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2.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 317(6): C1247-C1255, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596607

RESUMO

The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is a major mRNA cap-binding protein that has a central role in translation initiation. Ser209 is the single phosphorylation site within eIF4E and modulates its activity in response to MAPK pathway activation. It has been reported that phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser209 promotes translation of key mRNAs, such as cyclin D1, that regulate ribosome biogenesis. We hypothesized that phosphorylation at Ser209 is required for skeletal muscle growth in response to a hypertrophic stimulus by promoting ribosome biogenesis. To test this hypothesis, wild-type (WT) and eIF4E knocked-in (KI) mice were subjected to synergist ablation to induce muscle hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle as the result of mechanical overload; in the KI mouse, Ser209 of eIF4E was replaced with a nonphosphorylatable alanine. Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed no difference in the magnitude of hypertrophy between WT and KI groups in response to 14 days of mechanical overload induced by synergist ablation. Similarly, the increases in cyclin D1 protein levels, ribosome biogenesis, and translational capacity did not differ between WT and KI groups. Based on these findings, we conclude that phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser209 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload.

3.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the acute effects of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion following a bout of maximal eccentric resistance exercise on key anabolic kinases of mammalian target of rapamycin and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. The authors' hypothesis was that the activation of anabolic signaling pathways known to be upregulated by resistance exercise would be further stimulated by the physiological hyperinsulinemia resulting from CHO supplementation. METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled manner to ingest either a noncaloric PLA or 3 g/kg of CHO beverage throughout recovery from resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected at rest, immediately after a single bout of intense lower body resistance exercise, and after 3 hr of recovery. RESULTS: CHO ingestion elevated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations throughout recovery compared with PLA ingestion. The ERK pathway (phosphorylation of ERK1/2 [Thr202/Tyr204], RSK [Ser380], and p70S6K [Thr421/Ser424]) was markedly activated immediately after resistance exercise, without any effect of CHO supplementation. The phosphorylation state of AKT (Thr308) was unchanged postexercise in the PLA trial and increased at 3 hr of recovery above resting with ingestion of CHO compared with PLA. Despite stimulating-marked phosphorylation of AKT, CHO ingestion did not enhance resistance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) and rpS6 (Ser235/236 and Ser240/244). CONCLUSION: CHO supplementation after resistance exercise and hyperinsulinemia does not influence the ERK pathway nor the mTORC1 target p70S6K and its downstream proteins, despite the increased AKT phosphorylation.

4.
Front Nutr ; 6: 91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249834

RESUMO

Progressive muscle loss with aging results in decreased physical function, frailty, and impaired metabolic health. Deficits in anabolic signaling contribute to an impaired ability for aged skeletal muscle to adapt in response to exercise and protein feeding. One potential contributing mechanism could be exerted by dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if graded protein doses consumed after resistance exercise altered muscle miRNA expression in elderly men. Twenty-three senior men (67.9 ± 0.9 years) performed a bout of resistance exercise and were randomized to consume either a placebo, 20 or 40 g of whey protein (n = 8, n = 7, and n = 8, respectively). Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected before, 2 and 4 h after exercise. Expression of 19 miRNAs, previously identified to influence muscle phenotype, were measured via RT-PCR. Of these, miR-16-5p was altered with exercise in all groups (p = 0.032). Expression of miR-15a and-499a increased only in the placebo group 4 h after exercise and miR-451a expression increased following exercise only in the 40 g whey supplementation group. Changes in p-P70S6KThr389 and p-AktSer473 following exercise were correlated with alterations in miR-208a and-499a and-206 expression, irrespective of protein dose, suggesting a possible role for miRNA in the regulation of acute phosphorylation events during early hours of exercise recovery.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5483, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940834

RESUMO

We generated an inducible, skeletal muscle-specific Dicer knockout mouse to deplete microRNAs in adult skeletal muscle. Following tamoxifen treatment, Dicer mRNA expression was significantly decreased by 87%. Wild-type (WT) and Dicer knockout (KO) mice were subjected to either synergist ablation or hind limb suspension for two weeks. There was no difference in muscle weight with hypertrophy or atrophy between WT and KO groups; however, even with the significant loss of Dicer expression, myomiR (miR-1, -133a and -206) expression was only reduced by 38% on average. We next aged WT and KO mice for ~22 months following Dicer inactivation to determine if myomiR expression would be further reduced over a prolonged timeframe and assess the effects of myomiR depletion on skeletal muscle phenotype. Skeletal muscle Dicer mRNA expression remained significantly decreased by 80% in old KO mice and sequencing of cloned Dicer mRNA revealed the complete absence of the floxed exons in KO skeletal muscle. Despite a further reduction of myomiR expression to ~50% of WT, no change was observed in muscle morphology between WT and KO groups. These results indicate the life-long reduction in myomiR levels did not adversely affect skeletal muscle phenotype and suggest the possibility that microRNA expression is uniquely regulated in skeletal muscle.

