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1.
Hypertens Res ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515507

RESUMO

To examine the effects of low-intensity resistance exercise training (LIRET) and whole-body vibration training (WBVT) with an external weighted vest on arterial stiffness, wave reflection, brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and physical performance in postmenopausal women. Thirty-three postmenopausal women were stratified by age, body mass index (BMI), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (age, 65 ± 4 years; BMI, 23.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; MVC, 17.4 ± 2.6 kg) and randomized into LIRET, WBVT, or a nonexercising control group for 12 weeks. Arterial stiffness, augmentation index (AIx), augmented pressure (AP), brachial FMD, gait speed and leg strength were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. WBVT induced improvements in pulse pressure amplification (PPA) (0.04 ± 0.02) compared to control (P = 0.048) and in wave reflection indices [AIx (-4.3 ± 1.4%) and AP (-2.9 ± 1.3 mmHg)] compared to LIRET (P = 0.039 and 0.048, respectively). WBVT (3.8 ± 1.4%) and LIRET (5.0 ± 1.5%) induced similar improvements in FMD compared to control (P = 0.029 and 0.008, respectively). WBVT and LIRET elicited similar increases in leg strength (P = 0.001 and 0.019, respectively), compared to no improvement in the control group. LIRET significantly increased gait speed compared to WBVT (P = 0.043). Although both WBVT and LIRET increased brachial artery FMD (systemic effect), WBVT seemed to be more efficacious in improving wave reflection and cardiac pulsatile load. Interestingly, LIRET elicited a significant improvement in gait speed. Both modalities seem effective in improving systemic endothelial function and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

2.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 37: 23-26, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women have a higher prevalence of hypertension than age-match men. Evidence from animal studies have demonstrated the antihypertensive effects of pumpkin seed oil (PSO). We examined the effects of PSO supplementation on vascular function and heart rate variability (HRV) in postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure (BP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to either a PSO (n = 12) or a placebo group (n = 11). Participants in the PSO group consumed 3 g/day of PSO. Brachial and central BP, wave reflection (augmentation index, AIx), arterial stiffness (SI) and various HRV parameters were measured before and after 6 weeks. RESULTS: AIx, brachial and central systolic BP significantly (P < 0.05) decreased following PSO but not after placebo. SI and HRV parameters remained unchanged after PSO or placebo. CONCLUSION: PSO improved arterial hemodynamics in postmenopausal women and therefore might be effective in the prevention and treatment of hypertension in this population. CLINICAL TRIAL ID: (NCT03716960).

3.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-19, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034311

RESUMO

The present study examined the effects of a 12-week low intensity resistance exercise training (LIRET) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV), strength and body composition in obese postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either LIRET (n= 10) or non-exercising control group (n= 10). HRV, leg muscle strength and body composition were measured before and after 12 weeks. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in sympathovagal balance (LnLF/LnHF) and sympathetic tone (nLF) as well as significant increases (P < 0.05) in parasympathetic tone (nHF) and strength following LIRET compared to no changes after control. There were no significant changes in body composition after LIRET or control. LIRET may be an effective therapeutic intervention for improving sympathovagal balance and strength in obese postmenopausal women. Since obese postmenopausal women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and physical disability, they could potentially benefit from LIRET.

4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789584

RESUMO

Wong, A and Figueroa, A. Effects of acute stretching exercise and training on heart rate variability: A review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Stretching (ST), an exercise modality widely used for flexibility improvement, has been recently proposed as an effective adjunct therapy for declines in cardiovascular health, warranting research into the effects of ST exercise on cardiac autonomic function (CAF). Heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) is a reliable measure of CAF, mainly the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations of HR. A low HRV has been associated to increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Exercise interventions that enhance HRV are therefore seen as beneficial to cardiovascular health and are sought after. In this review, we discuss the effect of ST both acute and training on HRV. Stretching training seems to be a useful therapeutic intervention to improve CAF in different populations. Although the mechanisms by which ST training improves CAF are not yet well understood; increases in baroreflex sensitivity, relaxation, and nitric oxide bioavailability seem to play an important role.

6.
Pflugers Arch ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426247

RESUMO

Resistance training (RT) is performed for improvements in body composition in young healthy adults and for health benefits in middle-aged and older adults. Traditionally, RT is prescribed at moderate- to high-intensity to promote benefits on skeletal muscle mass and strength in middle-aged and older adults without considering the vascular effects. Recent evidence suggests that muscle strength may be more protective than muscle mass for cardiovascular disease prevention and that muscle strength can be importantly improved with low-intensity RT. The main purpose of this review was to examine the effects of RT intensity on arterial stiffness and blood pressure (peripheral and central) in young and older adults. Although small increases in central arterial stiffness (carotid ß and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV]) have been reported in young and middle-aged men, this review suggests that low- and high-intensity RT may not affect arterial stiffness whereas low-intensity RT may decrease systemic arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle PWV) in young healthy adults or not affect arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Independently of the intensity, RT may be effective to reduce blood pressure (peripheral and central) in middle-aged and older adults with at least elevated blood pressure at baseline. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of RT on arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, and wave reflection in middle-aged and older adults.

