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3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e200895, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163167

RESUMO

Importance: Alcohol screening may be associated with health outcomes that cluster with alcohol use (ie, alcohol-clustering conditions), including depression, anxiety, and use of tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drugs. Objective: To quantify the extent to which alcohol screening provides additional information regarding alcohol-clustering conditions and to compare 2 alcohol use screening tools commonly used for this purpose. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study used data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Data were collected at 8 Veterans Health Administration facilities from 2003 through 2012. A total of 7510 participants were enrolled, completed a baseline survey, and were followed up. Veterans with HIV were matched with controls without HIV by age, race, sex, and site of care. Data were analyzed from January 2019 to December 2019. Exposures: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) were used to assess alcohol use, with 4 risk groups delineated for each test: score 0 to 7 (reference), score 8 to 15, score 16 to 19, and score 20 to 40 (maximum score) for the full AUDIT and score 0 to 3 (reference), score 4 to 5, score 6 to 7, and score 8 to 12 (maximum score) for the AUDIT-C. Main Outcomes and Measures: Alcohol-clustering conditions, including self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety and use of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, other stimulants, opioids, and injection drugs. Results: A total of 6431 US patients (6104 [95%] men; median age during survey years 2003-2004, 50 years [range, 28-86 years; interquartile range, 44-55 years]) receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration completed 1 or more follow-up surveys when the AUDIT was administered and were included in the present analyses. Of the male participants, 4271 (66%) were African American, 1498 (24%) were white, and 590 (9%) were Hispanic. The AUDIT and AUDIT-C scores were associated with each alcohol-clustering condition. In particular, an AUDIT score of 20 or higher (vs <8, the reference) was associated with symptoms of depression (odds ratio [OR], 8.37; 95% CI, 6.20-11.29) and anxiety (OR, 8.98; 95% CI, 6.39-12.60) and with self-reported use of tobacco (OR, 14.64; 95% CI, 8.94-23.98), marijuana (OR, 12.41; 95% CI, 8.61-17.90), crack or cocaine (OR, 39.47; 95% CI, 27.38-56.90), other stimulants (OR, 21.31; 95% CI, 12.73-35.67), and injection drugs (OR, 8.67; 95% CI, 5.32-14.13). An AUDIT score of 20 or higher yielded likelihood ratio (sensitivity / 1 - specificity) values greater than 3.5 for depression, anxiety, crack or cocaine use, and other stimulant use. Associations between AUDIT-C scores and alcohol-clustering conditions were more modest. Conclusions and Relevance: Alcohol screening can inform decisions about further screening and diagnostic assessment for alcohol-clustering conditions, particularly for depression, anxiety, crack or cocaine use, and other stimulant use. Future studies using clinical diagnoses rather than screening tools to assess alcohol-clustering conditions may be warranted.

4.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 15(1): 4, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948487

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for strategies to address the US epidemic of prescription opioid, heroin and fentanyl-related overdoses, misuse, addiction, and diversion. Evidence-based treatment such as medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) are available but lack numbers of providers offering these services to meet the demands. Availability of electronic health record (EHR) systems has greatly increased and led to innovative quality improvement initiatives but this has not yet been optimized to address the opioid epidemic or to treat opioid use disorder (OUD). This report from a clinical decision support (CDS) working group convened by the NIDA Center for the Clinical Trials Network aims to converge electronic technology in the EHR with the urgent need to improve screening, identification, and treatment of OUD in primary care settings through the development of a CDS algorithm that could be implemented as a tool in the EHR. This aim is consistent with federal, state and local government and private sector efforts to improve access and quality of MOUD treatment for OUD, existing clinical quality and HEDIS measures for OUD or drug and alcohol use disorders, and with a recent draft grade B recommendation from the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) for screening for illicit drug use in adults when appropriate diagnosis, treatment and care services can be offered or referred. Through a face-to-face expert panel meeting and multiple follow-up conference calls, the working group drafted CDS algorithms for clinical care felt to be essential for screening, diagnosis, and management of OUD in primary care. The CDS algorithm was reviewed by addiction specialists and primary care providers and revised based on their input. A clinical decision support tool for OUD screening, assessment, and treatment within primary care systems may help improve healthcare delivery to help address the current epidemic of opioid misuse and overdose that has outpaced the capacity of specialized treatment settings. A semi-structured outline of clinical decision support for OUD was developed to facilitate implementation within the EHR. Further work for adaptation at specific sites and for testing is needed.

