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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684381

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) constitute an important public health problem due to their prevalence and long-term health consequences both for the mother and offspring. Results from studies in rodents and some clinical investigations suggest that meal time manipulation may be a potential lifestyle approach against conditions involving perturbations in glucose homeostasis (e.g., hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, etc.). The purpose of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate the current literature on the role of meal timing and daily nutrient distribution on glycemic control during pregnancy. Only a small number of mostly observational studies have assessed the role of meal timing in glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. Food consumption earlier in the day and short-term fasting with adequate nutrient intake may improve glycemic control during the second and third trimester of gestation. Considering that the field of chrononutrition is still in its infancy and many questions remain unanswered, future prospective and carefully designed studies are needed to better understand the role of meal timing in metabolic homeostasis and maternal and fetal health outcomes during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Controle Glicêmico , Refeições , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Metabolismo Energético , Jejum , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Gravidez
2.
N Engl J Med ; 383(18): 1746-1756, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cause of most fetal anomalies is not determined prenatally. Exome sequencing has transformed genetic diagnosis after birth, but its usefulness for prenatal diagnosis is still emerging. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), a fetal abnormality that is often lethal, has numerous genetic causes; the extent to which exome sequencing can aid in its diagnosis is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated a series of 127 consecutive unexplained cases of NIHF that were defined by the presence of fetal ascites, pleural or pericardial effusions, skin edema, cystic hygroma, increased nuchal translucency, or a combination of these conditions. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing for detecting genetic variants that were classified as either pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of cases associated with specific genetic disorders and the proportion of variants that were inherited. RESULTS: In 37 of the 127 cases (29%), we identified diagnostic genetic variants, including those for disorders affecting the RAS-MAPK cell-signaling pathway (known as RASopathies) (30% of the genetic diagnoses); inborn errors of metabolism and musculoskeletal disorders (11% each); lymphatic, neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular, and hematologic disorders (8% each); and others. Prognoses ranged from a relatively mild outcome to death during the perinatal period. Overall, 68% of the cases (25 of 37) with diagnostic variants were autosomal dominant (of which 12% were inherited and 88% were de novo), 27% (10 of 37) were autosomal recessive (of which 95% were inherited and 5% were de novo), 1 was inherited X-linked recessive, and 1 was of uncertain inheritance. We identified potentially diagnostic variants in an additional 12 cases. CONCLUSIONS: In this large case series of 127 fetuses with unexplained NIHF, we identified a diagnostic genetic variant in approximately one third of the cases. (Funded by the UCSF Center for Maternal-Fetal Precision Medicine and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03412760.).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hidropisia Fetal/diagnóstico , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prognóstico
3.
Genet Med ; 21(6): 1339-1344, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410095

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Numerous etiologies may lead to nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), and the underlying cause often remains unclear. We aimed to determine the proportion of NIHF cases in which the etiology was clearly determined in a large, contemporary, and diverse cohort, as well as to describe the etiologies with a focus on genetic causes. METHODS: Retrospective review of NIHF cases between 2015 and 2017 from the five University of California Fetal-Maternal Consortium sites. Singleton pregnancies with prenatally diagnosed NIHF were included, and cases with maternal alloimmunization were excluded. Cases were categorized as being of confirmed, suspected, or unknown etiology. RESULTS: Sixty-five NIHF cases were identified. Forty-six percent (30/65) remained of unknown etiology, while 9.2% (6/65) had a suspected etiology and 44.6% (29/65) were of confirmed etiology. Among confirmed cases, 11 resulted from aneuploidy; 7 from fetal structural anomalies; 2 each from fetal arrhythmia, Noonan syndrome, and generalized lymphatic dysplasia; and 1 each from arthrogryposis, parvovirus, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, fetal goiter, and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. CONCLUSION: In this contemporary, multicenter study, the cause of prenatally diagnosed NIHF was confirmed in only 44% of cases, and a genetic etiology was found in only 25% of those that received standard of care genetic testing.


Assuntos
Hidropisia Fetal/etiologia , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneuploidia , California , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
4.
Obstet Gynecol ; 130(6): 1183-1191, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the rapid bedside test for placental α microglobulin-1 with the instrumented fetal fibronectin test for prediction of imminent spontaneous preterm delivery among women with symptoms of preterm labor. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study on pregnant women with signs or symptoms suggestive of preterm labor between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation with intact membranes and cervical dilatation less than 3 cm. Participants were prospectively enrolled at 15 U.S. academic and community centers. Placental α microglobulin-1 samples did not require a speculum examination. Health care providers were blinded to placental α microglobulin-1 results. Fetal fibronectin samples were collected through speculum examination per manufacturer requirements and sent to a certified laboratory for testing using a cutoff of 50 ng/mL. The coprimary endpoints were positive predictive value (PPV) superiority and negative predictive value (NPV) noninferiority of placental α microglobulin-1 compared with fetal fibronectin for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth within 7 days and within 14 days. RESULTS: Of 796 women included in the study cohort, 711 (89.3%) had both placental α microglobulin-1 and fetal fibronectin results and valid delivery outcomes available for analysis. The overall rate of preterm birth was 2.4% (17/711) within 7 days of testing and 4.2% (30/711) within 14 days of testing with respective rates of spontaneous preterm birth of 1.3% (9/703) and 2.9% (20/701). Fetal fibronectin was detected in 15.5% (110/711), and placental α microglobulin-1 was detected in 2.4% (17/711). The PPVs for spontaneous preterm delivery within 7 days or less among singleton gestations (n=13) for placental α microglobulin-1 and fetal fibronectin were 23.1% (3/13) and 4.3% (4/94), respectively (P<.025 for superiority). The NPVs were 99.5% (619/622) and 99.6% (539/541) for placental α microglobulin-1 and fetal fibronectin, respectively (P<.001 for noninferiority). CONCLUSION: Although placental α microglobulin-1 performed the same as fetal fibronectin in ruling out spontaneous preterm delivery among symptomatic women, it demonstrated statistical superiority in predicting it.


Assuntos
alfa-Globulinas , Fibronectinas , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , alfa-Globulinas/análise , alfa-Globulinas/metabolismo , Medida do Comprimento Cervical/métodos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Fibronectinas/análise , Fibronectinas/sangue , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatística como Assunto , Estados Unidos
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