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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several routes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) administration are available for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI), the most recent of which are capsules. AIM: To assess the efficacy of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and nasogastric tube (NGT) FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI. METHODS: We reported clinical outcomes of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and NGT FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. During January 2000 to January 2018, three databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Primary outcome was overall cure rate which was assessed using a random effects model; secondary outcomes included adverse effects as well as subgroup analyses comparing donor relationship, sample preparation, and study design. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (1309 patients) were included in the study. FMT was administered using colonoscopy in 16 studies (483 patients), NGT in five studies (149 patients), enema in four studies (360 patients), and capsules in four studies (301 patients). The random effects of pooled FMT cure rates were colonoscopy 94.8% (CI 92.4-96.8%; I2 15.6%), capsule 92.1% (CI 88.6-95.0%; I2 7.1%), enema 87.2% (CI 83.4-90.5%; I2 0%), and NGT/NDT 78.1% (CI 71.6-84.1%; I2 0%). On subgroup analysis of colonoscopy FMT, sample preparation methods had comparable cure rates: fresh 94.9% compared to 94.5%. Similarly, cure rates were unaffected by donor relationship: mixed 94.5% compared to unrelated donor 95.7%. CONCLUSION: CDI cure rates with FMT performed with colonoscopy are superior to enema and NGT FMT, while those with FMT with colonoscopy and capsule are comparable.

2.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 53(10): 744-749, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Initiatives by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as well as the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable aim to increase the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We assess individual and geographic characteristics associated fecal immunochemical test (FIT) CRC screening over 3 years. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 1500 FIT kits which were mailed or opportunistically handed to eligible participants in Brooklyn, New York from January 2014 to December 2016. Eligibility criteria included increased risk for colon cancer, uninsured or underinsured, and a minimum age of 50 years to warrant CRC screening. We looked at the association of individual demographic characteristics and FIT screening by logistic regression using SPPS version 23 software. In addition, using ArcGIS, we coded patients address and layered census tract population information to find associations. RESULTS: In total, 1367 Cancer Services Participants met our study criteria. The study sample was predominantly female (95.2%) and minority (46% African American, 24.7% Hispanic, 17.3% Caucasian, 11.4% Asian) and on average 59 years old (SD, 5.7). A large majority (73%) had household incomes below $20,000/year. Approximately half (49.9%) of all Cancer Services Participants returned their FIT kit. In participants who did not return their FIT kit, the majority were African American (41%), followed by Hispanics (26.5%), Caucasians (20.6%), and Asians (11.8%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that a screening history of prior colonoscopy or FIT, gender, ethnicity, and educational attainment were significantly associated with FIT CRC screening uptake (P<0.05). Geospatial mapping showed clusters of low screening uptake in areas of high poverty. Hot-spot analysis identified areas of significant vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: FIT uptake remains suboptimal. Individual predictors as well as area poverty is associated with low screening uptake. Geospatial mapping is an effective tool for evaluating CRC screening uptake.

3.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2018: 4635647, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623138

RESUMO

This paper describes the spatial and temporal distribution of cases, demographic characteristics of patients, and clinical manifestations of Zika virus (ZIKV) during the 2016 outbreak in Grenada. The first reported case was recorded in St. Andrew Parish in April, and the last reported case was seen in November, with peak transmission occurring in the last week of June, based on test results. Data were collected from a total of 514 patients, of whom 207 (40%) tested positive for ZIKV. No evidence was found that testing positive for ZIKV infection was related to age, gender, or pregnancy status. Clinical presentation with rash (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5 to 3.7) or with lymphadenopathy (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.9) were the only reported symptoms consistent with testing positive for ZIKV infection. During the Zika outbreak, the infection rate was 20 clinical cases per 10,000 in the population compared to 41 cases per 10,000 during the chikungunya outbreak in Grenada in 2014 and 17 cases per 10,000 during the dengue outbreak in 2001-2002. Even though the country has employed vector control programs, with no apparent decrease in infection rates, it appears that new abatement approaches are needed to minimize morbidity in future arbovirus outbreaks.

