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1.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 14(6): 984-993, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567381

RESUMO

Limited research exists on physical performance assessments for women collegiate athletes. The current cross-sectional study compared field-based tests of muscular strength and power and investigated their relationship. Sports included field hockey, volleyball, soccer, and softball. Tests of one repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat, 1-RM bench press, vertical jump, and standing long jump were administered. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed differences across sports. Bivariate Pearson correlation coefficients examined relationships among tests. It was hypothesized sports with a higher anaerobic nature (volleyball, softball) would outperform those with higher aerobic nature (field hockey, soccer). Softball had the highest 1-RM bench press and 1-RM back squat (p < 0.001) compared to field hockey, volleyball, and soccer. Further, softball had the highest vertical jump (p < 0.001) compared to field hockey and soccer, but did not differ from volleyball. There were no differences across sports for standing long jump. Correlations (p < 0.001) existed between 1-RM back squat and 1-RM bench press (n = 663, r = 0.56), and vertical jump and standing long jump (n = 160, r = 0.64). Results demonstrate strength and power differences among collegiate women's sports. Softball consistently outperformed others in bench press, back squat, and vertical jump, which may be due to the demand of power embedded in the nature of the sport. These data provide descriptive measures of physical performance assessments and may assist practitioners with goal setting and program design.

2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431484

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Merigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. External and internal load measures during preseason training in men collegiate soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021-Collegiate athletes are exposed to high volume loads during preseason training. Monitoring training load can inform training and recovery periods. Therefore, the purpose was to examine changes in and bidirectional relationship between external and internal load metrics in men collegiate soccer athletes (n = 20; age, 20 ± 1 year). Internal load measures of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C), and self-assessment wellness and ratings of perceived exertion scales were collected daily. External load measures of total distance, player load, high-speed distance, high inertial movement analysis, and repeated high-intensity efforts were collected in each training session using global positioning system/global navigation satellite system technology. A 1-way analysis of variance determined weekly changes in external load, physiological, hormonal, and subjective self-assessment measures of internal load. Bidirectional prediction of external load markers and self-assessment measures on physiological and hormonal markers of internal load were assessed by hierarchical linear regression models (p < 0.05). External load measures, C, energy, sleep, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) decreased (p < 0.01), whereas T, T:C ratio, anger, depression, and vigor increased (p < 0.01) from week 1 to week 2. Morning C positively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); T:C ratio negatively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); and morning HRV negatively predicted post-training RPE (p = 0.031). Despite reduced hormonal stress and external load across weeks, negative perceptions of fatigue increased, suggesting fatigue patterns may have a delayed response. Load may have a more belated, chronic effect on perceptions of fatigue, whereas hormonal changes may be more immediate and sensitive to change. Practitioners may wish to use a variety of external and internal load measures to understand athletes' stress responses to training.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biomaterials ; 275: 120914, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126409

RESUMO

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a non-enveloped plant virus, and empty CPMV (eCPMV), a virus-like particle (VLP) composed of CPMV capsid without nucleic acids, are potent in situ cancer vaccines when administered intratumorally (I.T.). However, it is unclear how immune cells recognize these nanoparticles and why they are immunogenic, which was investigated in this study. CPMV generated stronger selective induction of cytokines and chemokines in naïve mouse splenocytes and exhibited more potent anti-tumor efficacy than eCPMV. MyD88 is required for both CPMV- and eCPMV-elicited immune responses. Screening with human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell toll-like receptor (TLR) reporter assays along with experiments in corresponding TLR-/- mice indicated CPMV and eCPMV capsids are recognized by MyD88-dependent TLR2 and TLR4. CPMV, but not eCPMV, is additionally recognized by TLR7. Secretion of type I interferons (IFNs), which requires the interaction between TLR7 and encapsulated single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs), is critical to CPMV's better efficacy. The same recognition mechanisms are also functional in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overall, these findings link CPMV immunotherapy efficacy with molecular recognition, provide rationale for how to develop more potent viral particles, accentuate the value of multi-TLR agonists as in situ cancer vaccines, and highlight the functional importance of type I IFNs for in situ vaccination.