6.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 316(5): C649-C654, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840493

RESUMO

Myonuclei gained during exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy may be long-lasting and could facilitate future muscle adaptability after deconditioning, a concept colloquially termed "muscle memory." The evidence for this is limited, mostly due to the lack of a murine exercise-training paradigm that is nonsurgical and reversible. To address this limitation, we developed a novel progressive weighted-wheel-running (PoWeR) model of murine exercise training to test whether myonuclei gained during exercise persist after detraining. We hypothesized that myonuclei acquired during training-induced hypertrophy would remain following loss of muscle mass with detraining. Singly housed female C57BL/6J mice performed 8 wk of PoWeR, while another group performed 8 wk of PoWeR followed by 12 wk of detraining. Age-matched sedentary cage-dwelling mice served as untrained controls. Eight weeks of PoWeR yielded significant plantaris muscle fiber hypertrophy, a shift to a more oxidative phenotype, and greater myonuclear density than untrained mice. After 12 wk of detraining, the plantaris muscle returned to an untrained phenotype with fewer myonuclei. A finding of fewer myonuclei simultaneously with plantaris deconditioning argues against a muscle memory mechanism mediated by elevated myonuclear density in primarily fast-twitch muscle. PoWeR is a novel, practical, and easy-to-deploy approach for eliciting robust hypertrophy in mice, and our findings can inform future research on the mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle adaptive potential and muscle memory.

7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 99-108, Mar. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-886876

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Considering that thiol-containing enzymes like kinases are critical for several metabolic pathways and energy homeostasis, we investigated the effects of cystine dimethyl ester and/or cysteamine administration on kinases crucial for energy metabolism in the kidney of Wistar rats. Animals were injected twice a day with 1.6 µmol/g body weight cystine dimethyl ester and/or 0.26 µmol/g body weight cysteamine from the 16th to the 20th postpartum day and euthanized after 12 hours. Pyruvate kinase, adenylate kinase, creatine kinase activities and thiol/disulfide ratio were determined. Cystine dimethyl ester administration reduced thiol/disulfide ratio and inhibited the kinases activities. Cysteamine administration increased the thiol/disulfide ratio and co-administration with cystine dimethyl ester prevented the inhibition of the enzymes. Regression between the thiol/disulfide ratio, and the kinases activities were significant. These results suggest that redox status may regulate energy metabolism in the rat kidney. If thiol-containing enzymes inhibition and oxidative stress occur in patients with cystinosis, it is possible that lysosomal cystine depletion may not be the only beneficial effect of cysteamine administration, but also its antioxidant and thiol-protector effect.

8.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 124(4): 1080-1091, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389245

RESUMO

Arachidonic acid (ARA), a polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acid, acts as precursor to a number of prostaglandins with potential roles in muscle anabolism. It was hypothesized that ARA supplementation might enhance the early anabolic response to resistance exercise (RE) by increasing muscle protein synthesis (MPS) via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation and/or the late anabolic response by modulating ribosome biogenesis and satellite cell expansion. Nineteen men with ≥1 yr of resistance-training experience were randomized to consume either 1.5 g daily ARA or a corn-soy-oil placebo in a double-blind manner for 4 wk. Participants then undertook fasted RE (8 sets each of leg press and extension at 80% 1-repetition maximum), with vastus lateralis biopsies obtained before exercise, immediately postexercise, and at 2, 4, and 48 h of recovery. MPS (measured via stable isotope infusion) was not different between groups ( P = 0.212) over the 4-h recovery period. mTOR pathway members p70 S6 kinase and S6 ribosomal protein were phosphorylated postexercise ( P < 0.05), with no difference between groups. 45S preribosomal RNA increased 48 h after exercise only in ARA ( P = 0.012). Neural cell adhesion molecule-positive satellite cells per fiber increased 48 h after exercise ( P = 0.013), with no difference between groups ( P = 0.331). Prior ARA supplementation did not alter the acute anabolic response to RE in previously resistance-trained men; however, at 48 h of recovery, ribosome biogenesis was stimulated only in the ARA group. The findings do not support a mechanistic link between ARA and short-term anabolism, but ARA supplementation in conjunction with resistance training may stimulate increases in translational capacity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Four weeks of daily arachidonic acid supplementation in trained men did not alter their acute muscle protein synthetic or anabolic signaling response to resistance exercise. However, 48 h after exercise, men supplemented with arachidonic acid showed greater ribosome biogenesis and a trend toward greater change in satellite cell content. Chronic arachidonic acid supplementation does not appear to regulate the acute anabolic response to resistance exercise but may augment muscle adaptation in the following days of recovery.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 314(6): R824-R833, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466686

