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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS:  Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502714

RESUMO

Experimental, observational, and clinical trials support a critical role of folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this report, we focus on understanding the relationship between common genetic variants and metabolites of FOCM. We conducted a genome-wide association study of FOCM biomarkers among 1,788 unaffected (without CRC) individuals of European ancestry from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Twelve metabolites, including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, vitamin B2 (flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin), vitamin B6 (4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine), total homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, cystathionine, and creatinine were measured from plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS. For each individual biomarker, we estimated genotype array-specific associations followed by a fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified the variant rs35976024 (at 2p11.2 and intronic of ATOH8) associated with total homocysteine (p = 4.9 × 10-8 ). We found a group of six highly correlated variants on chromosome 15q14 associated with cystathionine (all p < 5 × 10-8 ), with the most significant variant rs28391580 (p = 2.8 × 10-8 ). Two variants (rs139435405 and rs149119426) on chromosome 14q13 showed significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) associations with S-adenosylhomocysteine. These three biomarkers with significant associations are closely involved in homocysteine metabolism. Furthermore, when assessing the principal components (PCs) derived from seven individual biomarkers, we identified the variant rs12665366 (at 6p25.3 and intronic of EXOC2) associated with the first PC (p = 2.3 × 10-8 ). Our data suggest that common genetic variants may play an important role in FOCM, particularly in homocysteine metabolism.

3.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(7): e00059, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite overall reductions in colorectal cancer burden, incidence rates continue to rise among younger patients, and causes remain unknown. We examined differences in clinicopathologic and racial/ethnic characteristics within the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the United States. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data, we identified individuals diagnosed with first primary colorectal cancer between ages 15 and 39 years from 2010 to 2015. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify clinicopathologic and racial/ethnic differences across age at onset subgroups (15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 years). RESULTS: We identified 5,350 AYA patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Of note, 28.6% of AYA cases were diagnosed with right-sided tumors (cecum to transverse colon). The proportion of right-sided colorectal cancers differed significantly by age group at diagnosis (38.3% vs 27.3% of AYAs aged 15-19 vs 35-39 years, respectively; P trend = 0.01). Proportions of cases with mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma histopathologic subtypes significantly increased with younger age at onset (P trends = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Differences in clinical stage were observed across AYA age groups, with stage II disease increasing with younger age (P trend = 0.01). The proportion of Hispanic AYAs was higher within younger patients, accounting for 21.0% of the AYA population aged 35-39 years up to 28.3% of 15-19-year-old individuals (P trend = 0.003). DISCUSSION: Within the AYA population, colorectal cancers differ by clinicopathologic and racial/ethnic characteristics. Further investigation of the clinical and biologic diversity of colorectal cancers that partially underlie age- and race-related differences in cancer susceptibility and outcomes is warranted.

4.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized a pro-inflammatory diet would be associated with higher prostate cancer (PC) risk. METHODS: We prospectively recruited incident PC cases (n = 254) and controls (n = 328) at the Durham Veteran Affairs, from 2007 to 2018. From a self-completed 61-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, we calculated dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores with and without supplements. We examined the association between DII scores with and without supplements and overall PC risk using logistic regression and risk of low-grade PC (grade group 1) and high-grade PC (grade group 2-5) with multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Cases were more likely to be Black (58 vs. 42%), had higher PSA (6.4 vs. 0.8 ng/ml), lower BMI (29.1 vs. 30.6 kg/m2) and were older (64 vs. 62 years) versus controls (all p < 0.01). Both black controls and cases had higher DII scores with and without supplements, though the DII scores with supplements in controls was not significant. On multivariable analysis, there were no associations between DII with or without supplements and overall PC risk (p-trend = 0.14, p-trend = 0.09, respectively) or low-grade PC (p-trend = 0.72, p-trend = 0.47, respectively). Higher DII scores with (p-trend = 0.04) and without supplements (p = 0.08) were associated with high-grade PC, though the association for DII without supplements was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: A pro-inflammatory diet was more common among Black men and associated with high-grade PC in our case-control study. The degree to which a pro-inflammatory diet contributes to PC race disparities warrants further study. If confirmed, studies should test whether a low-inflammatory diet can prevent high-grade PC, particularly among Black men.