5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 109: 14-22, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856946

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infrequent use of and poor retention on evidence-based medications for alcohol use disorder (MAUD) represent a treatment gap, particularly among people living with HIV (PLWH). We examined predictors of MAUD initiation and retention across HIV status. METHODS: From Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) data, we identified new alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses from 1998 to 2015 among 163,339 individuals (50,826 PLWH and 112,573 uninfected, matched by age, sex, and facility). MAUD initiation was defined as a prescription fill for naltrexone, acamprosate or disulfiram within 30 days of a new diagnosis. Among those who initiated, retention was defined as filling medication for ≥80% of days over the following six months. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess patient- and facility-level predictors of AUD medication initiation across HIV status. RESULTS: Among 10,603 PLWH and 24,424 uninfected individuals with at least one AUD episode, 359 (1.0%) initiated MAUD and 49 (0.14%) were retained. The prevalence of initiation was lower among PLWH than those without HIV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.85). Older age (for PLWH: AOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-0.99; for uninfected: AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61-0.80) and black race (for PLWH: AOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.0.49-0.1.00; for uninfected: AOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.83), were associated with decreased odds of initiation for both groups. The low frequency of retention precluded multivariable analyses for retention. CONCLUSIONS: For PLWH and uninfected individuals, targeted implementation strategies to expand MAUD are needed, particularly for specific subpopulations (e.g. black PLWH).

6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107671, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in polysubstance detection associated with drug-related overdose deaths in Connecticut. METHODS: We used 2012-2018 data provided by Connecticut's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) on accidental overdose deaths. We estimated annual trends, standardizing the number of deaths per 100,000 Connecticut residents each year. We then conducted stratified analyses by polysubstance use status. We also examined the numbers of deaths involving fentanyl in a separate analysis. We obtained data in April 2019, and statistical analyses were performed from April to September 2019. RESULTS: The rate of overdose deaths in Connecticut increased from 9.9 per 100,000 residents in 2012 to 28.5 per 100,000 residents in 2018-a 221 % increase-with the majority occurring among persons aged 35-64 (65.3 %), men (73.9 %), and non-Hispanic whites (78.5 %). Among deaths involving fentanyl, the overall deaths escalated from 5.2 deaths per 100,000 residents in 2015 to 21.3 deaths per 100,000 residents in 2018, and more than 50% of these fentanyl-related deaths involved polysubstance use. CONCLUSIONS: Connecticut experienced a more-than doubling of opioid-involved overdose deaths, largely driven by fentanyl and polysubstance use. The role of polysubstance use should be considered in efforts toward reducing opioid-related overdose incidents.

9.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 106: 97-106, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no known safe level of alcohol use among patients with HIV and liver disease. We examined the effectiveness of integrated stepped alcohol treatment (ISAT) on alcohol use, HIV, and liver outcomes among patients with HIV and liver disease. METHODS: In this multi-site, randomized trial conducted between January 28, 2013 through July 15, 2016, we enrolled 95 patients with HIV and liver disease [defined as having active hepatitis C infection or FIB-4 score > 1.45]. ISAT (n = 49) involved: Step 1- Brief Negotiated Interview with telephone booster, Step 2- Motivational Enhancement Therapy, and Step 3- Addiction Physician Management. Treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 46) involved receipt of a health handout plus routine care. Analyses were conducted based on intention to treat. RESULTS: Among ISAT participants, 55% advanced to Step 2, among whom 70% advanced to Step 3. Participants randomized to ISAT and TAU increased abstinence (primary outcome) over time. Abstinence rates were non-significantly higher by self-report (38% vs. 23%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] [95% CI] = 2.6 [0.8, 9.0]) and phosphatidylethanol (43% vs. 32%, AOR [95% CI] = 1.8 [0.5, 6.3] among those randomized to ISAT vs. TAU at week 24. VACS Index scores (AMD [95% CI] = 1.1 [-3.2, 5.5]) and the proportion with an undetectable HIV viral load (AOR [95% CI] = 0.3 [0.1, 1.3]) did not differ by group at week 24 (p values >0.05). ISAT had non-significantly lower FIB-4 scores (adjusted mean difference [AMD] [95% CI] = -0.2 [-0.9, 0.5]), ALT (AMD [95% CI] = -7 [-20, 7]) and AST (AMD [95% CI] = -4 [-15, 7]) at week 24 compared to TAU. CONCLUSION: ISAT is feasible and potentially effective at enhancing delivery of evidence-based alcohol treatment to promote alcohol abstinence and improve liver biomarkers among patients with HIV and liver disease.

