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1.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431484

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Merigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. External and internal load measures during preseason training in men collegiate soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021-Collegiate athletes are exposed to high volume loads during preseason training. Monitoring training load can inform training and recovery periods. Therefore, the purpose was to examine changes in and bidirectional relationship between external and internal load metrics in men collegiate soccer athletes (n = 20; age, 20 ± 1 year). Internal load measures of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C), and self-assessment wellness and ratings of perceived exertion scales were collected daily. External load measures of total distance, player load, high-speed distance, high inertial movement analysis, and repeated high-intensity efforts were collected in each training session using global positioning system/global navigation satellite system technology. A 1-way analysis of variance determined weekly changes in external load, physiological, hormonal, and subjective self-assessment measures of internal load. Bidirectional prediction of external load markers and self-assessment measures on physiological and hormonal markers of internal load were assessed by hierarchical linear regression models (p < 0.05). External load measures, C, energy, sleep, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) decreased (p < 0.01), whereas T, T:C ratio, anger, depression, and vigor increased (p < 0.01) from week 1 to week 2. Morning C positively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); T:C ratio negatively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); and morning HRV negatively predicted post-training RPE (p = 0.031). Despite reduced hormonal stress and external load across weeks, negative perceptions of fatigue increased, suggesting fatigue patterns may have a delayed response. Load may have a more belated, chronic effect on perceptions of fatigue, whereas hormonal changes may be more immediate and sensitive to change. Practitioners may wish to use a variety of external and internal load measures to understand athletes' stress responses to training.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1182-1186, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677459

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Lameira, DM, Short, JL, Merrigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. Relationship between external load and self-reported wellness measures across a collegiate men's soccer preseason. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1182-1186, 2021-Monitoring athlete training load is important to training programming and can help balance training and recovery periods. Furthermore, psychological factors can affect athlete's performance. Therefore, the purpose was to examine the relationship between external load and self-reported wellness measures during soccer preseason. Collegiate men soccer athletes (n = 20; mean ± SD age: 20.3 ± 0.9 years; body mass: 77.9 ± 6.8 kg; body height: 178.87 ± 7.18cm; body fat: 10.0 ± 5.0%; V̇o2max: 65.39 ± 7.61ml·kg-1·min-1) participated. Likert scale self-assessments of fatigue, soreness, sleep, stress, and energy were collected daily in conjunction with the Brief Assessment of Mood (vigor, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion). Total distance (TD), player load (PL), high-speed distance (HSD, >13 mph [5.8 m·s-1]), high inertial movement analysis (IMA, >3.5 m·s-2), and repeated high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) were collected in each training session using positional monitoring (global positioning system/global navigation satellite system [GPS/GNSS]) technology. Session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) was determined from athlete's post-training rating (Borg CR-10 Scale) and time of training session. Multilevel models revealed the bidirectional prediction of load markers on fatigue, soreness, sleep, energy, and sRPE (p < 0.05). Morning ratings of soreness and fatigue were predicted by previous afternoon's practice measures of TD, PL, HSD, IMA, RHIE, and sRPE. Morning soreness and fatigue negatively predicted that day's afternoon practice TD, PL, HSD, IMA, RHIE, and sRPE. Morning ratings of negative mood were positively predicted by previous day's afternoon practice HSD. In addition, negative morning mood states inversely predicted HSD (p = 0.011), TD (p = 0.002), and PL (p < 0.001) for that day's afternoon practice. Using self-reported wellness measures with GPS/GNSS technology may enhance the understanding of training responses and inform program development.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598121