RESUMO

Resistance training (RT) increases muscle fiber size and induces angiogenesis to maintain capillary density. Cold water immersion (CWI), a common postexercise recovery modality, may improve acute recovery, but it attenuates muscle hypertrophy compared with active recovery (ACT). It is unknown if CWI following RT alters muscle fiber type expression or angiogenesis. Twenty-one men strength trained for 12 wk, with either 10 min of CWI ( n = 11) or ACT ( n = 10) performed following each session. Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at rest before and after training. Type IIx myofiber percent decreased ( P = 0.013) and type IIa myofiber percent increased with training ( P = 0.012), with no difference between groups. The number of capillaries per fiber increased from pretraining in the CWI group ( P = 0.004) but not the ACT group ( P = 0.955). Expression of myosin heavy chain genes ( MYH1 and MYH2), encoding type IIx and IIa fibers, respectively, decreased in the ACT group, whereas MYH7 (encoding type I fibers) increased in the ACT group versus CWI ( P = 0.004). Myosin heavy chain IIa protein increased with training ( P = 0.012) with no difference between groups. The proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor protein decreased posttraining in the ACT group versus CWI ( P < 0.001), whereas antiangiogenic Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 protein increased with training in both groups ( P = 0.015). Expression of microRNAs that regulate muscle fiber type (miR-208b and -499a) and angiogenesis (miR-15a, -16, and -126) increased only in the ACT group ( P < 0.05). CWI recovery after each training session altered the angiogenic and fiber type-specific response to RT through regulation at the levels of microRNA, gene, and protein expression.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Imersão , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Capilares/fisiologia , Miosinas Cardíacas/biossíntese , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/biossíntese , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(7): e1701028, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377592

RESUMO

Limb immobilization results in a rapid loss of muscle size and strength. The resultant alterations in signaling pathways governing myogenesis, catabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis are likely to include posttranscriptional regulation mediated by altered microRNAs (miRNAs). Given that protein ingestion exerts an anabolic action and may act as a countermeasure to mitigate muscle loss with immobilization, it is important to examine miRNA in this context. The objective of the study is therefore to characterize the vastus lateralis miRNA response to 14 days of disuse in males (45-60 years) randomized to receive supplementation with 20 g d-1 of dairy protein (n = 12) or isocaloric carbohydrate placebo (n = 13). Biopsies are collected before and after a 2-week immobilization period. Of the 24 miRNAs previously identified in myogenic regulation, seven (miR-133a, -206, -15a, -451a, -126, -208b, and let-7e) are increased with immobilization irrespective of group; five (miR-16, -494, let-7a, -7c, and 7d) increased only in the carbohydrate group; and eight (miR-1, -486, -23a, -23b, -26a, -148b, let-7b, and -7g) are divergently expressed between groups (suppressed with protein). The ability of protein supplementation to differentially regulate miRNAs involved in key muscle regulatory pathways following short-term limb immobilization reflects potential protective function in mitigating muscle loss during limb immobilization.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Bebidas , Biópsia por Agulha , Desjejum , Estudos de Coortes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Joelho , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Músculo Quadríceps
12.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 124(3): 717-728, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122965

