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1.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 98: 101-123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507640

RESUMO

Fruits and other vegetables are sources of bioactive compounds, especially carotenoids, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds. With the focus on sustainability, these compounds' recovery has become a research trend in the last 20 years. However, the correct use of solvents and the steps required to assess the extracts' suitability to be added in food models have been poorly described. Thus, in this review, we attempt to show the pathways and provide guidance on the tailored-made use of solvents for recovering bioactive polyphenolic compounds from food matrices. Special attention is given to the toxicological safety of polyphenol-rich extracts and also their impacts on bioactivity and sensory acceptance of foods and beverages. Practical examples are described and commented on the applications of polyphenol-rich extracts in non-dairy foods and beverages. In summary, the alliance among food science, food technologies, biochemistry, and pharmacology are required to make the development of non-dairy polyphenol-rich foods feasible.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Fenóis , Frutas , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112284, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044082

RESUMO

Aqueous extracts from blackcurrant press cake (BC), Norway spruce bark (NS), Scots pine bark (SP), and sea buckthorn leaves (SB) were obtained using maceration and pressurized hot water and tested for their bioactivities. Maceration provided the extraction of higher dry matter contents, including total phenolics (TPC), anthocyanins, and condensed tannins, which also impacted higher antioxidant activity. NS and SB extracts presented the highest mean values of TPC and antioxidant activity. Individually, NS extract presented high contents of proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, and some phenolic acids. In contrast, SB contained a high concentration of ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and quercetin, explaining the antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects. SP and BC extracts had the lowest TPC and antioxidant activity. However, BC had strong antiviral efficacy, whereas SP can be considered a potential ingredient to inhibit α-amylase. Except for BC, the other extracts decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HCT8 and A549 cells. Extracts did not inhibit the production of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 macrophages but inhibited the ROS generation during the THP-1 cell respiratory burst. The recovery of antioxidant compounds from these by-products is incentivized for high value-added applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Enterovirus Humano B/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Hippophae/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picea/química , Pinus sylvestris/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Ribes/química
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112287, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058233

RESUMO

Since dietary factors are thought to be responsible for high colon cancer risk, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of jabuticaba seed extract (LJE) by administering yogurt with or without LJE against 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Results showed that LJE contained a total phenolic content of 57.16 g/100 g of seed extract in which 7.67 and 10.09 g/100 g represented total flavonoids and ellagitannins, respectively. LJE protected DNA and human LDL against induced in vitro oxidation, which was associated with the ellagitannin content and with the free-radical scavenging and reducing capacities. LJE alone had a non-clastogenicity/aneugenicity property, but in combination with cisplatin, it enhanced the chromosome aberrations in cancer cells. In colon cancer-induced rats, yogurt with or without LJE caused a reduction in pro-inflammatory parameters, decreased the RNA expression of antiapoptotic cytokines and increased the expression of proapoptotic cytokines. Moreover, LJE attenuated colon cancer initiation and progression by decreasing aberrant crypt foci and LJE recovered the gut microbiome. Together, this evidence suggests that LJE provides chemopreventive protection against colon cancer development by reducing inflammation and increasing proapoptotic pathways.


Assuntos
1,2-Dimetilidrazina/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Myrtaceae/embriologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/microbiologia , Masculino , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/induzido quimicamente , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127565, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717686

RESUMO

The chemical composition, antioxidant activity (AA), cytotoxic activity, antihemolytic effects, and enzyme inhibition (EI) of lyophilized jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) seed extract (LJE) was studied. The main compounds found were castalagin, vescalagin, procyanidin A2, and ellagic acid. LJE was more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells, meaning relative toxicological safety. This cytotoxic effect can be attributed to the pro-oxidant effect observed in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay. LJE inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE-I activities and protected human erythrocytes from hemolysis. LJE was incorporated into yogurts at different concentrations and the total phenolic content, AA, and EI increased in a dose-dependent manner. LJE-containing yogurt presented 86% sensory acceptance. The yogurt was administered to Wistar rats bearing cancer and it modulated the gut bacterial microbiota, having a prebiotic effect. LJE is a potential functional ingredient for food companies looking for TPC, AA, and prebiotic effect in vivo.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Myrtaceae/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Iogurte , 1,2-Dimetilidrazina/toxicidade , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/análise , Catequina/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/microbiologia , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109334, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846532