10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 204: 107511, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective outcomes for measuring the physical health effects of substance use disorder treatment are needed. We compared the responsiveness of CD4, HIV-1 RNA and a biomarker index (VACS Index 2.0) to changes in opioid use among people with HIV (PWH) and uninfected individuals receiving opioid agonist treatment (OAT). METHODS: Electronic health record data were used to identify patients who received ≥90 days of OAT and had ≥1 urine toxicology test in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Trajectory models identified patterns of opioid urine toxicology results. We used linear regression adjusted for age and race/ethnicity to determine associations between opioid toxicology groups and biomarker changes from up to one-year pre OAT to 3-15 months after OAT initiation. RESULTS: Among 266 with detectable HIV-1 RNA, 366 with suppressed HIV-1 RNA, and 1183 uninfected patients, we identified five opioid toxicology groups ranging from consistently negative (54%) to consistently positive (9%). Among PWH with detectable HIV-1 RNA, all three biomarkers improved more for those consistently negative compared to those consistently positive (all p < .05). Among PWH with suppressed HIV-1 RNA, CD4 improved for those consistently negative; and worsened for those in the slow decrease toward negative group (p = .04). Among those uninfected, VACS Index 2.0 did not differ by opioid toxicology groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients on OAT, changes in biomarkers are associated with opioid toxicology groups among PWH, but vary by HIV-1 RNA. These findings may be useful for measuring the health effects of OAT.

11.
AIDS Behav ; 23(12): 3340-3349, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317364

RESUMO

A better understanding of predisposition to transition to high-dose, long-term opioid therapy after initial opioid receipt could facilitate efforts to prevent opioid use disorder (OUD). We extracted data on 69,268 patients in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study who received any opioid prescription between 1998 and 2015. Using latent growth mixture modelling, we identified four distinguishable dose trajectories: low (53%), moderate (29%), escalating (13%), and rapidly escalating (5%). Compared to low dose trajectory, those in the rapidly escalating dose trajectory were proportionately more European-American (59% rapidly escalating vs. 38% low); had a higher prevalence of HIV (31% vs. 29%) and hepatitis C (18% vs. 12%); and during follow-up, had a higher incidence of OUD diagnoses (13% vs. 3%); were hospitalised more often [18.1/100 person-years (PYs) vs. 12.5/100 PY]; and had higher all-cause mortality (4.7/100 PY vs. 1.8/100 PY, all p < 0.0001). These measures can potentially be used in future prevention research, including genetic discovery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Veteranos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prevalência
12.
J Urban Health ; 96(6): 912-922, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350725

RESUMO

Community-based organizations (CBOs) are essential partners in community-engaged research, yet little is known about their research capacity. Community experts and organizations bring unique knowledge of the community to research partnerships, but standard validated measures of CBO research capacity do not yet exist. We report here on the refinement through a structured Delphi panel of a previously developed and piloted framework of CBO research capacity and an accompanying instrument, the Community REsearch Activity Assessment Tool (CREAT). A Delphi panel composed of twenty-three experts recruited from community (52%) and academic researchers (48%) from around the USA participated in five rounds of review to establish consensus regarding framework domains, operational definitions, and tool items. Panelists rated the importance of items on a 5-point Likert scale and assessed for the inclusion and language of items. Initial rounds of review began with reviewing the framework and definitions, with subsequent rounds including review of the full instrument. Concluding rounds brought back items that had not yet reached consensus for additional review. Median response values (MRV) and intra-quartile ranges (IQR) were calculated for each Likert item. Items with an MRV > 3.5 were deemed as having reached consensus and were retained. Language changes were made for items with MRV > 2.0 and < 3.5 and an IQR > 1.5. Items with MRV < 2.0 were excluded from the final tool. Panelist response rate was high (> 75%). Consensus was achieved for the inclusion of all domains, subdomains and operational definitions except "evidence-based practices." Extensive changes to the CREAT instrument were made for clarification, to provide additional detail and to ensure applicability for CBOs. The CREAT framework and tool was refined through input from community and academic researchers. Availability of a validated tool to assess research capacity of CBOs will support targeted research capacity building for community organizations and partners, thus strengthening collaborations.

