using 10 solvents and sorption onto three different carbon materials. An optimized extraction method was developed involving ultrasonication in 1:1 methanol:dichloromethane with 5% formic acid. This method achieved recoveries of 60 to 99% per API for an API concentration of 2 µg/g char and 27 to 129% per API for an API concentration of 1 mg/g char. Experiments using a mixture of 82 common APIs revealed that the optimized protocol achieved extraction recoveries above 70% for 29 of these APIs. These results show that the new extraction method could be a useful tool for assessing the regenerative properties of different carbon sorbents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Incineração , Águas Residuárias
10.
Environ Int ; 137: 105339, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036119

RESUMO

The widespread practice of applying sewage sludge to arable land makes use of nutrients indispensable for crops and reduces the need for inorganic fertilizer, however this application also provides a potential route for human exposure to chemical contaminants and microbial pathogens in the sludge. A recent concern is that such practice could promote environmental selection and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Understanding the risks of sludge amendment in relation to antibiotic resistance development is important for sustainable agriculture, waste treatment and infectious disease management. To assess such risks, we took advantage of an agricultural field trial in southern Sweden, where land used for growing different crops has been amended with sludge every four years since 1981. We sampled raw, semi-digested and digested and stored sludge together with soils from the experimental plots before and two weeks after the most recent amendment in 2017. Levels of selected antimicrobials and bioavailable metals were determined and microbial effects were evaluated using both culture-independent metagenome sequencing and conventional culturing. Antimicrobials or bioavailable metals (Cu and Zn) did not accumulate to levels of concern for environmental selection of antibiotic resistance, and no coherent signs, neither on short or long time scales, of enrichment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria or resistance genes were found in soils amended with digested and stored sewage sludge in doses up to 12 metric tons per hectare. Likewise, only very few and slight differences in microbial community composition were observed after sludge amendment. Taken together, the current study does not indicate risks of sludge amendment related to antibiotic resistance development under the given conditions. Extrapolations should however be done with care as sludge quality and application practices vary between regions. Hence, the antibiotic concentrations and resistance load of the sludge are likely to be higher in regions with larger antibiotic consumption and resistance burden than Sweden.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fertilizantes , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Agricultura , Fazendas , Humanos , Esgotos , Microbiologia do Solo , Suécia
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1760-1769, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934760

RESUMO

Environmental concentrations of the anxiolytic drug oxazepam have been found to disrupt antipredator behaviors of wild fish. Most experiments exposed fish for a week, while evidence from mammals suggests that chronic exposure to therapeutic concentrations of benzodiazepines (such as oxazepam) results in the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic effects. If tolerance can also develop in response to the low concentrations found in the aquatic environment, it could mitigate the negative effects of oxazepam pollution. In the current study, we exposed wild-caught zebrafish to oxazepam (∼7 µg L-1) for 7 or 28 days and evaluated behavioral and physiological parameters at both time points. Females showed reduced diving responses to conspecific alarm pheromone after 7 days, but not after 28 days, indicating that they had developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of the drug. Zebrafish males were not affected by this oxazepam concentration, in line with earlier results. Serotonin turnover (ratio 5-HIAA/5-HT) was reduced in exposed females and males after 28 days, indicating that brain neurochemistry had not normalized. Post-confinement cortisol concentrations and gene expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were not affected by oxazepam. We did not find evidence that chronically exposed fish had altered relative expression of GABAA receptor subunits, suggesting that some other still unknown mechanism caused the developed tolerance.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Oxazepam , Peixe-Zebra
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134701, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734507

RESUMO

Pollution by psychoactive pharmaceuticals has been found to disrupt anti-predator behaviors of wild fish. The challenge is now to identify which of the many psychoactive drugs pose the greatest threat. One strategy is to screen for behavioral effects of selected pharmaceuticals using a single, widely available fish species such as zebrafish. Here, we show that although such high-throughput behavioral screening might facilitate comparisons between pharmaceuticals, the choice of strain is essential. While wild-caught zebrafish exposed to concentrations of the anxiolytic drug oxazepam as low as 0.57 µg L-1 showed a reduction in the response to conspecific alarm pheromone, laboratory strain AB did not respond to the alarm cue, and consequently, the anxiolytic effect of oxazepam could not be measured. Adaptation to the laboratory environment may have rendered laboratory strains unfit for use in some ecotoxicological and pharmacological studies, since the results might not translate to wild fish populations.