Assuntos
Comovirus , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Receptores Toll-Like
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10883, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035431

RESUMO

Proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib are approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma and have demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The t(4;11)(q21;q23) chromosomal translocation that leads to the expression of MLL-AF4 fusion protein and confers a poor prognosis, is the major cause of infant ALL. This translocation sensitizes tumor cells to proteasome inhibitors, but toxicities of bortezomib and carfilzomib may limit their use in pediatric patients. Many of these toxicities are caused by on-target inhibition of proteasomes in non-lymphoid tissues (e.g., heart muscle, gut, testicles). We found that MLL-AF4 cells express high levels of lymphoid tissue-specific immunoproteasomes and are sensitive to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of specific immunoproteasome inhibitor ONX-0914, even in the presence of stromal cells. Inhibition of multiple active sites of the immunoproteasomes was required to achieve cytotoxicity against ALL. ONX-0914, an inhibitor of LMP7 (ß5i) and LMP2 (ß1i) sites of the immunoproteasome, and LU-102, inhibitor of proteasome ß2 sites, exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity. Treatment with ONX-0914 significantly delayed the growth of orthotopic ALL xenograft tumors in mice. T-cell ALL lines were also sensitive to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ONX-0914. This study provides a strong rationale for testing clinical stage immunoproteasome inhibitors KZ-616 and M3258 in ALL.


Assuntos
Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteassoma/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1182-1186, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677459

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Lameira, DM, Short, JL, Merrigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. Relationship between external load and self-reported wellness measures across a collegiate men's soccer preseason. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1182-1186, 2021-Monitoring athlete training load is important to training programming and can help balance training and recovery periods. Furthermore, psychological factors can affect athlete's performance. Therefore, the purpose was to examine the relationship between external load and self-reported wellness measures during soccer preseason. Collegiate men soccer athletes (n = 20; mean ± SD age: 20.3 ± 0.9 years; body mass: 77.9 ± 6.8 kg; body height: 178.87 ± 7.18cm; body fat: 10.0 ± 5.0%; V̇o2max: 65.39 ± 7.61ml·kg-1·min-1) participated. Likert scale self-assessments of fatigue, soreness, sleep, stress, and energy were collected daily in conjunction with the Brief Assessment of Mood (vigor, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion). Total distance (TD), player load (PL), high-speed distance (HSD, >13 mph [5.8 m·s-1]), high inertial movement analysis (IMA, >3.5 m·s-2), and repeated high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) were collected in each training session using positional monitoring (global positioning system/global navigation satellite system [GPS/GNSS]) technology. Session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) was determined from athlete's post-training rating (Borg CR-10 Scale) and time of training session. Multilevel models revealed the bidirectional prediction of load markers on fatigue, soreness, sleep, energy, and sRPE (p < 0.05). Morning ratings of soreness and fatigue were predicted by previous afternoon's practice measures of TD, PL, HSD, IMA, RHIE, and sRPE. Morning soreness and fatigue negatively predicted that day's afternoon practice TD, PL, HSD, IMA, RHIE, and sRPE. Morning ratings of negative mood were positively predicted by previous day's afternoon practice HSD. In addition, negative morning mood states inversely predicted HSD (p = 0.011), TD (p = 0.002), and PL (p < 0.001) for that day's afternoon practice. Using self-reported wellness measures with GPS/GNSS technology may enhance the understanding of training responses and inform program development.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562450

