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1.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 260, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citizen engagement in research is an emerging practice that involves members of the general public in research processes such as priority setting, planning, decision-making, research conduct, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination. Engaging citizens in research, particularly health research, increases the relevance of study findings, minimizes waste by facilitating stewardship over resources, and builds public trust in the research. While several existing frameworks guide the application of citizen engagement principles to health research, it is unclear how citizen engagement can be utilized to maximize benefits and minimize risks and challenges in health research. To address the gaps in knowledge around citizen engagement in health research, we propose a scoping review to synthesize the state of knowledge on methods to incorporate and evaluate citizen engagement in research. A protocol is presented in this manuscript. METHODS: The methodology for our scoping review is guided by Arksey and O' Malley's framework for scoping reviews, and additional recommendations by Levac and colleagues. We will include peer-reviewed and gray literature that report on citizen engagement in health research (including biomedical, clinical, health systems and services, and social, cultural, environmental and population health) and report method(s) to conduct, measure, or evaluate citizen engagement. We will systematically search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, JSTOR, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Science Direct) from inception onwards and search relevant organizations' websites for additional studies, frameworks, and reports on citizen engagement. Title and abstract and full-text citations will be screened independently and in duplicate. Data will be extracted independently and in duplicate, including document characteristics, citizen engagement definitions and goals, and outcomes of citizen engagement (e.g., barriers, facilitators). DISCUSSION: This review will synthesize the definitions, goals, methods, outcomes, and significance of citizen engagement in health research, as well as any potential barriers, facilitators, and challenges outlined in existing literature. The findings will provide an evidence-based foundation for developing new or improved guidance for citizen engagement in health research. Overall, we anticipate that our scoping review will be a preliminary step to meaningful engagement of citizens in research and strengthen the relationship between the scientific community and the public through transparency and collaboration. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework  https://osf.io/hzcbr .

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048227, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flexible visitation policies in hospitals are an important component of care that contributes to reduced stress and increased satisfaction among patients and their family members. Early evidence suggests restricted visitation policies enacted in hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic are having unintended consequences on patients, family members and healthcare providers. There is a need for a comprehensive summary of the impacts of restricted visitation policies on key stakeholders and approaches to mitigate that impact. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review as per the Arksey-O'Malley 5-stage scoping review method and the Scoping Review Methods Manual by the Joanna Briggs Institute. We will search relevant electronic databases (eg, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO), grey literature and preprint repositories. We will include all study designs including qualitative and quantitative methodologies (excluding protocols) as well as reports, opinions and editorials, to identify the broad impact of restricted hospital visitation policies due to the COVID-19 pandemic on patients, family members or healthcare providers of hospitalised patients, and approaches taken or proposed to mitigate this impact. Two reviewers will calibrate the screening criteria and data abstraction form and will independently screen studies and abstract the data. Narrative synthesis with thematic analysis will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not applicable as this review will be conducted on published literature only. This scoping review will identify, describe and categorise impacts of restricted hospital visitation policies due to the COVID-19 pandemic on patients, family members and healthcare providers of hospitalised patients, and approaches that have been taken to mitigate impact. We will provide a comprehensive synthesis by developing a framework of restricted visitation policies and associated impacts. Our results will inform the development of consensus statements on restricted visitation policies to be implemented in future pandemics. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020221662.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Família , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Políticas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings because of the COVID-19 pandemic have negative consequences. The objective of this scoping review is to identify impacts of restricted visitation policies in acute care settings, and describe perspectives and mitigation approaches among patients, families, and healthcare professionals. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Healthstar, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on January 01/2021, unrestricted, for published primary research records reporting any study design. We included secondary (e.g., reviews) and non-research records (e.g., commentaries), and performed manual searches in web-based resources. We excluded records that did not report primary data. Two reviewers independently abstracted data in duplicate. RESULTS: Of 7810 citations, we included 155 records. Sixty-six records (43%) were primary research; 29 (44%) case reports or case series, and 26 (39%) cohort studies; 21 (14%) were literature reviews and 8 (5%) were expert recommendations; 54 (35%) were commentary, editorial, or opinion pieces. Restricted visitation policies impacted coping and daily function (n = 31, 20%) and mental health outcomes (n = 29, 19%) of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Participants described a need for coping and support (n = 107, 69%), connection and communication (n = 107, 69%), and awareness of state of well-being (n = 101, 65%). Eighty-seven approaches to mitigate impact of restricted visitation were identified, targeting families (n = 61, 70%), patients (n = 51, 59%), and healthcare professionals (n = 40, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients, families, and healthcare professionals were impacted by restricted visitation polices in acute care settings during COVID-19. The consequences of this approach on patients and families are understudied and warrant evaluation of approaches to mitigate their impact. Future pandemic policy development should include the perspectives of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221662) and a protocol peer-reviewed prior to data extraction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos , Família , Política de Saúde , Pacientes Internados , Distanciamento Físico , Visitas a Pacientes , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Comunicação , Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Telefone , Visitas a Pacientes/psicologia
4.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(11): 1695-1704, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand and summarize the breadth of knowledge on comfort-holding in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). SOURCES: This scoping review was conducted using PRISMA methodology. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials. Search strategies were developed with a medical librarian and revised through a peer review of electronic search strategies. All databases were searched from inception to 14 April 2020. Only full-text articles available in English were included. All identified articles were reviewed independently and in duplicate using predetermined criteria. All study designs were eligible if they reported on comfort-holding in a PICU. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 13,326 studies identified, 13 were included. Comfort-holding was studied in the context of end-of-life care, developmental care, mobilization, and as a unique intervention. Comfort-holding is common during end-of-life care with 77.8% of children held, but rare during acute management (51% of children < three years, < 5% of children ≥ three years). Commonly reported outcomes included child outcomes (e.g., physiologic measurements), safety outcomes (e.g., accidental line removal), parent outcomes (e.g., psychological symptoms), and frequency of holding. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of literature on comfort-holding in PICUs. This scoping review identifies significant gaps in the literature, including assessment of child-based outcomes of comfort-holding or safety assessment of comfort-holding, and highlights core outcomes to consider in future evaluations of this intervention including child-based outcomes, parent-based outcomes, and safety of the intervention.