Assuntos
Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ansiolíticos , Benzodiazepinas , Oxazepam , Poluentes Químicos da Água
13.
Euro Surveill ; 24(37)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530345

RESUMO

IntroductionThe occurrence of antibiotic resistance in faecal bacteria in sewage is likely to reflect the current local clinical resistance situation.AimThis observational study investigated the relationship between Escherichia coli resistance rates in sewage and clinical samples representing the same human populations.MethodsE. coli were isolated from eight hospital (n = 721 isolates) and six municipal (n = 531 isolates) sewage samples, over 1 year in Gothenburg, Sweden. An inexpensive broth screening method was validated against disk diffusion and applied to determine resistance against 11 antibiotics in sewage isolates. Resistance data on E. coli isolated from clinical samples from corresponding local hospital and primary care patients were collected during the same year and compared with those of the sewage isolates by linear regression.ResultsE. coli resistance rates derived from hospital sewage and hospital patients strongly correlated (r2 = 0.95 for urine and 0.89 for blood samples), as did resistance rates in E. coli from municipal sewage and primary care urine samples (r2 = 0.82). Resistance rates in hospital sewage isolates were close to those in hospital clinical isolates while resistance rates in municipal sewage isolates were about half of those measured in primary care isolates. Resistance rates in municipal sewage isolates were more stable between sampling occasions than those from hospital sewage.ConclusionOur findings provide support for development of a low-cost, sewage-based surveillance system for antibiotic resistance in E. coli, which could complement current monitoring systems and provide clinically relevant antibiotic resistance data for countries and regions where surveillance is lacking.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saúde Pública , Esgotos/análise , Suécia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 488-493, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212157

RESUMO

Hatchery-reared salmon smolt used for supplementary stocking often display poor migration behavior compared to wild smolt, which reduces the success of this management action. Oxazepam, an anxiolytic drug, has been shown to intensify salmon smolt migration in mesocosm experiments, and treatment with this drug has, therefore, been suggested as a management option to improve downstream smolt migration. In this study, we tested this by assessing migration performance of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt along a 21-km long natural river-to-sea migration route in a boreal river in Northern Sweden. Using acoustic telemetry, the migration rate and survival of smolt that had been exposed to oxazepam (200 µg L-1, N = 20) was monitored and compared with a control group (N = 20) of unexposed smolt. Exposed smolt took significantly longer time to initiate migration after release compared to the control fish, but after that we observed no significant difference in downstream migration speed. However, exposed smolt had considerably higher probability of being predated on compared to control smolt. We attribute these results to increased risk-taking and higher activity in oxazepam-exposed smolt, which in turn increased initial non-directional exploratory behavior and decreased predator vigilance. These results are discussed based on current concerns for ecological implications of behavioral modifications induced by pharmaceutical pollution and climate change. We conclude that exposure to oxazepam is an unsuitable management option to prime migration of reared salmon in natural systems.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Comportamento Animal , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 10-20, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075576

RESUMO

In the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa the incidence of resistant tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract diseases as well as diarrhoeal and parasitic infections is high. Treatment of these diseases with antibiotics is partly reflected by the excretion of the respective antibiotics and their subsequent occurrence in wastewater. Their quantitative reduction in wastewater treatment reflects their potential environmental as well as human impact, the latter due to the use of the recipient water for domestic purposes and for irrigation. Information of the occurrence and reduction of different classes of antibiotics in wastewater treatment is sparse, especially the particle bound fraction of these. Due to this, analyses of aqueous and particle bound antibiotics in untreated wastewater of four selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies was carried out in Durban, South Africa. The treatment step especially considered was the biological one, represented by activated sludge and trickling filters. The treatment further included secondary clarifiers and final chlorine disinfection. Composite samples were collected during the period February 2017 to May 2017 and analysed with online solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS). For the 13 assessed antibiotics, the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 ng L-1 and 0.23 to 1.09 ng L-1 respectively, while the total percentage recovery was in the range of 51 to 111%. The percentage of individual antibiotics bound to the particulate fraction normally lost by sample (influent) filtration, if not analysed in parallel, was in the range of 2.6%-97.3% (n = 32). In this fraction (sludge from centrifuge sample), the concentration of bound antibiotics of all the target antibiotics were detected in the influent of all WWTP in concentration ranges between 1.3 ng L-1 (Azithromycin; AZI) to 81,748 ng L-1 (Ciprofloxacin; CIP). The antibiotics with the highest median concentrations in receiving water bodies of the respective WWTP were; Sulfamethoxazole; SUL (239 ng L-1) WWTP "K", Ciprofloxacin; CIP (708 ng L-1) WWTP "S" and Albendazole; ALB (325 ng L-1 and 683 ng L-1) WWTP "P" and "I" respectively. The overall percentage removal efficiency for the four WWTPs ranged from 21% to 100%. The biological treatment steps, activated sludge and trickling filters, were effective in removing antibiotics especially with the trickling filter and the impact of the sedimentation stage after activated sludge treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/química
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(14): 8282-8290, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067036