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy. Though most patients enter remission following initial interventions, relapse is common and often fatal. Accordingly, there is a substantial need for ovarian cancer therapies that prevent relapse. Following remission generated by surgical debulking and chemotherapy, but prior to relapse, resected and inactivated tumor tissue could be used as a personalized vaccine antigen source. The patient's own tumor contains relevant antigens and, when combined with the appropriate adjuvant, could generate systemic antitumor immunity to prevent relapse. Here, we model this process in mice to investigate the optimal tumor preparation and vaccine adjuvant. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has shown remarkable efficacy as an immunostimulatory cancer therapy in ovarian cancer mouse models, so we use CPMV as an adjuvant in a prophylactic vaccine against a murine ovarian cancer model. Compared to its codelivery with tumor antigens prepared in three other ways, we show that CPMV co-delivered with irradiated ovarian cancer cells constitutes an effective prophylactic vaccine against a syngeneic model of ovarian cancer in C57BL/6J mice. Following two vaccinations, 72% of vaccinated mice reject tumor challenges, and all those mice survived subsequent rechallenges, demonstrating immunologic memory formation. This study supports remission-stage vaccines using irradiated patient tumor tissue as a promising option for treating ovarian cancer, and validates CPMV as an antitumor vaccine adjuvant for that purpose.

8.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(3): 488-500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509118

RESUMO

Given the high prevalence of obesity in Latino children and potential health risks, the purpose of this study was to: 1) evaluate relationships among metabolic-risk, fitness, and body fatness; 2) determine sex differences in cardio-metabolic risk factors and fitness of obese children of Latino descent. Sixty children (boys, n = 39, 7.8 ± 1.5 years; girls, n = 21, 7.2 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 97.8 ± 2.5th percentile) completed assessments of height, weight, and body fat, prior to fasted blood draws and a battery of fitness tests. Cardio-metabolic markers were analyzed, and a metabolic risk score created. Correlations and regression analyses evaluated the relationships among body fatness, metabolic-risk, and fitness. Independent samples t-tests determined sex differences (p < 0.05). Body fat related negatively to lower body power (p < 0.016), but positively to upper body power (p = 0.049). After controlling for age and sex, body fat (p < 0.001) was a positive predictor of variance in metabolic-risk scores, (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.001). Further, the association between body fat and metabolic-risk was not moderated by sex. Metabolic-risk scores and body fat were similar for both sexes, but boys performed better on muscular fitness tests, even after accounting for fat free mass (p < 0.05). Higher body fatness in obese Latino children may result in greater metabolic-risk and difficulty performing weight-bearing tasks. Therefore, culturally adapted weight management programs should employ a multifaceted approach to improve metabolic-risk and fitness.

9.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(4): 778-788, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509129

RESUMO

Monitoring internal load provides useful and non-invasive markers of training stress and adaptation. However, the relationship between internal load measures across a competitive window remains inconclusive and limited. The purpose of this study was to report various internal load measures, as well as their relationship, across a season in Division I women lacrosse athletes (n = 20). Ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (lnRMSSD), salivary testosterone, cortisol, the testosterone:cortisol ratio, and self-reported measures of fatigue and recovery were collected weekly for 13 weeks. Means ± SD were calculated to provide descriptive values and a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze changes in testosterone, cortisol, testosterone:cortisol ratio (n = 8), and lnRMSSD (n = 8) over the course of the season. Pearson correlations assessed relationships between all internal load measures. No significant time effect was observed in testosterone (p = 0.059), cortisol (p = 0.544), testosterone:cortisol ratio (p = 0.120), or lnRMSSD (p = 0.062). lnRMSSD was correlated with testosterone (r = 0.265), cortisol (r = -0.232), testosterone:cortisol ratio (r = 0.345), and fatigue (r = -0.256) (p < 0.05). More research is needed to examine relationships among markers of internal stress across all phases of the training cycle. Routine monitoring may help practitioners optimize training programming to reduce injury, illness, and overtraining.