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Tufano, JJ, Fields, JB, Oliver, JM, and Jones, MT. Rest redistribution does not alter hormone responses in resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020-The purpose was to examine acute effects of rest redistribution (RR) on perceptual, metabolic, and hormonal responses during back squats. Twelve resistance-trained women (training age 5 ± 2 years; one repetition maximum [1-RM] per body mass, 1.6 ± 0.2) performed traditional (TS, 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 120 seconds interset rest) and RR sets (4 sets of two 5 repetition clusters with 30-second intraset rest and 90-second interset rest) in counterbalanced order, separated by 72 hours. Both conditions were performed at 70% 1RM with 360 seconds of total rest. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken after each set. Blood was sampled at baseline, after each set, and at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, as well as 24 and 48 hours after training. Alpha level was p ≤ 0.05. The RPE progressively increased throughout both conditions (p = 0.002) with a greater overall mean for TS (5.81 ± 0.14) than RR (4.71 ± 0.14; p = 0.003). Lactate increased above baseline and remained elevated through 15 minutes post in both conditions (4.00 ± 0.76; p = 0.001), with greater lactate levels for TS (6.33 ± 0.47) than RR (4.71 ± 0.53; p < 0.001). Total testosterone was elevated after set 2 (0.125 ± 0.02; p = 0.011), but no other time point, while free testosterone remained unchanged. Growth hormone continually rose from baseline to set 3 and returned to baseline by 60 minutes post (20.58 ± 3.19). Cortisol and creatine kinase did not change over time. No condition × time interactions existed for any hormone (p > 0.05). Use of rest redistribution resulted in lower perceived effort and lactate responses. Yet, hormone responses during rest redistribution were no different from TS.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(3): 488-500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509118

RESUMO

Given the high prevalence of obesity in Latino children and potential health risks, the purpose of this study was to: 1) evaluate relationships among metabolic-risk, fitness, and body fatness; 2) determine sex differences in cardio-metabolic risk factors and fitness of obese children of Latino descent. Sixty children (boys, n = 39, 7.8 ± 1.5 years; girls, n = 21, 7.2 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 97.8 ± 2.5th percentile) completed assessments of height, weight, and body fat, prior to fasted blood draws and a battery of fitness tests. Cardio-metabolic markers were analyzed, and a metabolic risk score created. Correlations and regression analyses evaluated the relationships among body fatness, metabolic-risk, and fitness. Independent samples t-tests determined sex differences (p < 0.05). Body fat related negatively to lower body power (p < 0.016), but positively to upper body power (p = 0.049). After controlling for age and sex, body fat (p < 0.001) was a positive predictor of variance in metabolic-risk scores, (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.001). Further, the association between body fat and metabolic-risk was not moderated by sex. Metabolic-risk scores and body fat were similar for both sexes, but boys performed better on muscular fitness tests, even after accounting for fat free mass (p < 0.05). Higher body fatness in obese Latino children may result in greater metabolic-risk and difficulty performing weight-bearing tasks. Therefore, culturally adapted weight management programs should employ a multifaceted approach to improve metabolic-risk and fitness.

6.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(4): 778-788, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509129

RESUMO

Monitoring internal load provides useful and non-invasive markers of training stress and adaptation. However, the relationship between internal load measures across a competitive window remains inconclusive and limited. The purpose of this study was to report various internal load measures, as well as their relationship, across a season in Division I women lacrosse athletes (n = 20). Ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (lnRMSSD), salivary testosterone, cortisol, the testosterone:cortisol ratio, and self-reported measures of fatigue and recovery were collected weekly for 13 weeks. Means ± SD were calculated to provide descriptive values and a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze changes in testosterone, cortisol, testosterone:cortisol ratio (n = 8), and lnRMSSD (n = 8) over the course of the season. Pearson correlations assessed relationships between all internal load measures. No significant time effect was observed in testosterone (p = 0.059), cortisol (p = 0.544), testosterone:cortisol ratio (p = 0.120), or lnRMSSD (p = 0.062). lnRMSSD was correlated with testosterone (r = 0.265), cortisol (r = -0.232), testosterone:cortisol ratio (r = 0.345), and fatigue (r = -0.256) (p < 0.05). More research is needed to examine relationships among markers of internal stress across all phases of the training cycle. Routine monitoring may help practitioners optimize training programming to reduce injury, illness, and overtraining.