4.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(1): 101-111, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982020

RESUMO

: Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids ( n=66), otariids ( n=12), harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters ( Enhydra lutris; n=2). Pathologic manifestations of S. phocae-associated disease included localized, as well as systemic, inflammatory lesions with common findings of suppurative bronchopneumonia ( n=17) and bacteremia ( n=27). Lung lesions were frequently culture-positive for S. phocae, suggesting commensal colonization of the oropharynx with subsequent opportunistic infection of the respiratory tract during tissue injury, coinfection, immunosuppression, or other debilitating conditions. The presence of a positive spleen culture, and interpretations at necropsy and histopathology, were used to determine the presence of S. phocae bacteremia. Less frequent lesions that were culture positive for S. phocae included abscesses ( n=9), meningitis ( n=7), and cellulitis ( n=1). The majority of cases with S. phocae lesions featured pre-existing conditions that presumably contributed to some degree of debilitation or immunosuppression, including emaciation ( n=29), liver mercury accumulation ( n=29), trauma ( n=22), severe pulmonary or cardiovascular nematodiasis ( n=9), concurrent bacterial or viral infections ( n=8), or sarcocystosis ( n=6). These findings suggest that S. phocae could be characterized as an opportunistic pathogen, associated with debilitating conditions in stranded and rehabilitating marine mammals. Wildlife investigators can use these results to draw more definitive conclusions regarding positive S. phocae cultures during postmortem studies in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Lontras/microbiologia , Phocoena/microbiologia , Focas Verdadeiras/microbiologia , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(2): 587-595, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722634

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Infection leads to formation of cysts within the viscera of the human host. In the 1980s, the transhumant population of northwest Turkana, Kenya, was found to have the highest prevalence of CE in the world. In 1983, AMREF Health Africa and the Kenya Medical and Research Institute launched a CE Control Program in northwest Turkana, screening and treating the local people. This epidemiological study of CE in Turkana analyses approximately 30 years of surveillance and surgical data. Cyst data were categorized using the World Health Organization CE ultrasound classification system before being analyzed for cyst, patient, and population characteristics, and surveillance data from 1985 are compared with more recent surveillance data to assess changes in prevalence in the control region since the commencement of control activities. In 1985, the prevalence of CE among the Turkana was 5.6%. In 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, calculated CE prevalence rates were 1.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Since the 1980s, the age distribution of people with CE in Turkana has shifted: initially, cases of CE appeared predominantly within younger age groups, but recent data reveal a higher prevalence within older age groups. The frequency of infection in females also significantly decreased. The reduction in CE prevalence from 5.6% in the 1980s to 1.9-3.8% in 2010-2012 and the shift in age distribution of CE-infected individuals over time indicate that the prevalence of CE in Turkana has decreased since the control program began.


Assuntos
Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vísceras/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(3): 686-691, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28070008

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic zoonosis, results in cyst formation in the viscera. Cyst morphology depends on developmental stage. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a standardized ultrasound (US) classification for CE, for use among experts as a standard of comparison. This study examined the reliability of this classification. Eleven international CE and US experts completed an assessment of eight WHO classification images and 88 test images representing cyst stages. Inter- and intraobserver reliability and observer performance were assessed using Fleiss' and Cohen's kappa. Interobserver reliability was moderate for WHO images (κ = 0.600, P < 0.0001) and substantial for test images (κ = 0.644, P < 0.0001), with substantial to almost perfect interobserver reliability for stages with pathognomonic signs (CE1, CE2, and CE3) for WHO (0.618 < κ < 0.904) and test images (0.642 < κ < 0.768). Comparisons of expert performances against the majority classification for each image were significant for WHO (0.413 < κ < 1.000, P < 0.005) and test images (0.718 < κ < 0.905, P < 0.0001); and intraobserver reliability was significant for WHO (0.520 < κ < 1.000, P < 0.005) and test images (0.690 < κ < 0.896, P < 0.0001). Findings demonstrate moderate to substantial interobserver and substantial to almost perfect intraobserver reliability for the WHO classification, with substantial to almost perfect interobserver reliability for pathognomonic stages. This confirms experts' abilities to reliably identify WHO-defined pathognomonic signs of CE, demonstrating that the WHO classification provides a reproducible way of staging CE.