5.
J Crit Care ; 66: 67-74, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455165

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pre-existing psychiatric disorders may lead to negative outcomes following intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. We evaluated the association of pre-existing psychiatric disorders with subsequent healthcare utilization and mortality in patients discharged from ICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied adult patients admitted to 14 medical-surgical ICUs (January 2014-June 2016) with ICU length stay ≥24 h who survived to hospital discharge. Pre-existing psychiatric disorders were identified using algorithms for diagnostic codes captured ≤5 years before ICU admission. Outcomes were healthcare utilization (emergency department visit, hospital or ICU readmission) and mortality. We used logistic regression models with propensity scores to estimate associations, converted to risk ratios (RR). RESULTS: We included 10,598 patients. 37.6% (n = 3982) had a psychiatric history. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders were at higher risk of subsequent emergency department visits (RR 1.49, 95%CI 1.29-1.71), hospital readmission (RR 1.49, 95%CI 1.34-1.66), ICU readmission (RR 2.64, 95%CI 1.55-4.49) one-year post-ICU discharge, compared to patients without pre-existing psychiatric disorders. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders had a higher risk of mortality (RR 1.31, 95%CI 1.00-1.71) six-months post-ICU discharge. CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders have an increased risk of healthcare utilization and mortality outcomes following an ICU stay.

6.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(10): 1474-1484, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In response to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, hospitals in Canada enacted temporary visitor restrictions to limit the spread of COVID-19 and preserve personal protective equipment supplies. This study describes the extent, variation, and fluctuation of Canadian adult intensive care unit (ICU) visitation policies before and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan of Canadian hospital visitation policies throughout the first wave of the pandemic. We conducted a two-phased study analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data. RESULTS: We collected 257 documents with reference to visitation policies (preCOVID, 101 [39%]; midCOVID, 71 [28%]; and lateCOVID, 85 [33%]). Of these 257 documents, 38 (15%) were ICU-specific and 70 (27%) referenced the ICU. Most policies during the midCOVID/lateCOVID pandemic period allowed no visitors with specific exceptions (e.g., end-of-life). Framework analysis revealed five overarching themes: 1) reasons for restricted visitation policies; 2) visitation policies and expectations; 3) exceptions to visitation policy; 4) patient and family-centred care; and 5) communication and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, most Canadian hospitals had public-facing visitor restriction policies with specific exception categories, most commonly for patients at end-of-life, patients requiring assistance, or COVID-19 positive patients (varying from not allowed to case-by-case). Further studies are needed to understand the consistency with which visitation policies were operationalized and how they may have impacted patient- and family-centred care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Canadá , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Política Organizacional , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Visitas a Pacientes
7.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103484, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Patient engagement' involves meaningful collaboration between researchers and 'patient partners' to co-create research. It helps ensure that research being conducted is relevant to its ultimate end-users. Although patient engagement within clinical research has been well documented, the prevalence and effects of patient engagement in translational preclinical laboratory research remain unclear. The aim of this scoping review is to present current patient engagement activities reported in preclinical laboratory research. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and grey literature were systematically searched from inception to April 2021. Studies that described or investigated patient engagement in preclinical laboratory research were included. Patient engagement activities where patients (i.e. patients, family members, caregivers or community members) provided input, or consultation on at least one element of the research process were eligible for inclusion. Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted and organized thematically. FINDINGS: 32 reports were included (30 primary studies, 1 narrative review, and 1 researcher guide). Most studies engaged patients at the education or priority setting stages (n=26). The most frequently reported benefit of patient engagement was 'providing a mutual learning opportunity'. Reported barriers to patient engagement reflected concerns around 'differences in knowledge and research experience' and how this may challenge communication and limit meaningful collaboration. INTERPRETATION: Patient engagement is feasible and beneficial for preclinical laboratory research. Future work should focus on assessing the impacts of patient engagement in this area of research. FUNDING: None.