13.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 103: 23-32, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in healthcare settings and contribute to poor outcomes, particularly in patients living with HIV. We assessed initiation, engagement, and retention in SUD treatment and pharmacotherapy following an index SUD episode in a national sample of HIV-infected and uninfected patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. METHODS: We used electronic national VA data (years 2000-2015) from 52,995 HIV-infected and 111,229 age-, race-, gender-, and region-matched uninfected patients. We defined index SUD episodes as outpatient visits or inpatient/residential admissions with associated primary or secondary ICD-9 codes for substance use in patients without SUD-related services or pharmacotherapy in the preceding 5 months. RESULTS: Overall, 57,428 (35%) patients had at least 1 index SUD episode. HIV-infected patients were more likely than uninfected controls to have at least one index SUD episode (35.7% vs. 34.6%; p < .001). Rates of initiation, engagement, and retention in SUD treatment after the index SUD episode were <17% for both groups. In adjusted models, HIV-infected patients were more likely than uninfected patients to be retained in SUD treatment at 6 months (Odds Ratio 1.10; 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-1.16). SUD pharmacotherapy initiation and engagement was uncommon in both HIV-infected and uninfected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this national VA sample, initiation of SUD treatment and pharmacotherapy were uncommon for both HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Interventions to improve initiation, engagement, and retention in the full range of services, including SUD pharmacotherapy, are warranted for all patients with SUD in the VA.

14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(6): ofz188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211153

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence and risk of concurrent unhealthy drinking, cigarette use, and depression on mortality among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is unclear. This study applied a syndemic framework to assess whether these co-occurring conditions increase mortality and whether such risk is differential by HIV status. Methods: We evaluated 6721 participants (49.8% PLWH) without baseline cancer from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, a prospective, observational cohort of PLWH and matched uninfected veterans enrolled in 2002 and followed through 2015. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions estimated risk of a syndemic score (number of conditions: that is, unhealthy drinking, cigarette use, and depressive symptoms) on all-cause mortality by HIV status, adjusting for demographic, health status, and HIV-related factors. Results: Fewer than 10% of participants had no conditions; 25.6% had 1, 51.0% had 2, and 15.0% had all 3. There were 1747 deaths (61.9% PLWH) during the median follow-up (11.4 years). Overall, age-adjusted mortality rates/1000 person-years increased with a greater number of conditions: (0: 12.0; 1: 21.2; 2: 30.4; 3: 36.3). For 3 conditions, the adjusted hazard ratio of mortality was 36% higher among PLWH compared with uninfected participants with 3 conditions (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.72; P = .013), after adjusting for health status and HIV disease progression. Among PLWH and uninfected participants, mortality risk persisted after adjustment for time-updated health status. Conclusions: Syndemic unhealthy drinking, cigarette use, and depression are common and are associated with higher mortality risk among PLWH, underscoring the need to screen for and treat these conditions.

15.
Lancet HIV ; 6(8): e509-e517, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the effectiveness of integrated stepped alcohol treatment (ISAT) on alcohol use and HIV outcomes among patients living with HIV and alcohol use disorder. METHODS: In this multisite, randomised controlled trial, conducted in five Veterans Affairs-based HIV clinics in the USA (Atlanta, GA; Brooklyn-Manhattan, NY; Dallas and Houston, TX; and Washington, DC), we recruited people living with HIV and an alcohol use disorder who were not otherwise receiving formal alcohol treatment. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, HIV positive, English speaking, and met criteria for alcohol use disorder by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Key exclusion criteria included if the patient was acutely suicidal or had a psychiatric condition that affected their ability to participate in counselling interventions, or if they had any medical conditions that would preclude completing the study or cause harm during the course of the study. Using a web-based clinical trial management system, we randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive ISAT or treatment as usual; patients, investigators, and clinicians were unmasked to allocation. ISAT involved three steps: step 1, addiction physician management, comprising eight sessions; step 2, addiction physician management plus motivational enhancement therapy, comprising four sessions; and step 3, specialty referral. Participants were stepped up at weeks 4 and 12 if they exceeded a priori drinking criteria. Treatment as usual involved referral to substance use treatment services. The primary outcome was number of drinks per week over the past 30 days at week 24 by use of the timeline followback method, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Adverse events were tracked throughout the study period in all randomly assigned participants. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01410123. FINDINGS: Between Jan 28, 2013, and July 14, 2017, 128 of 351 patients assessed for eligibility were eligible and randomly assigned to receive ISAT (n=63) or treatment as usual (n=65). Mean age was 54 years (range 23-70), 125 (98%) of 128 participants were men, and 101 (79%) were black. 25 (20%) were lost to follow-up. In the ISAT group, of 57 participants who did not die or withdraw, 30 (52%) advanced to step 2, and 17 (57%) of 30 advanced to step 3. 32 (51%) of 63 participants assigned to ISAT versus 17 (26%) of 65 assigned to treatment as usual received at least one alcohol treatment medication (p=0·004). Participants in both groups decreased their alcohol consumption, but at week 24 we did not detect a difference in number of drinks per week between the groups (least squares mean 10·4 drinks per week [SD 16·5] in the ISAT group vs 15·6 drinks per week [SD 17·6] in the treatment as usual group; adjusted mean difference -4·2, 95% CI -9·4 to 0·9; p=0·11). One adverse event occurred that was possibly related to treatment occurred in the ISAT group (headache). INTERPRETATION: ISAT increases the receipt of alcohol treatment medications and counselling without changes in drinking at week 24. Strategies to implement and enhance ISAT are needed. Future efforts should focus on promoting ISAT with attention to enhancing patient engagement and retention in alcohol-related care. FUNDING: US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

