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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3580, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395889

RESUMO

Ocean acidification is expected to negatively impact calcifying organisms, yet we lack understanding of their acclimation potential in the natural environment. Here we measured geochemical proxies (δ11B and B/Ca) in Porites astreoides corals that have been growing for their entire life under low aragonite saturation (Ωsw: 0.77-1.85). This allowed us to assess the ability of these corals to manipulate the chemical conditions at the site of calcification (Ωcf), and hence their potential to acclimate to changing Ωsw. We show that lifelong exposure to low Ωsw did not enable the corals to acclimate and reach similar Ωcf as corals grown under ambient conditions. The lower Ωcf at the site of calcification can explain a large proportion of the decreasing P. astreoides calcification rates at low Ωsw. The naturally elevated seawater dissolved inorganic carbon concentration at this study site shed light on how different carbonate chemistry parameters affect calcification conditions in corals.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Antozoários/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fontes Hidrotermais/química , Animais , Antozoários/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isótopos , México , Água do Mar/química
2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 285, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348403

RESUMO

Mid- to late-Holocene sea-level records from low-latitude regions serve as an important baseline of natural variability in sea level and global ice volume prior to the Anthropocene. Here, we reconstruct a high-resolution sea-level curve encompassing the last 6000 years based on a comprehensive study of coral microatolls, which are sensitive low-tide recorders. Our curve is based on microatolls from several islands in a single region and comprises a total of 82 sea-level index points. Assuming thermosteric contributions are negligible on millennial time scales, our results constrain global ice melting to be 1.5-2.5 m (sea-level equivalent) since ~5500 years before present. The reconstructed curve includes isolated rapid events of several decimetres within a few centuries, one of which is most likely related to loss from the Antarctic ice sheet mass around 5000 years before present. In contrast, the occurrence of large and flat microatolls indicates periods of significant sea-level stability lasting up to ~300 years.

3.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30688, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477963

RESUMO

The resilience of tropical corals to ocean acidification depends on their ability to regulate the pH within their calcifying fluid (pHcf). Recent work suggests pHcf homeostasis under short-term exposure to pCO2 conditions predicted for 2100, but it is still unclear if pHcf homeostasis can be maintained throughout a corals lifetime. At CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea, massive Porites corals have grown along a natural seawater pH gradient for decades. This natural gradient, ranging from pH 8.1-7.4, provides an ideal platform to determine corals' pHcf (using boron isotopes). Porites maintained a similar pHcf (~8.24) at both a control (pH 8.1) and seep-influenced site (pH 7.9). Internal pHcf was slightly reduced (8.12) at seawater pH 7.6, and decreased to 7.94 at a site with a seawater pH of 7.4. A growth response model based on pHcf mirrors the observed distribution patterns of this species in the field. We suggest Porites has the capacity to acclimate after long-time exposure to end-of-century reduced seawater pH conditions and that strong control over pHcf represents a key mechanism to persist in future oceans. Only beyond end-of-century pCO2 conditions do they face their current physiological limit of pH homeostasis and pHcf begins to decrease.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Antozoários/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Homeostase , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Biológicos , Papua Nova Guiné
4.
Sci Rep ; 6: 20572, 2016 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26853562

RESUMO

Coralline algae are a significant component of the benthic ecosystem. Their ability to withstand physical stresses in high energy environments relies on their skeletal structure which is composed of high Mg-calcite. High Mg-calcite is, however, the most soluble form of calcium carbonate and therefore potentially vulnerable to the change in carbonate chemistry resulting from the absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. We examine the geochemistry of the cold water coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale grown under predicted future (year 2050) high pCO2 (589 µatm) using Electron microprobe and NanoSIMS analysis. In the natural and control material, higher Mg calcite forms clear concentric bands around the algal cells. As expected, summer growth has a higher Mg content compared to the winter growth. In contrast, under elevated CO2 no banding of Mg is recognisable and overall Mg concentrations are lower. This reduction in Mg in the carbonate undermines the accuracy of the Mg/Ca ratio as proxy for past temperatures in time intervals with significantly different carbonate chemistry. Fundamentally, the loss of Mg in the calcite may reduce elasticity thereby changing the structural properties, which may affect the ability of L. glaciale to efficiently function as a habitat former in the future ocean.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Rodófitas/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Ecossistema , Magnésio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanotecnologia , Rodófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
5.
J Fish Biol ; 82(6): 1871-87, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23731142

RESUMO

Individual migration behaviour during the juvenile and adult life phase of the anadromous twaite shad Alosa fallax in the Elbe estuary was examined using otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca profiles. Between hatching and the end of the first year of life, juveniles showed two migration patterns. Pattern one exhibited a single downstream migration from fresh water to the sea with no return into fresh water. In contrast, pattern two showed a first migration into the sea, then a return into fresh water and, finally, a second downstream migration into marine water. This first report of migration plasticity for A. fallax points to different exposure times to estuarine threats depending on the migration strategy. In adults, high Sr:Ca and low Ba:Ca in the majority of individuals confirmed prior reports of a primarily marine habitat use. Patterns reflecting spawning migrations were rarely observed on otoliths, possibly due to the short duration of visits to fresh water.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Bário/análise , Cálcio/análise , Peixes/fisiologia , Membrana dos Otólitos/química , Estrôncio/análise , Animais , Bário/química , Comportamento Animal , Cálcio/química , Estuários , Água Doce , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Água do Mar , Estrôncio/química , Fatores de Tempo
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