10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598121

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Tufano, JJ, Fields, JB, Oliver, JM, and Jones, MT. Rest redistribution does not alter hormone responses in resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020-The purpose was to examine acute effects of rest redistribution (RR) on perceptual, metabolic, and hormonal responses during back squats. Twelve resistance-trained women (training age 5 ± 2 years; one repetition maximum [1-RM] per body mass, 1.6 ± 0.2) performed traditional (TS, 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 120 seconds interset rest) and RR sets (4 sets of two 5 repetition clusters with 30-second intraset rest and 90-second interset rest) in counterbalanced order, separated by 72 hours. Both conditions were performed at 70% 1RM with 360 seconds of total rest. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken after each set. Blood was sampled at baseline, after each set, and at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, as well as 24 and 48 hours after training. Alpha level was p ≤ 0.05. The RPE progressively increased throughout both conditions (p = 0.002) with a greater overall mean for TS (5.81 ± 0.14) than RR (4.71 ± 0.14; p = 0.003). Lactate increased above baseline and remained elevated through 15 minutes post in both conditions (4.00 ± 0.76; p = 0.001), with greater lactate levels for TS (6.33 ± 0.47) than RR (4.71 ± 0.53; p < 0.001). Total testosterone was elevated after set 2 (0.125 ± 0.02; p = 0.011), but no other time point, while free testosterone remained unchanged. Growth hormone continually rose from baseline to set 3 and returned to baseline by 60 minutes post (20.58 ± 3.19). Cortisol and creatine kinase did not change over time. No condition × time interactions existed for any hormone (p > 0.05). Use of rest redistribution resulted in lower perceived effort and lactate responses. Yet, hormone responses during rest redistribution were no different from TS.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3707-3719, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite adjuvant endocrine therapy for patients with estrogen receptor alpha (ER)-positive breast cancer, dormant residual disease can persist for years and eventually cause tumor recurrence. We sought to deduce mechanisms underlying the persistence of dormant cancer cells to identify therapeutic strategies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Mimicking the aromatase inhibitor-induced depletion of estrogen levels used to treat patients, we developed preclinical models of dormancy in ER+ breast cancer induced by estrogen withdrawal in mice. We analyzed tumor xenografts and cultured cancer cells for molecular and cellular responses to estrogen withdrawal and drug treatments. Publicly available clinical breast tumor gene expression datasets were analyzed for responses to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. RESULTS: Dormant breast cancer cells exhibited upregulated 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels and activity, and upregulated fatty acid oxidation. While the antidiabetes AMPK-activating drug metformin slowed the estrogen-driven growth of cells and tumors, metformin promoted the persistence of estrogen-deprived cells and tumors through increased mitochondrial respiration driven by fatty acid oxidation. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of AMPK or fatty acid oxidation promoted clearance of dormant residual disease, while dietary fat increased tumor cell survival. CONCLUSIONS: AMPK has context-dependent effects in cancer, cautioning against the widespread use of an AMPK activator across disease settings. The development of therapeutics targeting fat metabolism is warranted in ER+ breast cancer.

12.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(12): 125003, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311682

RESUMO

We are developing magnetic nanoparticle (NP) methods to characterize inflammation and infection in vivo. Peritoneal infection in C57BL/6 mice was used as a biological model. An intraperitoneal NP injection was followed by measurement of magnetic nanoparticle spectroscopy of Brownian rotation (MSB) spectra taken over time. MSB measures the magnetization of NPs in a low frequency alternating magnetic field. Two groups of three mice were studied; each group had two infected mice and one control with no infection. The raw MSB signal was compared with two derived metrics: the NP relaxation time and number of NPs present in the sensitive volume of the receive coil. A four compartment dynamic model was used to relate those physical properties to the relevant biological processes including phagocytic activity and migration. The relaxation time increased over time for all of the mice as the NPs were absorbed. The NP number decreased over time as the NPs were cleared from the sensitive volume of the receive coil. The composite p-values for all three rate constants were significant: raw signal, 0.0002, relaxation, <10-16 and local NP clearance, <10-16. However, not all the individual mice had significant changes: Only half the infected mice had significantly different rate constants for raw signal reduction. All infected mice had significantly smaller relaxation time constants. All but one of the infected mice had significantly lower rate constants for local clearance. Relaxation is affected by both phagocytic activity, edema and temperature changes and it should be possible to better isolate those effects to more completely characterize inflammation using more advanced MSB methods. The MSB NP signal can be used to identify inflammation in vivo because it has the unique ability to monitor phagocytic absorption through relaxation measurements.