RESUMO

Muscle disuse results in the loss of muscular strength and size, due to an imbalance between protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Protein ingestion stimulates MPS, although it is not established if protein is able to attenuate muscle loss with immobilization (IM) or influence the recovery consisting of ambulatory movement followed by resistance training (RT). Thirty men (49.9 ± 0.6 yr) underwent 14 days of unilateral leg IM, 14 days of ambulatory recovery (AR), and a further six RT sessions over 14 days. Participants were randomized to consume an additional 20 g of dairy protein or placebo with a meal during the intervention. Isometric knee extension strength was reduced following IM (-24.7 ± 2.7%), partially recovered with AR (-8.6 ± 2.6%), and fully recovered after RT (-0.6 ± 3.4%), with no effect of supplementation. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area decreased with IM (-4.1 ± 0.5%), partially recovered with AR (-2.1 ± 0.5%), and increased above baseline with RT (+2.2 ± 0.5%), with no treatment effect. Myofibrillar MPS, measured using deuterated water, was unaltered by IM, with no effect of protein. During AR, MPS was increased only with protein supplementation. Protein supplementation did not attenuate the loss of muscle size and function with disuse or potentiate recovery but enhanced myofibrillar MPS during AR. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Twenty grams of daily protein supplementation does not attenuate the loss of muscle size and function induced by 2 wk of muscle disuse or potentiate recovery in middle-age men. Average mitochondrial but not myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis was attenuated during immobilization with no effect of supplementation. Protein supplementation increased myofibrillar protein synthesis during a 2-wk period of ambulatory recovery following disuse but without group differences in phenotype recovery.


Assuntos
Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Proteínas do Leite/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Leite/farmacologia , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/metabolismo
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(1): 99-108, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236866

RESUMO

Considering that thiol-containing enzymes like kinases are critical for several metabolic pathways and energy homeostasis, we investigated the effects of cystine dimethyl ester and/or cysteamine administration on kinases crucial for energy metabolism in the kidney of Wistar rats. Animals were injected twice a day with 1.6 µmol/g body weight cystine dimethyl ester and/or 0.26 µmol/g body weight cysteamine from the 16th to the 20th postpartum day and euthanized after 12 hours. Pyruvate kinase, adenylate kinase, creatine kinase activities and thiol/disulfide ratio were determined. Cystine dimethyl ester administration reduced thiol/disulfide ratio and inhibited the kinases activities. Cysteamine administration increased the thiol/disulfide ratio and co-administration with cystine dimethyl ester prevented the inhibition of the enzymes. Regression between the thiol/disulfide ratio, and the kinases activities were significant. These results suggest that redox status may regulate energy metabolism in the rat kidney. If thiol-containing enzymes inhibition and oxidative stress occur in patients with cystinosis, it is possible that lysosomal cystine depletion may not be the only beneficial effect of cysteamine administration, but also its antioxidant and thiol-protector effect.


Assuntos
Cisteamina/farmacologia , Cistina/análogos & derivados , Dissulfetos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Adenilato Quinase/análise , Adenilato Quinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Creatina Quinase/análise , Creatina Quinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistina/farmacologia , Eliminadores de Cistina/farmacologia , Rim/enzimologia , Piruvato Quinase/análise , Piruvato Quinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Physiol Rep ; 5(24)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263116