RESUMO

Field-based ecotoxicology studies are invaluable for uncovering the effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) on aquatic organisms. However, large-scale exposures are still very rare due to prohibitive costs, the availability of replicated habitats, and the potential for exposure to cause lasting damage to the environment. Here, we evaluated the viability of internal slow-release implants as an alternative method for manipulating CEC exposures in aquatic wildlife using two fat-based carriers (coconut oil and vegetable shortening). We treated roach (Rutilus rutilus) with implants containing a high (50 µg/g), low (25 µg/g), or control (0 µg/g) concentration of the behavior-modifying pharmaceutical oxazepam. We then measured oxazepam uptake in four tissues (plasma, muscle, liver, and the brain) over 1 month. The two carriers released oxazepam differently: coconut oil was the superior implant type because it delivered a more consistent dose across time, while vegetable shortening released oxazepam rapidly at the start of the exposure period. For both carriers and treatments, the brain and liver contained the most oxazepam. Overall, the method is a promising technique for controlled manipulations of pharmaceuticals in fish, and we have provided some of the first data on the suitability and contaminant release kinetics from different implant types.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Ecotoxicologia , Oxazepam
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 665: 390-399, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772569

RESUMO

Anthropogenic pharmaceutical pollutants have been detected in nature across the globe, and recent work has shown negative effects of pharmaceuticals on the health and welfare of many animals. However, whether alterations can be reversed has been poorly investigated, although such studies are essential to assess the effects of high-peak exposure events in waterways where pharmaceutical concentrations are usually low. In this study, we investigated the effects of two concentrations (environmentally relevant 1 µg L-1 and high 100 µg L-1) of oxazepam, an anxiolytic commonly detected in aquatic environments, and whether behavioural alterations are reversible after depuration. Specifically, we measured daytime and night-time swimming activity and daytime behaviours related to boldness (foraging, sheltering and routine swimming activity) using the freshwater burbot (Lota lota). We found that both swimming activity and boldness were affected by oxazepam. Fish exposed to the higher level had a higher burst swimming duration (i.e., fast swimming bouts), both in the daytime and night-time trials. Further, fish exposed to the lower oxazepam level spent less time sheltering than control- and high-level exposed fish, but there was no difference between the control and high oxazepam treatments. For routine swimming activity, quantified in the boldness trials, and for latency to forage, there were no treatment effects. When retesting the fish after depuration, the detected behavioural alterations were no longer present. Since the magnitude of these effects were not consistent across endpoints, our study suggests that oxazepam might not be a great concern for this particular, stress tolerant, species, highlighting the importance of evaluating species-specific effects of pharmaceuticals. The observation that the effects we did find were reversible after depuration is encouraging, and indicates that rapid restoration of behaviours after removal from oxazepam contamination is possible.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Gadiformes/fisiologia , Oxazepam/efeitos adversos , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ansiolíticos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gadiformes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 207: 170-178, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576864