8.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 66, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informal caregivers of critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICUs) experience negative psychological sequelae that worsen after death. We synthesized outcomes reported from ICU bereavement interventions intended to improve informal caregivers' ability to cope with grief. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO from inception to October 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of bereavement interventions to support informal caregivers of adult patients who died in ICU. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted data in duplicate. Narrative synthesis was conducted. DATA SYNTHESIS: Bereavement interventions were categorized according to the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence three-tiered model of bereavement support according to the level of need: (1) Universal information provided to all those bereaved; (2) Selected or targeted non-specialist support provided to those who are at-risk of developing complex needs; and/or (3) Professional specialist interventions provided to those with a high level of complex needs. Outcome measures were synthesized according to core outcomes established for evaluating bereavement support for adults who have lost other adults to illness. RESULTS: Three studies of ICU bereavement interventions from 31 ICUs across 26 hospitals were included. One trial examining the effect of family presence at brain death assessment integrated all three categories of support but did not report significant improvement in emotional or psychological distress. Two other trials assessed a condolence letter intervention, which did not decrease grief symptoms and may have increased symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and a storytelling intervention that found no significant improvements in anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, or complicated grief. Four of nine core bereavement outcomes were not assessed anytime in follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Currently available trial evidence is sparse and does not support the use of bereavement interventions for informal caregivers of critically ill patients who die in the ICU.

9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 146, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether vasopressors can be safely administered through a peripheral intravenous (PIV). Systematic review and meta-analysis methodology was used to examine the incidence of local anatomic adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration in patients of any age cared for in any acute care environment. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched without restriction from inception to October 2019. References of included studies and related reviews, as well as relevant conference proceedings were also searched. Studies were included if they were: (1) cohort, quasi-experimental, or randomized controlled trial study design; (2) conducted in humans of any age or clinical setting; and (3) reported on local anatomic adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration. Risk of bias was assessed using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials or the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for prevalence studies where appropriate. Incidence estimates were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included in the systematic review, of which 16 and 7 described adults and children, respectively. Meta-analysis from 11 adult studies including 16,055 patients demonstrated a pooled incidence proportion of adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration as 1.8% (95% CI 0.1-4.8%, I2 = 93.7%). In children, meta-analysis from four studies and 388 patients demonstrated a pooled incidence proportion of adverse events as 3.3% (95% CI 0.0-10.1%, I2 = 82.4%). Subgroup analyses did not detect any statistically significant effects associated with stratification based on differences in clinical location, risk of bias or design between studies, PIV location and size, or vasopressor type or duration. Most studies had high or some concern for risk of bias. CONCLUSION: The incidence of adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration is low. Additional research is required to examine the effects of PIV location and size, vasopressor type and dose, and patient characteristics on the safety of PIV vasopressor administration.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Humanos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
10.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1414-1426, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine effect of mental health interventions on psychologic outcomes in informal caregivers of critically ill patients. DATA SOURCES: Searches conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases from inception to October 31, 2019. STUDY SELECTION: Interventions for informal caregivers of critically ill patients in adult ICU, PICU, or neonatal ICU. DATA EXTRACTION: Two independent, blinded reviewers screened citations and extracted data. Random-effects models with inverse variance weighting pooled outcome data when suitable. Psychologic outcomes categorized: 1) negative (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, distress, and burden) or 2) positive (courage, humanity, justice, transcendence, temperance, and wisdom and knowledge). Stratification according to intervention type and patient population was performed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 11,201 studies, 102 interventional trials were included (n = 12,676 informal caregivers). Interventions targeted caregiver experience (n = 58), role (n = 6), or support (n = 38). Meta-analysis (56 randomized controlled trials; n = 22 [39%] in adult ICUs; n = 34 [61%] in neonatal ICU or PICU) demonstrated reduced anxiety (ratio of means = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.97) and depression (ratio of means = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99), but not post-traumatic stress disorder (ratio of means = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.04) or distress (ratio of means = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.07) among informal caregivers randomized to mental health interventions compared with controls within 3 months post-ICU discharge. Increased humanity (ratio of means = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.15), transcendence (ratio of means = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.15), and caregiver burden (ratio of means = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12) were observed. No significant effects of mental health interventions observed after 3 months postdischarge. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health interventions for caregivers of critically ill patients improved short-term anxiety, depression, humanity, and transcendence while increasing burden. Clinicians should consider short-term prescriptions of mental health interventions to informal caregivers of critically ill patients with capacity to manage interventions.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Assistência ao Paciente/psicologia , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(4): 412-420, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823122