RESUMO

Sestrins (1, 2, 3) are a family of stress-inducible proteins capable of attenuating oxidative stress, regulating metabolism, and stimulating autophagy. Sequestosome1 (p62) is also a stress-inducible multifunctional protein acting as a signaling hub for oxidative stress and selective autophagy. It is unclear whether Sestrin and p62Ser403 are regulated acutely or chronically by resistance exercise (RE) or training (RT) in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, the acute and chronic effects of RE on Sestrin and p62 in human skeletal muscle were examined through two studies. In Study 1, nine active men (22.1 ± 2.2 years) performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises and muscle biopsies were collected before, 2, 24, and 48 h after exercise. In Study 2, 10 active men (21.3 ± 1.9 years) strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week) and biopsies were collected pre- and post-training. Acutely, 2 h postexercise, phosphorylation of p62Ser403 was downregulated, while there was a mobility shift of Sestrin2, indicative of increased phosphorylation. Forty-eight hours postexercise, the protein expression of both Sestrin1 and total p62 increased. Chronic exercise had no impact on the gene or protein expression of Sestrin2/3 or p62, but Sestrin1 protein was upregulated. These findings demonstrated an inverse relationship between Sestrin2 and p62 phosphorylation after a single bout of RE, indicating they are transiently regulated. Contrarily, 12 weeks of RT increased protein expression of Sestrin1, suggesting that despite the strong sequence homology of the Sestrin family, they are differentially regulated in response to acute RE and chronic RT.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Treinamento de Resistência , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 14: 9, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is primarily composed of polar phospho- and sphingolipids, which have established biological effects on neuroplasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary MFGM supplementation on the neuromuscular system during post-natal development. METHODS: Growing rats received dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures consisting of complex milk lipids (CML), beta serum concentrate (BSC) or a complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc) (which lacks MFGM proteins) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. RESULTS: Supplementation with MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids (BSC and CMLc, but not CML) increased the plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration, with no effect on plasma phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) or sphingomyelin (SM). In contrast, muscle PC was reduced in rats receiving supplementation with both BSC and CMLc, whereas muscle PI, PE, PS and SM remained unchanged. Rats receiving BSC and CMLc (but not CML) displayed a slow-to-fast muscle fibre type profile shift (MyHCI → MyHCIIa) that was associated with elevated expression of genes involved in myogenic differentiation (myogenic regulatory factors) and relatively fast fibre type specialisation (Myh2 and Nfatc4). Expression of neuromuscular development genes, including nerve cell markers, components of the synaptogenic agrin-LRP4 pathway and acetylcholine receptor subunits, was also increased in muscle of rats supplemented with BSC and CMLc (but not CML). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids can promote neuromuscular development during post-natal growth in rats, leading to shifts in adult muscle phenotype.

16.
J Physiol ; 595(3): 695-711, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704555

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments. A key assumption about the benefits of cold water immersion is that it reduces inflammation in skeletal muscle. However, no data are available from humans to support this notion. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammatory and cellular stress responses in skeletal muscle from exercise-trained men 2, 24 and 48 h during recovery after acute resistance exercise. Exercise led to the infiltration of inflammatory cells, with increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins, and the subcellular translocation of heat shock proteins in muscle. These responses did not differ significantly between cold water immersion and active recovery. Our results suggest that cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for minimizing the inflammatory and stress responses in muscle after resistance exercise. ABSTRACT: Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments. However, little is known about whether these treatments influence inflammation and cellular stress in human skeletal muscle after exercise. We compared the effects of cold water immersion versus active recovery on inflammatory cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in skeletal muscle after intense resistance exercise. Nine active men performed unilateral lower-body resistance exercise on separate days, at least 1 week apart. On one day, they immersed their lower body in cold water (10°C) for 10 min after exercise. On the other day, they cycled at a low intensity for 10 min after exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise in both trials. Exercise increased intramuscular neutrophil and macrophage counts, MAC1 and CD163 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Exercise also increased IL1ß, TNF, IL6, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL2, IL8 and LIF mRNA expression (P < 0.05). As evidence of hyperalgesia, the expression of NGF and GDNF mRNA increased after exercise (P < 0.05). The cytosolic protein content of αB-crystallin and HSP70 decreased after exercise (P < 0.05). This response was accompanied by increases in the cytoskeletal protein content of αB-crystallin and the percentage of type II fibres stained for αB-crystallin. Changes in inflammatory cells, cytokines, neurotrophins and HSPs did not differ significantly between the recovery treatments. These findings indicate that cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for reducing inflammation or cellular stress in muscle after a bout of resistance exercise.