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals entering aquatic ecosystems via wastewater effluents are of increasing concern for wild animals. Because some pharmaceuticals are designed to modulate human behaviour, measuring the impacts of exposure to pharmaceuticals on fish behaviour has become a valuable endpoint. While laboratory studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can affect fish behaviour, there is a lack of understanding if behaviour is similarly affected in natural environments. Here, we exposed sea trout (Salmo trutta) smolts to two concentrations of two pharmaceutical pollutants often detected in surface waters: temazepam (a benzodiazepine, anxiolytic) or irbesartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker, anti-hypertensive). We tested the hypothesis that changes to behavioural traits (anxiety and activity) measured in laboratory trials following exposure are predictive of behaviour in the natural environment (downstream migration). Measures of anxiety and activity in the laboratory assay did not vary with temazepam treatment, but temazepam-exposed fish began migrating faster in the field. Activity in the laboratory assay did predict overall migration speed in the field. In contrast to temazepam, we found that irbesartan exposure did not affect behaviour in the laboratory, field, or the relationship between the two endpoints. However, irbesartan was also not readily taken up into fish tissue (i.e. below detection levels in the muscle tissue), while temazepam bioconcentrated (bioconcentration factor 7.68) rapidly (t1/2 < 24 h). Our findings add to a growing literature showing that benzodiazepine pollutants can modulate fish behaviour and that laboratory assays may be less sensitive at detecting the effects of pollutants compared to measuring effects in natural settings. Therefore, we underscore the importance of measuring behavioural effects in the natural environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Laboratórios , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Movimento , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Temazepam/toxicidade
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 655: 1311-1320, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577123

RESUMO

With the ability to resist biodegradation and exert therapeutic effects at low concentrations, pharmaceutical contaminants have become environmental stressors for wildlife. One such contaminant is the anxiolytic oxazepam, a psychoactive pharmaceutical that is frequently detected in surface waters globally. Despite growing interest in understanding how wildlife respond to anxiolytics, synergistic effects of pharmaceuticals and other abiotic (e.g. temperature) and biotic (e.g. predation risk) stressors remain unclear. Here, using a multi-stressor approach, we investigated effects of 7-day oxazepam exposure (6.5 µg/L) on anxiety-related behaviours in juvenile European perch (Perca fluviatilis). The multi-stressor approach was achieved by exposing perch to oxazepam at two temperatures (10 °C and 18 °C), and at two predation risk regimes-generated using chemical cues from the northern pike (Esox lucius). Our exposures resulted in a successful uptake of the drug from the water, i.e., oxazepam was measured in perch muscle tissue at 50 ±â€¯17 ng/g (mean ±â€¯SD). We found significant oxazepam-induced effects on boldness, with 76.7% of the treated fish entering the white background (i.e. 'exposed' area where exposure to presumed risks are higher) within the first 5 min, compared to 66.6% of the control fish. We also found a significant effect of temperature on total time spent freezing (i.e. staying motionless). Specifically, fish in the low temperature treatments (oxazepam, predation) froze for longer than fish in high temperatures. Our multi-stressor study is the first to uncover how anxiety-related behaviours in wild juvenile fish are altered by changes in water temperature and perceived predation risk. Importantly, our findings highlight the need to focus on multiple stressors to improve understanding of how organisms not only survive, but adapt to, human-induced environmental change.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/efeitos adversos , Ansiedade , Oxazepam/efeitos adversos , Percas/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Esocidae/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 1257-1262, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340271

RESUMO

Aquatic systems receive a wide range of pharmaceuticals that may have adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. Among these pharmaceuticals, antihistamines are commonly found, and these substances have the potential to influence the physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Previous studies have focused on how antihistamines may affect behaviours of aquatic invertebrates, but these studies probably do not capture the full consequences of antihistamine exposure, as traditional recording techniques do not capture important animal movements occurring at the scale of milliseconds, such as prey escape responses. In this study, we investigated if antihistamine exposure can impact escape responses in aquatic insect, by exposing damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) larvae to two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 and 1 µg L-1) of diphenhydramine. Importantly, we used a high-speed imaging approach that with high-time resolution captures details of escape responses and, thus, potential impacts of diphenhydramine on these behaviours. Our results show overall weak effects of antihistamine exposure on the escape behaviours of damselfly larvae. However, at stage 2 of the C-escape response, we found a significant increase in turning angle, which corresponds to a reduced swimming velocity, indicating a reduced success at evading a predator attack. Thus, we show that low concentrations of an antihistamine may affect behaviours strongly related to fitness of aquatic insect prey - effects that would have been overlooked using traditional recording techniques. Hence, to understand the full consequences of pharmaceutical contamination on aquatic wildlife, high-speed imaging should be incorporated into future environmental risk assessments.


Assuntos
Difenidramina/análise , Reação de Fuga/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/análise , Odonatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Odonatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória
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