6.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(5): 295-304, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833381

RESUMO

Vitamin D and calcium supplementation are postulated to have chemopreventive effects against colorectal neoplasia, yet in our previously reported randomized trial, there was no overall efficacy of calcium and/or vitamin D3 against colorectal adenoma recurrence. It is possible vitamin D3 and calcium chemopreventive effects are not detectable until beyond the 3- to 5-year follow-up captured in that trial. Accordingly, we explored possible vitamin D and calcium effects on posttreatment (observational) adenoma occurrence. In this secondary analysis of the observational follow-up phase of the Vitamin D/Calcium Polyp Prevention Study, participants who completed the treatment phase were invited to be followed for one additional surveillance colonoscopy cycle. We evaluated adenoma occurrence risk at surveillance colonoscopy, with a mean of 55 ± 15 months after treatment follow-up, according to randomized treatment with vitamin D versus no vitamin D, calcium versus no calcium, and calcium plus vitamin D versus calcium alone. Secondary outcomes included advanced and multiple adenomas. Among the 1,121 participants with observational follow-up, the relative risk (95% confidence interval, CI) of any adenoma was 1.04 (0.93-1.17) for vitamin D versus no vitamin D; 0.95 (0.84-1.08) for calcium versus no calcium; 1.07 (0.91-1.25) for calcium plus vitamin D versus calcium; and 0.96 (0.81-1.15) for calcium plus vitamin D versus neither. Risks of advanced or multiple adenomas also did not differ by treatment. Our results do not support an association between supplemental calcium and/or vitamin D3 for 3 to 5 years and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma at an average of 4.6 years after treatment.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death. Biomarkers to predict treatment outcomes are needed, as is evidence whether post-diagnosis diet and lifestyle can affect well-being and clinical outcomes. The international ColoCare Consortium aims to identify new biologic markers (e.g., metabolomic, transcriptomic, metagenomic, genetic, epigenetic, proteomic) that predict clinical outcomes, and to characterize associations between modifiable risk factors (e.g., diet, supplement use, physical activity) with short-term and long-term patient-reported and clinical outcomes among CRC patients. METHODS/RESULTS: ColoCare is recruiting newly diagnosed CRC patients across six sites in the U.S. and one in Germany. As of April 2018 we have recruited >2,000 patients across all sites. Our projected enrollment is >4,000 multiethnic CRC patients. The study includes uniformly collected, comprehensive sets of data and biospecimens at multiple time points up to 5 years after diagnosis. Treatment and clinical data are abstracted from medical records and centrally harmonized. Biospecimens are archived according to standardized procedures. Our initial studies demonstrated metabolic differences in adipose tissue types. We further reported on associations of biological factors (e.g., inflammation, DNA methylation, metabolomics) with lifestyle factors (e.g., adiposity, smoking, physical activity, dietary supplement use) or joint associations with clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: ColoCare is a consortium for the investigation of multi-level factors relevant to CRC survivorship. IMPACT: The combination of a comprehensive set of biospecimens collected at multiple time points, jointly with detailed assessments of health behaviors and other prognostic factors, results in a unique resource that facilitates wide-ranging, innovative, and impactful research on CRC.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum adiponectin are strongly correlated with obesity, a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin levels may play an etiological role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated 20 candidate variants in 4 genes previously shown to alter serum leptin and adiponectin levels for associations with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and CRC risk. METHODS: We analyzed 6,246 CRC cases and 7,714 population-based controls from 11 studies within the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations of each variant with obesity or CRC were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for age, a study variable, and the first three principal components of genetic ancestry. Gene-specific False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p-values <0.05 denoted statistical significance. RESULTS: Two variants in the leptin gene showed statistically significant associations with CRC among women: LEP rs2167270 (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and LEP rs4731426 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17). These associations remained significant after adjustment for obesity, suggesting that leptin SNPs may influence CRC risk independent of obesity. We observed statistically significant interactions of the leptin variants with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for CRC risk; these variant associations were strengthened when analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women with low estrogen exposure, as estimated by 'never use' of HRT and/or non-obese BMI. No variants were associated with CRC among men. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin gene variants may exhibit sex-specific associations with CRC risk. Endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure may modify the association between these variants, leptin levels, and CRC risk.