Assuntos
Crioterapia , Imersão , Inflamação/reabilitação , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência , Água , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/imunologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Direct ; 11(1): 62, 2016 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27871336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed, yielding a complex network of transcripts including thousands of lncRNAs that generally lack protein coding potential. However, only a small percentage of these molecules has been functionally characterised, and discoveries of specific functions demonstrate layers of complexity. A large percentage of lncRNAs is located in the cytoplasm, associated with ribosomes but the function of the majority of these transcripts is unclear. The current study analyses putative mechanisms of action of the lncRNA species member ZFAS1 that was initially discovered by microarray analysis of murine tissues undergoing mammary gland development. As developmental genes are often deregulated in cancer, here we have studied its function in breast cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Using human breast cancer cell lines, ZFAS1 was found to be expressed in all cell lines tested, albeit at different levels of abundance. Following subcellular fractionation, human ZFAS1 was found in both nucleus and cytoplasm (as is the mouse orthologue) in an isoform-independent manner. Sucrose gradients based on velocity sedimentation were utilised to separate the different components of total cell lysate, and surprisingly ZFAS1 was primarily co-localised with light polysomes. Further investigation into ribosome association through subunit dissociation studies showed that ZFAS1 was predominantly associated with the 40S small ribosomal subunit. The expression levels of ZFAS1 and of mRNAs encoding several ribosomal proteins that have roles in ribosome assembly, production and maturation were tightly correlated. ZFAS1 knockdown significantly reduced RPS6 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: A large number of lncRNAs associate with ribosomes but the function of the majority of these lncRNAs has not been elucidated. The association of the lncRNA ZFAS1 with a subpopulation of ribosomes and the correlation with expression of mRNAs for ribosomal proteins suggest a ribosome-interacting mechanism pertaining to their assembly or biosynthetic activity. ZFAS1 may represent a new class of lncRNAs which associates with ribosomes to regulate their function. REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Christine Vande Velde, Nicola Aceto and Haruhiko Siomi.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/genética , Citoplasma/genética , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo
18.
Physiol Rep ; 4(2)2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818586

RESUMO

Muscle hypertrophy occurs following increased protein synthesis, which requires activation of the ribosomal complex. Additionally, increased translational capacity via elevated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis has also been implicated in resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The time course of ribosome biogenesis following resistance exercise (RE) and the impact exerted by differing recovery strategies remains unknown. In the present study, the activation of transcriptional regulators, the expression levels of pre-rRNA, and mature rRNA components were measured through 48 h after a single-bout RE. In addition, the effects of either low-intensity cycling (active recovery, ACT) or a cold-water immersion (CWI) recovery strategy were compared. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of high-load RE randomized to be followed by 10 min of either ACT or CWI. Muscle biopsies were collected before RE and at 2, 24, and 48 h after RE. RE increased the phosphorylation of the p38-MNK1-eIF4E axis, an effect only evident with ACT recovery. Downstream, cyclin D1 protein, total eIF4E, upstream binding factor 1 (UBF1), and c-Myc proteins were all increased only after RE with ACT. This corresponded with elevated abundance of the pre-rRNAs (45S, ITS-28S, ITS-5.8S, and ETS-18S) from 24 h after RE with ACT. In conclusion, coordinated upstream signaling and activation of transcriptional factors stimulated pre-rRNA expression after RE. CWI, as a recovery strategy, markedly blunted these events, suggesting that suppressed ribosome biogenesis may be one factor contributing to the impaired hypertrophic response observed when CWI is used regularly after exercise.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 22(2): 268-78, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26588088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a factor potentially underpinning skeletal muscle mass. Intestinal-derived inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results in loss of muscle mass; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. The interleukin 10 gene-deficient (Il10-/-) mouse is a genetically modified animal model of IBD that can be used to study the effect of intestinal-derived inflammation on muscles. METHODS: Il10-/- and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were inoculated with intestinal bacteria to induce colon inflammation at the fifth week of age. Skeletal muscles were collected between 7 and 14 weeks of age for analysis of muscle weight, myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and molecular markers of inflammation and anabolism pathways, with a focus on ribosome biogenesis. RESULTS: Il10-/- animals that developed colon inflammation had a marked increase in muscle immunoglobulin G (IgG) compared with WT. Inflamed Il10-/- animals had impaired muscle mass gain and smaller myofiber CSA. Intramuscular IgG deposition negatively correlated with muscle mass. After the onset of muscle inflammation, Il10-/- mice had decreased levels of total and ribosomal RNAs (45S, 28S, 18S, and 5.8S rRNAs). Inflammation inversely correlated with muscle levels of total RNA and 28S rRNA which in turn positively correlated with muscle mass. The abundance of growth-related proteins (p70S6K and upstream binding factor, UBF) was decreased in Il10-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle inflammation and associated decline of ribosome biogenesis lead to muscle growth impairment in Il10-/- mice. This may have implications for maintenance of muscle mass in conditions associated with chronic intestinal-derived inflammation.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Ribossomos/patologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/microbiologia , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Biogênese de Organelas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Ribossomos/metabolismo
20.
J Physiol ; 593(18): 4285-301, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174323

RESUMO

We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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