7.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(2): 255-261, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine rest redistribution (RR) effects on back squat kinetics and kinematics in resistance-trained women. METHODS: Twelve women from strength and college sports (5.0 [2.2] y training history) participated in the randomized crossover design study with 72 hours between sessions (3 total). Participants completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions using traditional sets (120-s interset rest) and RR (30-s intraset rest in the middle of each set; 90-s interset rest) with 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. Kinetics and kinematics were sampled via force plate and 4 linear position transducers. The greatest value of repetitions 1 to 3 (peak repetition) was used to calculate percentage loss, [(repetition 10-peak repetition)/(peak repetition) × 100], and maintenance, {100-[(set mean-peak repetition)/(peak repetition)] × 100}, of velocity and power for each set. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analyses (P < .05). RESULTS: Mean and peak force did not differ between conditions. A condition × repetition interaction existed for peak power (P = .049) but not for peak velocity (P = .110). Peak power was greater in repetitions 7 to 9 (P < .05; d = 1.12-1.27) during RR. The percentage loss of velocity (95% confidence interval, -0.22% to -7.22%; P = .039) and power (95% confidence interval, -1.53% to -7.87%; P = .008) were reduced in RR. Mean velocity maintenance of sets 3 (P = .036; d = 1.90) and 4 (P = .015; d = 2.30) and mean power maintenance of set 4 (P = .006; d = 2.65) were greater in RR. CONCLUSION: By redistributing a portion of long interset rest into the middle of a set, velocity and power were better maintained. Therefore, redistributing rest may be beneficial for reducing fatigue in resistance-trained women.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso , Esportes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(11)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752086

RESUMO

Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among collegiate men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men (MBB, n = 11) and women (WBB, n = 9) were tested during the off-season (T1; July) and pre-season (T2; October). Measurements included serum 25(OH)D; skin pigmentation, bone mineral density, and daily sun exposure (self-reported). Paired t-tests determined changes in 25(OH)D by sport-season and sex. Pearson correlations examined relationships between outcome variables. MBB athletes (mean ± SD; 19.6 ± 1.3 years) showed a reduction in 25(OH)D (T1: 64.53 nmol·L-1 ± 11.96) (T2: 56.11 nmol·L-1 ± 7.90) (p = 0.001). WBB (20.1 ± 1.1 years) had no change in 25(OH)D (T1: 99.07 nmol·L-1 ± 49.94. T2: 97.56 nmol·L-1 ± 36.47, p = 0.848). A positive association between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation was observed (r = 0.47, p = 0.038). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with lean body mass (LBM), body mass (BM), and bone mineral density (BMD), while a positive association was seen between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation. In summary, 25(OH)D insufficiency was prevalent amongst male collegiate basketball athletes, with 25(OH)D levels being lower in the pre-season (October) than the off-season (July). Furthermore, darker skin pigmentation significantly correlated with 25(OH)D, indicating that individuals with darker skin tones may be at a greater risk of insufficiency/deficiency. More research is needed to examine the relationships between 25(OH)D and bone health in athletes.

9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(11): 3153-3159, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239454

RESUMO

Fields, JB, Merrigan, JJ, White, JB, and Jones, MT. Body composition variables by sport and sport-position in elite collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3153-3159, 2018-To assess body composition measures by sport and sport-position. Elite collegiate athletes participated (n = 475): men's and women's soccer (MSOC, n = 67; WSOC, n = 110); men's and women's swimming (MSWIM, n = 26; WSWIM, n = 22); men's and women's track and field (MTF, n = 29; WTF, n = 24); women's lacrosse and volleyball (WLAX, n = 84; WVB, n = 73); and baseball (BASE, n = 40). One-way analysis of variances assessed differences across sport and sport-position. Post hoc analysis was Tukey honestly significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). For men, BASE and MSWIM had the highest body fat percentage (BF%) (BASE: 16.3 ± 5.2%; MSWIM: 14.2 ± 3.5%). MSOC (11.5 ± 5.3%, 0.13 ± 0.72 kg) and MTF (9.8 ± 5.1%, 0.11 ± 0.08 kg) had the lowest BF% and fat mass (FM)-to-fat-free mass (FFM) ratio (FM:FFM). Fat mass did not differ between MSOC (9.1 ± 4.9 kg), MTF (7.7 ± 5.9 kg), and MSWIM (11.1 ± 3.1 kg). Fat mass for MSOC and MTF was lower than BASE (14.1 ± 5.2). For women, WVB displayed the highest BF% (25.4 ± 5.1%), FM (18.5 ± 5.2 kg), FFM (53.3 ± 5.1 kg), and body mass (BM) (71.8 ± 8.4 kg), but did not differ from WSWIM in BF%, FM, FFM, and BM. WTF had the lowest BF% (12.9 ± 4.0%), FM (7.5 ± 2.5 kg), BM (58.2 ± 4.4 kg), and FM:FFM (0.15 ± 0.05 kg). VB had the highest FFM (53.3 ± 5.1 kg). Body composition differences were observed between sport-positions (p < 0.01). Body composition differed across sport and sport-position, which may be attributed to sport-specific physiological demands.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Beisebol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes com Raquete , Futebol , Natação , Voleibol , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sports (Basel) ; 6(3)2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135356