RESUMO

Rationale: Delirium is common in the ICU and portends worse ICU and hospital outcomes. The effect of delirium in the ICU on post-hospital discharge mortality and health resource use is less well known. Objectives: To estimate mortality and health resource use 2.5 years after hospital discharge in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU. Methods: This was a population-based, propensity score-matched, retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to 1 of 14 medical-surgical ICUs from January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Delirium was measured by using the 8-point Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. The primary outcome was mortality. The secondary outcome was a composite measure of subsequent emergency department visits, hospital readmission, or mortality. Measurements and Main Results: There were 5,936 propensity score-matched patients with and without a history of incident delirium who survived to hospital discharge. Delirium was associated with increased mortality 0-30 days after hospital discharge (hazard ratio, 1.44 [95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.92]). There was no significant difference in mortality more than 30 days after hospital discharge (delirium: 3.9%, no delirium: 2.6%). There was a persistent increased risk of emergency department visits, hospital readmissions, or mortality after hospital discharge (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.17]) throughout the study period. Conclusions: ICU delirium is associated with increased mortality 0-30 days after hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Delírio/mortalidade , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 187, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Witnessing delirium can be distressing for family caregivers (i.e., relatives or friends) of critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate associations between caregiver-detected delirium in critically ill patients and depression and anxiety symptoms in their family caregivers. METHODS: Consecutive adult patient-caregiver dyads were enrolled from a 28-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit. Patient delirium was screened for daily by family caregivers using the Sour Seven instrument. Family caregivers completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) instruments daily to assess their own depression and anxiety symptoms. Response feature analysis was used to handle repeated measures. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were completed. RESULTS: One hundred forty-seven patient-caregiver dyads were enrolled. Clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety occurred in 27% and 35% of family caregivers, respectively. Caregiver-detected delirium occurred in 65% of patients, and was not associated with clinically significant caregiver depression (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] 0.6-3.1) or anxiety (OR 1.2, 95%CI 0.6-2.6) symptoms. When stratified by Sour Seven scores, scores 1-3 and 4-9 were associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.3-7.0) and depression (OR 2.6, 95%CI 1.1-6.1) in family caregivers. Caregiver-detected delirium score was associated with severity of family caregiver anxiety symptoms (coefficient 0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.4), but not depression symptoms (coefficient 0.2, 95%CI -0.0-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Caregiver-detected patient delirium was associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms in family caregivers of critically ill patients. Further randomized research is required to confirm these associations.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Delírio , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estado Terminal , Estudos Transversais , Delírio/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 374, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to global shortages in the resources required to care for critically ill patients and to protect frontline healthcare providers. This study investigated physicians' perceptions and experiences of caring for critically ill patients in the context of actual or anticipated resource strain during the COVID-19 pandemic, and explored implications for the healthcare workforce and the delivery of patient care. METHODS: We recruited a diverse sample of critical care physicians from 13 Canadian Universities with adult critical care training programs. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews between March 25-June 25, 2020 and used qualitative thematic analysis to derive primary themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Fifteen participants (eight female, seven male; median age = 40) from 14 different intensive care units described three overarching themes related to physicians' perceptions and experiences of caring for critically ill patients during the pandemic: 1) Conditions contributing to resource strain (e.g., continuously evolving pandemic conditions); 2) Implications of resource strain on critical care physicians personally (e.g., safety concerns) and professionally (e.g. practice change); and 3) Enablers of resource sufficiency (e.g., adequate human resources). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has required health systems and healthcare providers to continuously adapt to rapidly evolving circumstances. Participants' uncertainty about whether their unit's planning and resources would be sufficient to ensure the delivery of high quality patient care throughout the pandemic, coupled with fear and anxiety over personal and familial transmission, indicate the need for a unified systemic pandemic response plan for future infectious disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Médicos , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