9.
J Epidemiol ; 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited factors and maternal behaviors are thought to play an important role in the etiology of several congenital malformations. Twin studies can offer additional evidence regarding the contribution of genetic and lifestyle factors to common birth anomalies, but few large-scale studies have been reported. METHODS: We included data from twins (20,803 pairs) from the population-based California Twin Program. We compared concordance in monozygotic (MZ) to dizygotic (DZ) twins for the following birth anomalies: clubfoot, oral cleft, spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, deafness, cerebral palsy, strabismus, and congenital heart defects. Each birth anomaly was also examined for the associations with birth characteristics (birthweight and birth order) and parental exposures (age, smoking, and parental education). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of any selected birth anomaly in California twins was 38 per 1,000 persons, with a slightly decreasing trend from 1957-1982. For pairwise concordance in 6,752 MZ and 7,326 like-sex DZ twin pairs, high MZ:DZ concordance ratios were observed for clubfoot (CR 5.91; P = 0.043) and strabismus (CR 2.52; P = 0.001). Among the total 20,803 pairs, parental smoking was significantly associated with risk of spina bifida (OR 3.48; 95% CI, 1.48-8.18) and strabismus (OR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.28-2.03). A significant quadratic trend of increasing risk for clubfoot, spina bifida, and strabismus was found when examining whether father smoked, mother smoked, or both parents smoked relative to non-smoking parents (P = 0.029, 0.026, and 0.0005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for a multifactorial etiology underlying selected birth anomalies. Further research is needed to understand the biological mechanisms.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

11.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(10): 739-741, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150160

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Existing studies on laxatives, used by roughly 40% of the U.S. population experiencing constipation and colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded inconsistent results, which may be due to a failure to account for differential risks by major laxative types: bulk (fiber-based), and nonbulk (or nonfiber-based). METHODS: We examined the association of nonfiber-based laxative use and fiber-based laxative use with the risk of CRC in a subset of the multisite, International Colon Cancer Family Registry cohort comprising 4930 primary invasive CRC cases and 4025 controls selected from the general population. Epidemiologic risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants at recruitment, and exposures were ascertained approximately 1 year before diagnosis for cases and at a comparable period for controls. We ascertained known and suspected CRC risk factors, including regular laxative use, which was defined as laxative intake at least twice a week for more than a month. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: Individuals who reported using nonfiber-based laxatives regularly were at a significantly increased risk for CRC compared with those who reported no laxative use (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19). No statistically significant associations were observed between fiber-based laxative use and CRC (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.80-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with nonusers, the risk of CRC increased with nonfiber-based laxative use, whereas CRC risk was not significantly associated with fiber-based laxative use.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 143(9): 2250-2260, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904935

RESUMO

Greater physical activity is associated with a decrease in risk of colorectal cancer for the general population; however, little is known about its relationship with colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome, carriers of inherited pathogenic mutations in genes affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR). We studied a cohort of 2,042 MMR gene mutations carriers (n = 807, diagnosed with colorectal cancer), from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported physical activity in three age-periods (20-29, 30-49 and ≥50 years) was summarized as average metabolic equivalent of task hours per week (MET-hr/week) during the age-period of cancer diagnosis or censoring (near-term exposure) and across all age-periods preceding cancer diagnosis or censoring (long-term exposure). Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between physical activity and colorectal cancer risk. Near-term physical activity was associated with a small reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (HR ≥35 vs. <3.5 MET-hr/week, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96). The strength and direction of associations were similar for long-term physical activity, although the associations were not nominally significant. Our results suggest that physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer for people with Lynch syndrome; however, further confirmation is warranted. The potential modifying effect of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome could be useful for risk prediction and support counseling advice for lifestyle modification to reduce cancer risk.

13.
Cancer ; 124(12): 2637-2644, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cancer survivors experience fatigue as a nagging symptom lasting years after treatment. To learn of the relevant biological pathways involved in fatigue among cancer survivors, the authors tested for an association between fatigue levels and leukocyte gene expression profiles and determined the specific mediating immune cell types. METHODS: A sample of 89 Hispanic/Latino adults aged 60.5 years, 62% of whom were male, who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and were 2.9 years since diagnosis provided blood for transcriptome profiling and completed a validated measure of fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form). The authors applied genome-wide transcriptional profiling of leukocyte RNA to identify gene expression activity associated with fatigue, tested for the activity of specific transcription factors involved in previously established markers of inflammation and immunologic activation, and identified the specific cell types mediating these transcriptional alterations. RESULTS: In analyses adjusting for demographic and behavioral health risk factors, results linked fatigue with increased activation of B lymphocytes and CD8-positive T cells, as well as several transcription factors involved in immune activation (nuclear factor κB [NF-κB], signal transducer and activator of transcription [STAT], and cAMP responsive element-binding protein [CREB]). Results also replicated several specific genomic effects previously observed in fatigued cancer survivors, including upregulated expression of α-synuclein (SNCA) and hemoglobin subunits (HBA and HBB). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors' heightened fatigue levels may be partially explained by activation of specific immune cell subsets, thereby providing a potential molecular biomarker for clinical interventions targeting the remediation of fatigue. Cancer 2018;124:2637-44. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