Assuntos
Equinococose/classificação , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/normas , Equinococose/parasitologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 20: 2536-42, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25473782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the most frequently presenting tumors exclusive to the head and neck within the pediatric population, and to identify racial disparities within the existing incidence rates. MATERIAL/METHODS: The population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was utilized to identify the frequency and incidence rates of various tumors found exclusively in the head and neck, diagnosed between 1973 and 2008 in pediatric patients. The tumor categories were based on those defined by the US Department of Health and Human Services National Cancer Institute (NCI). Proportional comparisons were applied to evaluate the intra-demographic incidence rate differences. RESULTS: Among the 11 categories defined, the 5 most prevalent head and neck cancers within the pediatric population were salivary gland tumors (n=319); followed by nasopharyngeal neoplasms (n=311); tumors of the nose, nasal cavity and middle ear (n=208); gum and other mouth tumors (n=134); and glossal tumors (n=61). Proportional comparisons between racial frequency rates indicated that salivary gland tumors were greatest among white pediatric patients (n=246, CI=0.8 to 14.1%, p<.05). Nasopharyngeal cancers were highest among blacks (CI=-26.8 to -12.1%) and other races (CI=-23.6 to -3.4%) relative to the white population. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary gland tumors were the most commonly seen head and neck tumors overall among pediatric patients between 1973 and 2008. Incidence rate differences between white, black, and other racial background pediatric patients revealed that overall, head and neck tumors are most prevalent among pediatric patients within the white ethnic population, while nasopharyngeal tumors showed a strong prevalence in blacks and other ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Demografia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 205(3-4): 687-96, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25262617

RESUMO

Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 µg/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with initial mite counts or skin scores used as the covariate to account for variations in disease severity. Planned pairwise comparisons were used to identify differences between treatment groups. The efficacy of Advocate(®) increased with its rate of application across all measures of efficacy. Although ivermectin was shown to be more effective than Advocate(®) applied once weekly, both treatment protocols produced clinically satisfactory results. It was concluded that weekly application of Advocate(®) can be recommended as effective for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis without the potential for toxicity associated with ivermectin.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Cães , Feminino , Seguimentos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Falha de Tratamento
9.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 30(1): 147-54, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24162619

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system tumors are the second most common form of cancer in children between the ages of 1 and 19 years. We aimed to provide the most recent data on the incidence and survival of these tumors in the USA and to assess the literature. METHODS: Frequency, rates, and survival sessions were calculated using the November 2008 submission for the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program. Data were collected and analyzed for children and adolescents aged 1 to 19 years with primary brain tumors. RESULTS: We found that the incidence rate of all pediatric brain tumors has been on a gradual but steady increase from 1973 to 2008 (p < 0.001). The average annual increase was 1.37 %. Our survival analysis of the individual tumors revealed that the 5-year overall survival for children diagnosed between 1974 and 1978 with medulloblastoma was 43.7 %. However, this increased to 62.8 % for children diagnosed between 1999 and 2003. A similar survival trend was also observed when all the other pediatric brain cancer histologies were collectively analyzed (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: From our study, we can conclude that contrary to previous reports indicating a plateau in the incidence rates of pediatric brain tumors since the mid-1980s, there has been an increase from 1973 to 2008. Potential causes include environmental carcinogens, but more research is needed to investigate the factors behind this sustained rise in incidence over the years.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Estatística como Assunto/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 42(11): 2056-63, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20351595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dehydration is hypothesized to cause exercise-associated muscle cramps. The theory states that dehydration contracts the interstitial space, thereby increasing the pressure on nerve terminals and cramps ensue. Research supporting this theory is often observational, and fatigue is rarely controlled. Inducing cramps with electrical stimulation minimizes many of the confounding factors associated with exercise-induced cramps (e.g., fatigue, metabolites). Thus, our goal was to minimize fatigue and determine whether hypohydration decreases the electrical stimuli required to elicit cramping (termed "threshold frequency"). METHODS: Ten males cycled for 30-min bouts with their nondominant leg at 41°C and 15% relative humidity until they lost ~3% of their body mass (~2 h). Dominant leg flexor hallucis brevis muscle cramps were induced before and after hypohydration, and threshold frequency was recorded. Plasma osmolality (OSMp) characterized hydration status. Total sweat electrolytes (Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) lost during exercise was calculated. Subjects repeated the protocol 1 wk later. RESULTS: Subjects were hypohydrated after exercise (preexercise OSMp = 282.5 T 1 mOsm·kg−¹ H2O, postexercise OSMp = 295.1 ± 1 mOsm·kg−¹ H2O, P < 0.001). Subjects lost 3.0% ± 0.1% of their body mass, 144.9 ± 9.8 mmol of Na+, 11.2 ± 0.4 mmol of K+, 3.3 ± 0.3 mmol of Mg2+, and 3.1 ± 0.1 mmol of Ca2+. Mild hypohydration with minimal neuromuscular fatigue did not affect threshold frequency (euhydrated = 23.7 ± 1.5 Hz, hypohydrated = 21.3 ± 1.4 Hz; F1,9 = 2.81, P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Mild hypohydration with minimal neuromuscular fatigue does not seem to predispose individuals to cramping. Thus, cramps may be more associated with neuromuscular fatigue than dehydration/electrolyte losses. Health care professionals may have more success preventing exercise-associated muscle cramp by focusing on strategies that minimize neuromuscular fatigue rather than dehydration. However, the effect of greater fluid losses on cramp threshold frequency is unknown and merits further research.