Assuntos
Inflamação/diagnóstico , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Animais , Campos Magnéticos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Rotação , Análise Espectral
13.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023809

RESUMO

Vitamin D may play a role in performance and injury risk, yet the required supplementation dosage for collegiate athletes is unclear. The objective of this study was to define the dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation required to beneficially affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among a sample of collegiate basketball athletes. This was a quasi-experimental trial, participants were allocated to one of three groups of vitamin D3 daily at the beginning of pre-season training and dependent upon their baseline vitamin D status as follows: insufficient (<75 nmol/L) to 10,000 IU, sufficient (75-125 nmol/L) to 5000 IU and optimal (>125 nmol/L) to no supplementation. Follow-up assessments were completed ~ 5 months later in post season. The majority (n = 13) were allocated to 10,000 IU vs. n = 5 to 5000 IU and n = 2 to no supplementation. The 10,000 IU group showed the greatest change (35.0 ± 27.0 nmol/L) vs. the 5000 IU group (-9.3 ± 9.6 nmol/L) and no supplementation group (-41.6 ± 11.7 nmol/L, p < 0.01). Only 1 participant reached optimal status in the 10,000 IU group. In conclusion, a daily dosage of 10,000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation mitigated the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among collegiate basketball players but was insufficient for all to reach sufficient levels.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(2): 255-261, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine rest redistribution (RR) effects on back squat kinetics and kinematics in resistance-trained women. METHODS: Twelve women from strength and college sports (5.0 [2.2] y training history) participated in the randomized crossover design study with 72 hours between sessions (3 total). Participants completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions using traditional sets (120-s interset rest) and RR (30-s intraset rest in the middle of each set; 90-s interset rest) with 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. Kinetics and kinematics were sampled via force plate and 4 linear position transducers. The greatest value of repetitions 1 to 3 (peak repetition) was used to calculate percentage loss, [(repetition 10-peak repetition)/(peak repetition) × 100], and maintenance, {100-[(set mean-peak repetition)/(peak repetition)] × 100}, of velocity and power for each set. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analyses (P < .05). RESULTS: Mean and peak force did not differ between conditions. A condition × repetition interaction existed for peak power (P = .049) but not for peak velocity (P = .110). Peak power was greater in repetitions 7 to 9 (P < .05; d = 1.12-1.27) during RR. The percentage loss of velocity (95% confidence interval, -0.22% to -7.22%; P = .039) and power (95% confidence interval, -1.53% to -7.87%; P = .008) were reduced in RR. Mean velocity maintenance of sets 3 (P = .036; d = 1.90) and 4 (P = .015; d = 2.30) and mean power maintenance of set 4 (P = .006; d = 2.65) were greater in RR. CONCLUSION: By redistributing a portion of long interset rest into the middle of a set, velocity and power were better maintained. Therefore, redistributing rest may be beneficial for reducing fatigue in resistance-trained women.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso , Esportes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 52(1): 55-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of a pediatric weight management program for low-income Latino families. METHODS: A pretest-posttest pilot study was conducted among 60 Latino children, aged 4-9, who were overweight/obese (body mass index-for-age ≥85th percentile). The 10-week group-based community program addressed diet, exercise, and behavior modification. Demand was assessed through recruitment and attendance, acceptability using postintervention surveys with participants, and limited efficacy testing of participant anthropometrics and cardiometabolic markers. RESULTS: Overall 65% of families were retained for follow-up. All families reported feeling more confident in making healthier food choices and would participate in the program again. Pre/post intervention testing found statistically significant decreases (P < .05) in body mass index for age z score, waist circumference, and % body fat. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This culturally adapted group intervention for Latino families was acceptable and shows promise for improved health status, although it needs to be replicated with a larger group and longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Dietoterapia , Terapia por Exercício , Família , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(2)2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467248