16.
Int J Drug Policy ; 72: 160-168, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Untreated opioid use disorder (OUD) affects the care of HIV/HCV co-infected people who inject opioids. Despite active injection opioid use, there is evidence of increasing engagement in HIV care and adherence to HIV medications among HIV/HCV co-infected persons. However, less than one-half of this population is offered HCV treatment onsite. Treatment for OUD is also rare and largely occurs offsite. Integrating buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX) into onsite care for HIV/HCV co-infected persons may improve outcomes, but the clinical impact and costs are unknown. We evaluated the clinical impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of integrating (BUP-NX) into onsite HIV/HCV treatment compared with the status quo of offsite referral for medications for OUD. METHODS: We used a Monte Carlo microsimulation of HCV to compare two strategies for people who inject opioids: 1) standard HIV care with onsite HCV treatment and referral to offsite OUD care (status quo) and 2) standard HIV care with onsite HCV and BUP-NX treatment (integrated care). Both strategies assume that all individuals are already in HIV care. Data from national databases, clinical trials, and cohorts informed model inputs. Outcomes included mortality, HCV reinfection, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs (2017 US dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: Integrated care reduced HCV reinfections by 7%, cases of cirrhosis by 1%, and liver-related deaths by 3%. Compared to the status quo, this strategy also resulted in an estimated 11/1,000 fewer non-liver attributable deaths at one year and 28/1,000 fewer of these deaths at five years, at a cost-effectiveness ratio of $57,100/QALY. Integrated care remained cost-effective in sensitivity analyses that varied the proportion of the population actively injecting opioids, availability of BUP-NX, and quality of life weights. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating BUP-NX for OUD into treatment for HIV/HCV co-infected adults who inject opioids increases life expectancy and is cost-effective at a $100,000/QALY threshold.

17.
Med Care ; 57 Suppl 6 Suppl 2: S157-S163, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich source of health information; however social determinants of health, including incarceration, and how they impact health and health care disparities can be hard to extract. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of patient self-report with various methods of identifying incarceration exposure using the EHR. RESEARCH DESIGN: Validation study using multiple data sources and types. SUBJECTS: Participants of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), a national observational cohort based on data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) EHR that includes all human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in care (47,805) and uninfected patients (99,060) matched on region, age, race/ethnicity, and sex. MEASURES AND DATA SOURCES: Self-reported incarceration history compared with: (1) linked VHA EHR data to administrative data from a state Department of Correction (DOC), (2) linked VHA EHR data to administrative data on incarceration from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), (3) VHA EHR-specific identifier codes indicative of receipt of VHA incarceration reentry services, and (4) natural language processing (NLP) in unstructured text in VHA EHR. RESULTS: Linking the EHR to DOC data: sensitivity 2.5%, specificity 100%; linking the EHR to CMS data: sensitivity 7.9%, specificity 99.3%; VHA EHR-specific identifier for receipt of reentry services: sensitivity 7.3%, specificity 98.9%; and NLP, sensitivity 63.5%, specificity 95.9%. CONCLUSIONS: NLP tools hold promise as a feasible and valid method to identify individuals with exposure to incarceration in EHR. Future work should expand this approach using a larger body of documents and refinement of the methods, which may further improve operating characteristics of this method.