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases have attracted worldwide attention of their consequent impact on mortality and morbidity. Accordingly, several plants have been screened for antiparasitic activity aiming to create new alternatives for treatment. These diseases have been neglected and have not attracted worldwide attention (nowadays), the health concerns are focused in chronic diseases, but it is necessary to focus on parasitic diseases and look for prophylactic alternatives, such as plant extracts. Although camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seeds are a rich source of antioxidant antimutagenic, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive and neuroprotective compounds, nothing is known about their antiparasitic effects. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate five extracts of camu-camu seeds (100% water, 100% ethyl alcohol, 50% water + 50% ethyl alcohol, 25% water + 75% ethyl alcohol, and 75% water + 25% ethyl alcohol) in relation to their in vitro antimalarial, antischistosomicidal, leishmanicidal and anti-hemolytic effects. The extracts exhibited antischistosomicidal (ED50 values from 418.4 to >1000.0 µg/mL) and antimalarial activities (IC50 values from 24.2 to 240.8 µg/mL) for both W2 and 3D7 strains in all intra-erythrocytic stages. Correlation analysis showed that the toxic effects may mainly be attributed to methylvescalagin (r = -0.548 to -0.951, p < 0.05) and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (r = -0.612 to -0.917, p < 0.05) contents. Moreover, the anti-hemolytic effect was associated to methylvescalagin (r = -0.597, p < 0.05). No toxic effects were observed for leishmaniasis and IMR90 normal cells. Herein, methylvescalagin was the bioactive compound of greatest interest once it presented simultaneous relation with antiparasitic and anti-hemolytic activities.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Myrtaceae , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 142: 111439, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450285

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different solvents and maximize the extraction of bioactive compounds from jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) seeds. In general, the solvent system composed of water and propanone (52:48 v/v) modified the extract polarity and increased extraction yield of bioactive compounds. The optimized extract presented antioxidant capacity measured by different chemical and biological assays. The optimized extract exerted antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against A549 and HCT8 cells, antimicrobial and antihemolytic effects, inhibited α-amylase/α-glucosidase activities and presented in vitro antihypertensive effect. Nonetheless, the optimized extract showed no cytotoxicity in a human cell model (IMR90). Vescalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid were the major phenolic compounds in the optimized extract. Our results show that jabuticaba seed may be a potential ingredient for the development of potentially functional foods.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/embriologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1131-1140, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759605

RESUMO

This work aimed to characterize the phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of lyophilized camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seed extract (LCE), and to assess the effects of LCE on the antioxidant and sensory traits of yogurt. The LCE contained 46.3% (wt/wt) total phenolic content; the main compounds quantified were vescalagin, castalagin, gallic acid, procyanidin A2, and (-)-epicatechin. The LCE had antioxidant activity, as measured by different chemical assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total reducing capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Cu2+ chelating capacity), and inhibited the cell proliferation of HepG2 cells (human hepatoma carcinoma; IC50 = 1,116 µg/mL) and Caco-2 cells (human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells; IC50 = 608.5 µg/mL). In addition, LCE inhibited the in vitro activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, and protected DNA from peroxyl radical-induced scission. When added to yogurts, different concentrations of LCE (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 g/100 g) increased the chemical antioxidant and reducing capacities. The camu-camu yogurt containing LCE at 0.25 g/100 g had an acceptance index of 84%, showing that camu-camu seed extract may be a potential ingredient for addition to yogurts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Iogurte , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Sementes/química
8.
Food Chem ; 310: 125909, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816536