14.
Gut ; 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serrated lesions such as sessile serrated adenomas or polyps (SSA/Ps) are important colorectal cancer precursors, but aetiological factors for these lesions are largely unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of serrated polyps (SPs) in general and hyperplastic polyps and SSA/Ps specifically. DESIGN: Participants with one or more adenoma at baseline were randomised to receive 1200 mg/day of elemental calcium, 1000 IU/day of vitamin D3, both or neither agent. Treatment continued for 3 or 5 years, when risk of polyps was determined from surveillance colonoscopy (treatment phase). Outcomes after treatment ceased were also assessed (observational phase). Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of SPs were determined via multivariable generalised linear models. RESULTS: SPs were diagnosed in 565 of 2058 (27.5%) participants during the treatment phase and 329/1108 (29.7%) during the observational phase. In total, 211 SSA/Ps were identified during follow-up. In the treatment phase, there was no effect of either calcium or vitamin D on incidence of SSA/Ps. However, during the later observational phase, we observed elevated risks of SSA/Ps associated with calcium alone and calcium+vitamin D treatment (aRR (95% CI): 2.65 (1.43 to 4.91) and 3.81 (1.25 to 11.64), respectively). CONCLUSION: In a large multicentre chemoprevention study, we found evidence that calcium and vitamin D supplementation increased the risk of SSA/Ps. This appeared to be a late effect: 6-10 years after supplementation began. These possible risks must be weighed against the benefits of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00153816; Results.

16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 52(7): 628-634, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that adenoma size and number are more important predictors of metachronous colorectal neoplasia than advanced histology. Furthermore, there is poor reproducibility in diagnosing advanced histology; high-grade dysplasia and villous histology. Therefore we developed a new metric, adenoma bulk, the sum of diameters of all baseline adenomas, regardless of advanced features. GOAL: Compare the predictive value for metachronous advanced neoplasia of adenoma bulk to conventional paradigm. STUDY: Data were collected prospectively in a multicenter adenoma-chemoprevention trial (2004 to 2013). For the conventional paradigm, high-risk baseline findings were defined as ≥3 adenomas, large adenomas (≥1 cm) or adenomas with villous components or high-grade dysplasia. Adenoma bulk was examined across quartiles and as a continuous variable. Predictive characteristics (sensitivities, specificities, c-statistics) for metachronous advanced neoplasia using conventional criteria and adenoma bulk were calculated. receiver operator characteristic curves were computed using logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 1948 adults had index and follow-up colonoscopies (mean follow-up, 45.2 mo). Those with an adenoma bulk ≥10 mm (4th quartile) had a higher metachronous advanced neoplasia risk (14.4% vs. 6.9-8.2% in lower 3 quartiles; P=0.0002). The c-statistics and sensitivities (specificity fixed at 0.73) for the adenoma bulk and conventional models were 0.587 and 0.563 (P=0.17) and 0.396 and 0.390, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Categorizing sporadic adenoma patients as high versus low risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia by adenoma bulk of