18.
Pain ; 160(9): 2126-2135, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145217

RESUMO

Despite evidence linking increased risk of opioid use disorder with specific opioid-prescribing patterns, the relationship between these patterns and heroin use is less understood. This study aimed to determine whether dose and duration of opioid prescriptions predict subsequent heroin use in United States veterans. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2012 from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study. We used inverse probability of censoring weighted Cox regression to examine the relationship between self-reported past year heroin use and 2 primary predictors: (1) prior receipt of a high-dose opioid prescription (≥90 mg morphine equivalent daily dose), and (2) prior receipt of a long-term opioid prescription (≥90 days). Heroin use was ascertained using most recent value of time-updated self-reported past year heroin use. Models were adjusted for HIV and hepatitis C virus infection status, sociodemographics, pain interference, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and use of marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and unhealthy alcohol use. In the final model, prior receipt of a high-dose opioid prescription was associated with past year heroin use (adjusted hazard ratio use = 2.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-5.10), whereas long-term opioid receipt was not (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.75-1.57). Patients receiving high-dose opioid prescriptions should be monitored for heroin use. These findings support current national guidelines recommending against prescribing high-dose opioids for treating pain.

19.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 48, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) frequently present to the emergency department (ED) after overdose, or seeking treatment for general medical conditions, their addiction, withdrawal symptoms, or complications of injection drug use, such as soft tissue infections. ED-initiated buprenorphine has been shown to be effective in increasing patient engagement in treatment compared with brief intervention with a facilitated referral or referral alone. However, adoption into practice has lagged behind need. To address this implementation challenge, we are evaluating the impact of implementation facilitation (IF) on the adoption of ED-initiated buprenorphine for OUD into practice. METHODS: This protocol describes a study that is being conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Center for the Clinical Trials Network. A hybrid type III effectiveness-implementation study design is used to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard educational dissemination strategy versus IF on implementation (primary) and effectiveness (secondary) outcomes in four urban, academic EDs. Sites start with a standard 60-min "Grand Rounds" educational intervention describing the prevalence of ED patients with OUD, the evidence for opioid agonist treatment and for innovative interventions with ED-initiated buprenorphine; followed by a 1-year baseline evaluation period. Using a modified stepped wedge design, sites are randomly assigned to the IF intervention which is guided by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework to assess evidence, context, and facilitation-related factors impacting the adoption of ED-initiated buprenorphine. During the 6 months of IF through the 1-year IF evaluation period, external facilitators work with local stakeholders to tailor and refine a bundle of activities to meet the site's needs. The primary analyses compare the baseline evaluation period to the IF evaluation period (n = 120 patients with untreated OUD enrolled during each period) on (1) rates of provision of ED-initiated buprenorphine by ED providers with referral for ongoing medication (implementation outcome) and (2) rates of patient engagement in addiction treatment on the 30th day after the ED visit (effectiveness outcome). Finally, we will perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to determine if the effectiveness benefits are worth the additional costs. DISCUSSION: Results will generate novel information regarding the impact of IF as a strategy to promote ED-initiated buprenorphine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03023930 first posted 1/10/2017, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03023930?term=0069&rank=1.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(4): 448-455, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use influences HIV disease severity through multiple mechanisms. Whether HIV disease severity is sensitive to changes in alcohol use among people with HIV (PWH) is understudied. SETTING: National Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: Pairs of AUDIT-C screens within 9-15 months (February 1, 2008-September 30, 2014) were identified among PWH from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Initial and follow-up VACS Index 2.0 pairs obtained 0-270 days after initial and follow-up AUDIT-Cs, respectively, determined change in VACS Index 2.0, a composite HIV severity measure. Change in VACS Index 2.0 was regressed on AUDIT-C change scores (-12 to +12) adjusted for demographics, initial VACS Index 2.0, and days between VACS Index measures. RESULTS: Among 23,297 PWH (76,202 observations), most had no (51%) or low-level (38%) alcohol use initially. Most (54%) had no subsequent change; 21% increased and 24% decreased drinking. Initial VACS Index 2.0 scores ranged from 0 to 134, change scores ranged from -65 to +73, with average improvement of 0.76 points (SD 9.48). AUDIT-C change was associated with VACS Index 2.0 change (P < 0.001). Among those with stable alcohol use (AUDIT-C change ≤ │1│ point), VACS Index 2.0 improvements ranged 0.36-0.60 points. For those with maximum AUDIT-C increase (change from 0 to 12), VACS Index 2.0 worsened 3.74 points (95% CI: -4.71 to -2.78); for those with maximum AUDIT-C decrease (change from 12 to 0), VACS Index 2.0 changed minimally [-0.60 (95% CI: -1.43 to 0.23)]. CONCLUSIONS: In this national sample, improvement in HIV severity was generally greatest among those with stable alcohol use (primarily those with no use).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veteranos
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