RESUMO

Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seeds are discarded without recovering the bioactive compounds. The main aim of the present work was to optimise the solvent mixture to extract higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of camu-camu seeds. The optimised solvent system increased the extraction of phenolic compounds, in which vescalagin and castalagin were the main compounds. The optimised extract displayed antioxidant capacity measured by different chemical and biological assays, exerted antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against A549 and HCT8 cancer cells, antimicrobial effects, protected human erythrocytes against hemolysis, inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes and presented in vitro antihypertensive effect. Additionally, the optimized extract inhibited human LDL copper-induced oxidation in vitro and reduced the TNF-α release and NF-κB activation in macrophages cell culture. Thus, the use of camu-camu seed showed to be a sustainable way to recover bioactive compounds with in vitro functional properties.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731548

RESUMO

The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, which is worth around US$1 trillion or even $2.6 trillion when social and economic costs are included. In the fruit and vegetable sector, 45% of the total produced amount is lost in the production (post-harvest, processing, and distribution) and consumption chains. Therefore, it is necessary to find new technological and environmentally friendly solutions to utilize fruit wastes as new raw materials to develop and scale up the production of high value-added products and ingredients. Considering that the production and consumption of fruits has increased in the last years and following the need to find the sustainable use of different fruit side streams, this work aimed to describe the chemical composition and bioactivity of different fruit seeds consumed worldwide. A comprehensive focus is given on the extraction techniques of water-soluble and lipophilic compounds and in vitro/in vivo functionalities, and the link between chemical composition and observed activity is holistically explained.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/economia
10.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108551, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554128

RESUMO

The camu-camu seeds, which comprehend about 20% of the fruit weight, is discarded without taking benefit of their chemical components and potential application by the industry. In the current study, we characterized the phenolic composition, the in vitro chemical antioxidant effects, cytotoxic activity, and the inhibition of induced-cisplatin chromosomal aberrations of five camu-camu seed extracts obtained with different proportions of water (H2O) and ethyl alcohol (EtOH). The 50% H2O + 50% EtOH was the most promising extract because it presented higher total phenolic content (4802 mg GAE/100 g), antioxidant capacity (DPPH = 3694 mg AAE/100 g; FRAP = 6604 mg AAE/100 g; FCRC = 4918 mg GAE/100 g) and inhibited the cell growth of four cancer cell lines (GI50 = 7.49 µg GAE/mL A549; 13.3 µg GAE/mL Caco-2; 15.57 µg GAE/mL HepG2 and 14.89 µg GAE/mL HCT8) without cytotoxic effects against normal cells (GI50 IMR90 > 43.2 µg GAE/mL). The cytotoxic effects presented high correlation with the (-)-epicatechin and methylvescalagin contents, while gallic and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids were associated with cytoprotective effects of HCT8 cancer cell line. The 50% H2O + 50% EtOH extract also presented protective effect by decreasing 37% of the induced-cisplatin chromosomal breaks index, suggesting its antimutagenic potential, which may be associated to its antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Células A549 , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 120: 479-490, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055315

RESUMO

Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) pulp, seeds, and skin are widely known because of their nutritional properties. However, the seed coat has never been studied as a source of bioactive compounds. Herein, we characterized the phenolic composition, the antioxidant activity, and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) of three different extracts (water, propanone, and ethanol) from this residue and assessed the structure-activity using bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography while the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), inhibition of lipid peroxidation using egg yolk and Wistar rat brain, scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC), and the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by the extracts were also analyzed. t-Resveratrol was found in camu-camu seed coat for the first time. The aqueous extract had the highest total phenolic content, FRAP, DPPH•, FCRC, and inhibition of lipid oxidation using both chemical and biological assays, while the propanone extract showed the opposite behavior but it presented higher in vitro antihypertensive activity. The ethanolic extract exhibited intermediate values for the responses. The association between chemical composition and the functional properties of the camu-camu seed coat extracts were revealed using correlation analysis and principal component analysis.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Multivariada , Fenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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