Assuntos
Desidratação/complicações , Cãibra Muscular/etiologia , Fadiga Muscular , Análise de Variância , Desidratação/terapia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Estimulação Elétrica , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 42(5): 953-61, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19997012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anecdotal evidence suggests that ingesting small volumes of pickle juice relieves muscle cramps within 35 s of ingestion. No experimental evidence exists supporting the ingestion of pickle juice as a treatment for skeletal muscle cramps. METHODS: On two different days (1 wk apart), muscle cramps were induced in the flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) of hypohydrated male subjects (approximately 3% body weight loss and plasma osmolality approximately 295 mOsm x kg(-1) H2O) via percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation. Thirty minutes later, a second FHB muscle cramp was induced and was followed immediately by the ingestion of 1 mL x kg(-1) body weight of deionized water or pickle juice (73.9 +/- 2.8 mL). RESULTS: Cramp duration and FHB EMG activity during the cramp were quantified, as well as the change in plasma constituents. Cramp duration (water = 151.9 +/- 12.9 s and pickle juice = 153.2 +/- 23.7 s) and FHB EMG activity (water = 60% +/- 6% and pickle juice = 68% +/- 9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction EMG activity) were similar during the initial cramp induction without fluid ingestion (P > 0.05). During FHB muscle cramp induction combined with fluid ingestion, FHB EMG activity was again similar (water = 55% +/- 9% and pickle juice = 66% +/- 9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction EMG activity, P > 0.05). However, cramp duration was 49.1 +/- 14.6 s shorter after pickle juice ingestion than water (84.6 +/- 18.5 vs 133.7 +/- 15.9 s, respectively, P < 0.05). The ingestion of water or pickle juice had little impact on plasma composition 5 min after ingestion. CONCLUSIONS: Pickle juice, and not deionized water, inhibits electrically induced muscle cramps in hypohydrated humans. This effect could not be explained by rapid restoration of body fluids or electrolytes. We suspect that the rapid inhibition of the electrically induced cramps reflects a neurally mediated reflex that originates in the oropharyngeal region and acts to inhibit the firing of alpha motor neurons of the cramping muscle.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/uso terapêutico , Desidratação/complicações , Estimulação Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cãibra Muscular/etiologia , Cãibra Muscular/terapia , Ácido Acético/administração & dosagem , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Vet Dermatol ; 20(5-6): 447-55, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20178483

RESUMO

Advocate (moxidectin 2.5% + imidacloprid 10%) is a multiparasiticidal agent authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blind, randomized clinical trial assessed the efficacy of Advocate at varying treatment intervals and compared it with that of oral ivermectin. Fifty dogs with generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: oral ivermectin (500 microg/kg once daily), Advocate applied at the authorized dose monthly (ADV1), every 2 weeks (ADV2) or weekly (ADV4). Each dog was evaluated every 4 weeks for 4 months or until negative scrapings at all sites resulted on two successive evaluations (parasitological cure). Miticidal efficacy was determined through deep skin scrapings taken from the same three sites on each occasion. Total numbers of live and dead adult mites, juveniles and eggs were determined. Thirty-five dogs completed the 4-month trial. Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed using several parameters including reduction in live adult mite counts. ancova analysis for this parameter confirmed that there were differences in efficacy among the treatment groups (P < 0.002). Tukey-Kramer all pairwise multiple comparison tests revealed that ADV4 was more effective than ADV1 (P = 0.016). Ivermectin was more effective than ADV1 (P = 0.003). Both ivermectin and ADV4 showed clinically substantial reductions in adult mite counts (89% for ADV4 and 98% for ivermectin). In conclusion, the efficacy of Advocate increased with the rate of application and weekly application may represent a new approach to the treatment of caninegeneralized demodicosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem
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