RESUMO

Women athletes are at higher risk for bone diseases; yet, information on vitamin D status ((25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable 25(OH)D is limited. Collegiate athletes (n = 36) from volleyball (WVB), basketball (WBB), and track and field (WTF) were measured for (25(OH)D), VDBP, and bioavailable 25(OH)D; body composition and bone mineral density (BMD); and skin pigmentation. Participants self-reported daily vitamin D intake and sun exposure. One-way analysis of variance analyzed mean differences in measures across sports. Linear regression examined relationships between 25(OH)D; VDBP; bioavailable 25(OH)D; and whole body, hip, and spine BMD. Participants' (mean ± SD, 19.4 ± 1.4 years, 172.75 ± 8.21 cm, 70.9 ± 13.2 kg, and 22.9 ± 4.1% body fat) overall mean 25(OH)D was 70.5 ± 32.25 nmol/L, and 28% of participants were deemed inadequate and 61% below thresholds identified as sufficient for athletes. Although WBB athletes consumed higher (p = 0.007) dietary vitamin D (760.9 ± 484.2 IU/d) than WVB (342.6 ± 257.8) and WTF (402.3 ± 376.4) athletes did, there were no differences across sport in serum 25(OH)D. WVB and WTF had higher bioavailable 25(OH)D than WBB. No relationships existed between vitamin D status and body composition. Vitamin D inadequacy was identified among 1/3 of women indoor sport athletes. Consistent monitoring of vitamin D status and diet are recommended to sustain athlete health and sport performance.

17.
Elife ; 82019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845647

RESUMO

As part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology we published a Registered Report (Fiering et al., 2015) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper 'Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis' (Goetz et al., 2011). Here we report the results. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (pMEFs) expressing caveolin 1 (Cav1WT) demonstrated increased extracellular matrix remodeling in vitro compared to Cav1 deficient (Cav1KO) pMEFs, similar to the original study (Goetz et al., 2011). In vivo, we found higher levels of intratumoral stroma remodeling, determined by fibronectin fiber orientation, in tumors from cancer cells co-injected with Cav1WT pMEFs compared to cancer cells only or cancer cells plus Cav1KO pMEFs, which were in the same direction as the original study (Supplemental Figure S7C; Goetz et al., 2011), but not statistically significant. Primary tumor growth was similar between conditions, like the original study (Supplemental Figure S7Ca; Goetz et al., 2011). We found metastatic burden was similar between Cav1WT and Cav1KO pMEFs, while the original study found increased metastases with Cav1WT (Figure 7C; Goetz et al., 2011); however, the duration of our in vivo experiments (45 days) were much shorter than in the study by Goetz et al. (2011) (75 days). This makes it difficult to interpret the difference between the studies as it is possible that the cells required more time to manifest the difference between treatments observed by Goetz et al. We also found a statistically significant negative correlation of intratumoral remodeling with metastatic burden, while the original study found a statistically significant positive correlation (Figure 7Cd; Goetz et al., 2011), but again there were differences between the studies in terms of the duration of the metastasis studies and the imaging approaches that could have impacted the outcomes. Finally, we report meta-analyses for each result.


Assuntos
Caveolina 1 , Neoplasias , Animais , Camundongos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(11)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752086

RESUMO

Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among collegiate men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men (MBB, n = 11) and women (WBB, n = 9) were tested during the off-season (T1; July) and pre-season (T2; October). Measurements included serum 25(OH)D; skin pigmentation, bone mineral density, and daily sun exposure (self-reported). Paired t-tests determined changes in 25(OH)D by sport-season and sex. Pearson correlations examined relationships between outcome variables. MBB athletes (mean ± SD; 19.6 ± 1.3 years) showed a reduction in 25(OH)D (T1: 64.53 nmol·L-1 ± 11.96) (T2: 56.11 nmol·L-1 ± 7.90) (p = 0.001). WBB (20.1 ± 1.1 years) had no change in 25(OH)D (T1: 99.07 nmol·L-1 ± 49.94. T2: 97.56 nmol·L-1 ± 36.47, p = 0.848). A positive association between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation was observed (r = 0.47, p = 0.038). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with lean body mass (LBM), body mass (BM), and bone mineral density (BMD), while a positive association was seen between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation. In summary, 25(OH)D insufficiency was prevalent amongst male collegiate basketball athletes, with 25(OH)D levels being lower in the pre-season (October) than the off-season (July). Furthermore, darker skin pigmentation significantly correlated with 25(OH)D, indicating that individuals with darker skin tones may be at a greater risk of insufficiency/deficiency. More research is needed to examine the relationships between 25(OH)D and bone health in athletes.