17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 141(1): 137-146, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unilateral cleft lip has a spectrum of disease morphology, but severity classifications are difficult given the absence of accessible, objective assessment tools or reference data. The authors characterize the spectrum of cleft morphology before and after surgical repair for a large, multi-ethnic population using easily identifiable facial landmarks collected through a novel smart phone-based application. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and standardized photographs were prospectively collected in Morocco, Bolivia, Vietnam, and Madagascar during medical missions in 2015 using an application designed specifically for the study. After data collection, two experienced cleft surgeons and two laypersons subjectively ranked photographs based on the degree of deformity/aesthetics. RESULTS: One hundred forty-seven patients were analyzed. Mean preoperative cleft width ratio was 0.4 ± 0.12. Nasolabial symmetry improved significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively for the following measurements: columellar angle (65 ± 17 degrees to 87 ± 8 degrees), nostril width ratio (1.7 ± 0.68 to 1.0 ± 0.22), philtral height ratio (0.8 ± 0.14 to 1.0 ± 0.14), and lip length ratio (0.9 ± 0.26 to 1.0 ± 0.11) (p < 0.001). Surgeon and layperson rankings showed high inter-rater reliability (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). Preoperatively, multivariate regression showed that cleft width ratio, nostril width ratio, and philtral height ratio were predictive of rank (p < 0.01). Postoperatively, philtral height ratio was most predictive of rank (p = 0.0097). Most cleft characteristics were not significantly different between countries. CONCLUSIONS: The authors present simpler, more straightforward measures to quantify preoperative and postoperative morphology/aesthetics and introduce a novel technology to streamline and standardize measurements to make data collection more accessible.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fenótipo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Smartphone , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 17(1): 153, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder disease (GBD) is a highly prevalent condition; however, little is known about potential differences in risk factors by sex and ethnicity/race. Our aim was to evaluate dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors and GBD in multiethnic populations. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis from the Multiethnic Cohort study who self-identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 32,103), African American (n = 30,209), Japanese (n = 35,987), Native Hawaiian (n = 6942) and Latino (n = 39,168). GBD cases were identified using Medicare and California hospital discharge files (1993-2012) and self-completed questionnaires. We used exposure information on the baseline questionnaire to identify exposures of interest. Associations were estimated by hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox models adjusted for confounders. RESULT: After a median 10.7 years of follow-up, there were 13,437 GBD cases. BMI over 25 kg/m2, diabetes, past and current smoking, red meat consumption, saturated fat and cholesterol were significant risk factors across ethnic/racial populations (p-trends < 0.01). Protective factors included vigorous physical activity, alcohol use, fruits, vegetables and foods rich in dietary fiber (p-trends < 0.01). Carbohydrates were inversely associated with GBD risk only among women and Latinos born in South America/Mexico (p-trend < 0.003). Parity was a significant risk factor among women; post-menopausal hormones use was only associated with an increased risk among White women (estrogen-only: HR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.07-1.43 and estrogen + progesterone: HR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.06-1.42). CONCLUSION: Overall, dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors are strong risk factors for GBD affecting men and women of different ethnicities/races; however some risk factors appear stronger in women and certain ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/etnologia , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , California/epidemiologia , Colecistectomia , Complicações do Diabetes , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/complicações , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos
19.
Cancer ; 123(23): 4701-4708, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and survival, but to the authors' knowledge, the impact of long-term postdiagnostic weight change is unclear. Herein, the authors investigated whether weight change over the 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC is associated with survival. METHODS: CRC cases diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified through 4 population-based cancer registry sites. Participants enrolled within 2 years of diagnosis and reported their height and weight 2 years prior. Follow-up questionnaires were administered approximately 5 years after diagnosis. Associations between change in weight (in kg) or body mass index (BMI) with overall and CRC-specific survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage of disease, baseline BMI, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, time between diagnosis and enrollment, and study site. RESULTS: At the 5-year postdiagnostic survey, 2049 participants reported higher (53%; median plus 5 kg), unchanged (12%), or lower (35%; median -4 kg) weight. Over a median of 5.1 years of subsequent follow-up (range, 0.3-9.9 years), 344 participants died (91 of CRC). Long-term weight loss (per 5 kg) was found to be associated with poorer overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.21) and CRC-specific survival (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.39). Significantly lower survival was similarly observed for relative weight loss (>5% vs ≤5% change), BMI reduction (per 1 unit), or BMI category change (overweight to normal vs remaining overweight). CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC was found to be significantly associated with decreased long-term survival, suggesting the importance of avoiding weight loss in survivors of CRC. Future research should attempt to further evaluate this association, accounting for whether this weight change was intentional or represents a marker of declining health. Cancer 2017;123:4701-4708. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Perda de Peso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 84: 228-238, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While dietary fat has been established as a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), associations between fatty acids (FAs) and CRC have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation (MR), we sought to evaluate associations between polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated FAs (SFAs) and CRC risk. METHODS: We analysed genotype data on 9254 CRC cases and 18,386 controls of European ancestry. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were generated and used to evaluate associations with CRC per one standard deviation increase in genetically defined plasma FA levels. RESULTS: Risk reduction was observed for oleic and palmitoleic MUFAs (OROA = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.92, P = 3.9 × 10-3; ORPOA = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.84, P = 0.018). PUFAs linoleic and arachidonic acid had negative and positive associations with CRC respectively (ORLA = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93-0.98, P = 3.7 × 10-4; ORAA = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10-4). The SFA stearic acid was associated with increased CRC risk (ORSA = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35, P = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Results from our analysis are broadly consistent with a pro-inflammatory FA profile having a detrimental effect in terms of CRC risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
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