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the body composition of male and female basketball athletes (n = 323) across season, year, and sport-position using air displacement plethysmography. An independent sample t-test assessed sport-position differences. An analysis of variance was used to assess within-subjects across season (pre-season, in-season, and off-season), and academic year (freshman, sophomore, and junior). For both men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes, guards had the lowest body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, and body mass. No seasonal differences were observed in MBB, but following in-season play for WBB, a reduction of (p = 0.03) in fat free mass (FFM) was observed. Across years, MBB showed an increase in FFM from freshman to sophomore year, yet remained unchanged through junior year. For WBB across years, no differences occurred for body mass (BM), body fat (BF%), and fat mass (FM), yet FFM increased from sophomore to junior year (p = 0.009). Sport-position differences exist in MBB and WBB: Guards were found to be smaller and leaner than forwards. Due to the importance of body composition (BC) on athletic performance, along with seasonal and longitudinal shifts in BC, strength and conditioning practitioners should periodically assess athletes BC to ensure preservation of FFM. Training and nutrition programming can then be adjusted in response to changes in BC.

11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(9): 2452-2457, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189580

RESUMO

Fields, JB, Metoyer, CJ, Casey, JC, Esco, MR, Jagim, AR, and Jones, MT. Comparison of body composition variables across a large sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association women athletes from 6 competitive sports. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2452-2457, 2018-Body composition (BC) plays a critical role in sport performance and athlete health. Body size and BC have been widely studied in men's sports, with reported changes observed over time. However, a paucity of current data exists in women athletes. The purpose of this descriptive study was to measure and compare BC data for collegiate women athletes from 6 competitive sports. A total of 524 athletes from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association institutions participated: basketball (BB; n = 95), gymnastics (GYM; n = 42), lacrosse (LAX; n = 81), rowing (ROW; n = 57), soccer (SOC; n = 188), and volleyball (VB; n = 61). Body height (BH) and body mass (BM) were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated digital scale, respectively. Body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences across sports. Least squares difference post hoc analyses were performed when a significant finding (p ≤ 0.05) was identified. ROW had the highest BF% (29.9 ± 6.1%) and BB the greatest FFM (57.2 ± 6.1 kg). GYM had the lowest BM (58.9 ± 5.3 kg), FM (11.6 ± 2.6 kg), and BH (158.73 ± 2.13 cm). LAX, SOC, and VB had similar BF%. Body height was greatest for BB and VB (177.92 ± 7.55 cm, 176.79 ± 7.36 cm, respectively). These data may assist in the establishment of descriptive values for use in goal setting and exercise programming. The current data demonstrate a trend toward increased body size and BC from previous research.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Universidades , Basquetebol , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Ginástica , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia , Esportes com Raquete , Futebol , Voleibol
12.
Biol Lett ; 13(2)2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28148828

RESUMO

Ocean acidification poses a range of threats to marine invertebrates; however, the emerging and likely widespread effects of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on marine invertebrate behaviour are still little understood. Here, we show that ocean acidification alters and impairs key ecological behaviours of the predatory cone snail Conus marmoreus Projected near-future seawater CO2 levels (975 µatm) increased activity in this coral reef molluscivore more than threefold (from less than 4 to more than 12 mm min-1) and decreased the time spent buried to less than one-third when compared with the present-day control conditions (390 µatm). Despite increasing activity, elevated CO2 reduced predation rate during predator-prey interactions with control-treated humpbacked conch, Gibberulus gibberulus gibbosus; 60% of control predators successfully captured and consumed their prey, compared with only 10% of elevated CO2 predators. The alteration of key ecological behaviours of predatory invertebrates by near-future ocean acidification could have potentially far-reaching implications for predator-prey interactions and trophic dynamics in marine ecosystems. Combined evidence that the behaviours of both species in this predator-prey relationship are altered by elevated CO2 suggests food web interactions and ecosystem structure will become increasingly difficult to predict as ocean acidification advances over coming decades.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/fisiologia , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Caramujo Conus/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Locomoção/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química
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