14.
CMAJ Open ; 9(1): E181-E188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical data on patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provide clinicians and public health officials with information to guide practice and policy. The aims of this study were to describe patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital and intensive care, and to investigate predictors of outcome to characterize severe acute respiratory infection. METHODS: This observational cohort study used Canadian data from 32 selected hospitals included in a global multisite cohort between Jan. 24 and July 7, 2020. Adult and pediatric patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who received care in an intensive care unit (ICU) and a sampling of up to the first 60 patients receiving care on hospital wards were included. We performed descriptive analyses of characteristics, interventions and outcomes. The primary analyses examined in-hospital mortality, with secondary analyses of the length of hospital and ICU stay. RESULTS: Between January and July 2020, among 811 patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19, the median age was 64 (interquartile range [IQR] 53-75) years, 495 (61.0%) were men, 46 (5.7%) were health care workers, 9 (1.1%) were pregnant, 26 (3.2%) were younger than 18 years and 9 (1.1%) were younger than 5 years. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 7 (IQR 3-10) days. The most common symptoms on admission were fever, shortness of breath, cough and malaise. Diabetes, hypertension and cardiac, kidney and respiratory disease were the most common comorbidities. Among all patients, 328 received care in an ICU, admitted a median of 0 (IQR 0-1) days after hospital admission. Critically ill patients received treatment with invasive mechanical ventilation (88.8%), renal replacement therapy (14.9%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (4.0%); 26.2% died. Among those receiving mechanical ventilation, 31.2% died. Age was an influential predictor of mortality (odds ratio per additional year of life 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.09). INTERPRETATION: Patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 commonly had fever, respiratory symptoms and comorbid conditions. Increasing age was associated with the development of critical illness and death; however, most critically ill patients in Canada, including those requiring mechanical ventilation, survived and were discharged from hospital.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estado Terminal , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurocrit Care ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To qualitatively and quantitatively summarize curricula, teaching methods, and effectiveness of educational programs for training bedside care providers (non-experts) in the performance and screening of adult electroencephalography (EEG) for nonconvulsive seizures and other patterns. METHODS: PRISMA methodological standards were followed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, WOS, Scopus, and MedEdPORTAL databases were searched from inception until February 26, 2020 with no restrictions. Abstract and full-text review was completed in duplicate. Studies were included if they were original research; involved non-experts performing, troubleshooting, or screening adult EEG; and provided qualitative descriptions of curricula and teaching methods and/or quantitative assessment of non-experts (vs gold standard EEG performance by neurodiagnostic technologists or interpretation by neurophysiologists). Data were extracted in duplicate. A content analysis and a meta-narrative review were performed. RESULTS: Of 2430 abstracts, 35 studies were included. Sensitivity and specificity of seizure identification varied from 38 to 100% and 65 to 100% for raw EEG; 40 to 93% and 38 to 95% for quantitative EEG, and 95 to 100% and 65 to 85% for sonified EEG, respectively. Non-expert performance of EEG resulted in statistically significant reduced delay (86 min, p < 0.0001; 196 min, p < 0.0001; 667 min, p < 0.005) in EEG completion and changes in management in approximately 40% of patients. Non-experts who were trained included physicians, nurses, neurodiagnostic technicians, and medical students. Numerous teaching methods were utilized and often combined, with instructional and hands-on training being most common. CONCLUSIONS: Several different bedside providers can be educated to perform and screen adult EEG, particularly for the purpose of diagnosing nonconvulsive seizures. While further rigorous research is warranted, this review demonstrates several potential bridges by which EEG may be integrated into the care of critically ill patients.