19.
Mol Oncol ; 13(8): 1778-1794, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180176

RESUMO

Estrogens have been shown to elicit anticancer effects against estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer. We sought to determine the mechanism underlying the therapeutic response. Response to 17ß-estradiol was assessed in ER+ breast cancer models with resistance to estrogen deprivation: WHIM16 patient-derived xenografts, C7-2-HI and C4-HI murine mammary adenocarcinomas, and long-term estrogen-deprived MCF-7 cells. As another means to reactivate ER, the anti-estrogen fulvestrant was withdrawn from fulvestrant-resistant MCF-7 cells. Transcriptional, growth, apoptosis, and molecular alterations in response to ER reactivation were measured. 17ß-estradiol treatment and fulvestrant withdrawal induced transcriptional activation of ER, and cells adapted to estrogen deprivation or fulvestrant were hypersensitive to 17ß-estradiol. ER transcriptional response was followed by an unfolded protein response and apoptosis. Such apoptosis was dependent upon the unfolded protein response, p53, and JNK signaling. Anticancer effects were most pronounced in models exhibiting genomic amplification of the gene encoding ER (ESR1), suggesting that engagement of ER at high levels is cytotoxic. These data indicate that long-term adaptation to estrogen deprivation or ER inhibition alters sensitivity to ER reactivation. In such adapted cells, 17ß-estradiol treatment and anti-estrogen withdrawal hyperactivate ER, which drives an unfolded protein response and subsequent growth inhibition and apoptosis. 17ß-estradiol treatment should be considered as a therapeutic option for anti-estrogen-resistant disease, particularly in patients with tumors harboring ESR1 amplification or ER overexpression. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that enhance an unfolded protein response may increase the therapeutic effects of ER reactivation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Fulvestranto/farmacologia , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(11): 3153-3159, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239454

RESUMO

Fields, JB, Merrigan, JJ, White, JB, and Jones, MT. Body composition variables by sport and sport-position in elite collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3153-3159, 2018-To assess body composition measures by sport and sport-position. Elite collegiate athletes participated (n = 475): men's and women's soccer (MSOC, n = 67; WSOC, n = 110); men's and women's swimming (MSWIM, n = 26; WSWIM, n = 22); men's and women's track and field (MTF, n = 29; WTF, n = 24); women's lacrosse and volleyball (WLAX, n = 84; WVB, n = 73); and baseball (BASE, n = 40). One-way analysis of variances assessed differences across sport and sport-position. Post hoc analysis was Tukey honestly significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). For men, BASE and MSWIM had the highest body fat percentage (BF%) (BASE: 16.3 ± 5.2%; MSWIM: 14.2 ± 3.5%). MSOC (11.5 ± 5.3%, 0.13 ± 0.72 kg) and MTF (9.8 ± 5.1%, 0.11 ± 0.08 kg) had the lowest BF% and fat mass (FM)-to-fat-free mass (FFM) ratio (FM:FFM). Fat mass did not differ between MSOC (9.1 ± 4.9 kg), MTF (7.7 ± 5.9 kg), and MSWIM (11.1 ± 3.1 kg). Fat mass for MSOC and MTF was lower than BASE (14.1 ± 5.2). For women, WVB displayed the highest BF% (25.4 ± 5.1%), FM (18.5 ± 5.2 kg), FFM (53.3 ± 5.1 kg), and body mass (BM) (71.8 ± 8.4 kg), but did not differ from WSWIM in BF%, FM, FFM, and BM. WTF had the lowest BF% (12.9 ± 4.0%), FM (7.5 ± 2.5 kg), BM (58.2 ± 4.4 kg), and FM:FFM (0.15 ± 0.05 kg). VB had the highest FFM (53.3 ± 5.1 kg). Body composition differences were observed between sport-positions (p < 0.01). Body composition differed across sport and sport-position, which may be attributed to sport-specific physiological demands.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Beisebol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes com Raquete , Futebol , Natação , Voleibol , Adulto Jovem
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