16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 91, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians experienced unprecedented levels of burnout. The uncertainty of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic along with increased workload and difficult medical triage decisions may lead to a further decline in physician psychological health. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for primary research from database inception (Medline [1946], EMBASE [1974], PsycINFO [1806]) to November 17, 2020. Titles and abstracts were screened by one of three reviewers and full-text article screening and data abstraction were conducted independently, and in duplicate, by three reviewers. RESULTS: From 6223 unique citations, 480 articles were reviewed in full-text, with 193 studies (of 90,499 physicians) included in the final review. Studies reported on physician psychological symptoms and management during seven infectious disease outbreaks (severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], three strains of Influenza A virus [H1N1, H5N1, H7N9], Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome [MERS], and COVID-19) in 57 countries. Psychological symptoms of anxiety (14.3-92.3%), stress (11.9-93.7%), depression (17-80.5%), post-traumatic stress disorder (13.2-75.2%) and burnout (14.7-76%) were commonly reported among physicians, regardless of infectious disease outbreak or country. Younger, female (vs. male), single (vs. married), early career physicians, and those providing direct care to infected patients were associated with worse psychological symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Physicians should be aware that psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, fear and distress are common, manifest differently and self-management strategies to improve psychological well-being exist. Health systems should implement short and long-term psychological supports for physicians caring for patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Médicos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico
17.
J Surg Res ; 258: 443-452, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129504

RESUMO

Prehabilitation is a new field of research that aims to optimize modifiable surgical risk factors before surgery to improve patient-oriented outcomes preoperatively and postoperatively. As with any new intervention, the pressing questions that arise include what interventions work, for whom they work, and when do they work best? Given that prehabilitation can be resource intensive, and that preoperative patient characteristics are likely to produce variation in response to treatment, establishing answers to these questions is critical for successful implementation of prehabilitation in clinical practice. The objective of this review article is to describe the illuminating potential of including "third-variable effects" into the integration of research design; by planning for and including measurements of mediators, moderators, and confounders in the design and analysis of prehabilitation research, we can begin to answer practical, clinically relevant questions.


Assuntos
Exercício Pré-Operatório , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/reabilitação
18.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(3): 358-366, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210217

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While studies report on perceptions of family participation in delirium prevention, little is known about the use of family-administered delirium detection tools in the care of critically ill patients. This study sought the perspectives of patients, their family members, and healthcare providers on the use of family-administered delirium detection tools to detect delirium in critically ill patients and barriers and facilitators to using family-administered delirium detection tools in patient care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, critical care providers (five physicians, six registered nurses) and participants from the Family ICU Delirium Detection Study (seven past patients and family members) took part in four focus groups at one hospital in Calgary, Alberta. RESULTS: Key themes identified following thematic analysis from 18 participants included: 1) perceptions of acceptability of family-administered delirium detection (e.g., family feels valued, intensive care unit (ICU) care team may not use a family member's results, intensification of work load), 2) considerations regarding feasibility (e.g., insufficient knowledge, healthcare team buy-in), and 3) overarching strategies to support implementation into routine patient care (e.g., value of family-administered delirium detection for patients and families is well understood in the clinical context, regular communication between the family and ICU providers, an electronic version of the tool). CONCLUSIONS: Patients, family members and healthcare providers who participated in the focus groups perceived family participation in delirium detection and the use of family-administered delirium detection tools at the bedside as feasible and of value to patient care and family member coping. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03379129); registered 15 December 2017.


Assuntos
Delírio , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Alberta , Delírio/diagnóstico , Família , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
19.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(3): 541-548, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply natural language processing (NLP) techniques to identify individual events and modes of communication between healthcare professionals and families of critically ill patients from electronic medical records (EMR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 280 randomly selected adult patients admitted to 1 of 15 intensive care units (ICU) in Alberta, Canada from June 19, 2012 to June 11, 2018. Individual events and modes of communication were independently abstracted using NLP and manual chart review (reference standard). Preprocessing techniques and 2 NLP approaches (rule-based and machine learning) were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). RESULTS: Over 2700 combinations of NLP methods and hyperparameters were evaluated for each mode of communication using a holdout subset. The rule-based approach had the highest AUROC in 65 datasets compared to the machine learning approach in 21 datasets. Both approaches had similar performance in 17 datasets. The rule-based AUROC for the grouped categories of patient documented to have family or friends (0.972, 95% CI 0.934-1.000), visit by family/friend (0.882 95% CI 0.820-0.943) and phone call with family/friend (0.975, 95% CI: 0.952-0.998) were high. DISCUSSION: We report an automated method to quantify communication between healthcare professionals and family members of adult patients from free-text EMRs. A rule-based NLP approach had better overall operating characteristics than a machine learning approach. CONCLUSION: NLP can automatically and accurately measure frequency and mode of documented family visitation and communication from unstructured free-text EMRs, to support patient- and family-centered care initiatives.

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