7.
Nutr Res ; 58: 46-54, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340814

RESUMO

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is rich in l-citrulline, an l-arginine precursor that may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of watermelon powder and l-arginine on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon and l-arginine would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation by modulating hepatic gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 21 days (N = 32) were assigned to 3 groups and fed diets containing watermelon powder (0.5% wt/wt), l-arginine (0.3% as 0.36% l-arginine HCl wt/wt), or a control diet for 9 weeks. Watermelon and l-arginine supplementation improved lipid profiles by lowering serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .050). Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein were significantly lower (P < .050) in the watermelon and l-arginine groups. Rats in the watermelon and l-arginine groups showed reduced oxidative stress, increased total antioxidant capacity, and higher concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase (P < .050). Concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were lower (P < .050) in the watermelon and l-arginine groups. Watermelon and l-arginine consumption upregulated hepatic gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and downregulated expression of fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor-κB p65 (P < .050). The results support the hypothesis that watermelon and arginine improve cardiovascular disease risk factors including lipid profile, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation by altering relevant gene expression.

8.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-8, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207495

RESUMO

Diets high in fruits and vegetables may help prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). Watermelon consumption may reduce CRC risk due to its concentration of l-citrulline and its role in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Research suggests that increased NO levels have tumoricidal effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder supplementation on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, precancerous lesions, and expression of genes associated with colon carcinogenesis. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into three groups: control, 0.36% l-arginine, or 0.5% watermelon powder and injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Both l-arginine and watermelon powder groups exhibited lower total numbers of ACF and high multiplicity ACF (P < 0.01). The watermelon powder group exhibited higher NO levels and lower 8-hydroxyguanosine DNA damage (P < 0.05). Watermelon powder and l-arginine downregulated 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase gene expression and upregulated O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene expression (P < 0.05). Cyclooxgenase-2 gene expression was lower for rats fed with watermelon powder (P < 0.05). These results suggest that watermelon powder or l-arginine supplementation may reduce the risk of colon cancer by suppressing ACF formation through lowering oxidative DNA damage and inflammation, modulating DNA repair enzyme expression, and/or enhancing NO production.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central aortic blood pressure (BP) is reduced after exercise. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness relates to post-exercise reductions in aortic BP. METHODS: Sixteen young adults completed maximal exercise testing for peak oxygen uptake (VO2). Participants walked at a slow (80 steps/min, ~47% maxHR) and fast (125 steps/min, ~65% maxHR) stepping cadence for 3,000 steps on two nonconsecutive days. Before and after each walking condition, radial tonometry was used to derive aortic pressures. Measurements after walking were taken after 30 and 60 min of supine recovery. RESULTS: The change in aortic BP was similar between walking cadences. Aortic systolic BP (-2.3 mmHg, p=0.03) and pulse pressure (-3.2 mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly reduced after 60 min of recovery as compared to baseline. The reduction in aortic pulse pressure was associated with decreased forward (r=0.69, p<0.001) and backward wave pressure (r=0.70, p<0.001). Peak VO2 was not associated (p>0.05) with these changes, but was strongly associated with non-significant changes in aortic systolic BP (30min: r= -0.54, p=0.03) and diastolic BP (30min: r= -0.64, 60min: r= -0.77; both p<0.01) after slow walking only. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that cardiorespiratory fitness associates with aortic pressure reductions after walking dependent on exercise intensity.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775234

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive and practical measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system function, mainly the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations of heart rate. A low HRV has been shown to be indicative of compromised cardiovascular health. Interventions that enhance HRV are therefore beneficial to cardiovascular health. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has been proposed as an alternative time-efficient exercise intervention for the improvement of cardiovascular health. In this review, we discuss the effect of WBV both acute and after training on HRV. WBV training appears to be a useful therapeutic intervention to improve cardiac autonomic function in different populations, mainly through decreases in sympathovagal balance. Although the mechanisms by which WBV training improves symphathovagal balance are not yet well understood; enhancement of baroreflex sensitivity, nitric oxide bioavailability and angiotensin II levels seem to play an important role.

11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 169: 98-102, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to present the therapeutic results of intradural tumor management over a 10 years period in a single institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study consists in a prospective case series of patients treated at the neurosurgery service of the Social Security Institute of Mexico State and Provinces (ISSSEMYM), between January 2006 and December 2016. All patients were provided with information about the procedure and signed informed consent and institutional board approved files review for this study. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients with intradural tumor were treated between 2006-2016. Most frequent lesions were extramedullary (30 patients, 85.7%). Most frequent tumor was Schwannoma, with thoracic/thoraco-lumbar location, being the most frequent location. All patients underwent surgical treatment, with total gross resection accomplished in 19 patients (54.3%). Surgical complication rate was 11.4%. Spine instrumentation was necessary in 26 patients (74.3%) because of bone destruction by the tumor, or bone removal for approach. All patients with intramedullary lesions and 5 patients (16.7%) with extramedullary lesions received post-operative radiotherapy. During the follow-up, 8.5% of patients had recurrence/progression of residual disease. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgery is the treatment of choice for intradural spinal tumors, and gross total resection with low morbidity must be the surgical goal. When this is not possible, partial resection and adjuvant therapy with radiosurgery are a valid option. Patients most be long followed-up because of recurrence risk or disease progression.

12.
Menopause ; 25(7): 731-737, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Menopause is accompanied by a progressive arterial stiffening associated with increases in blood pressure (BP) and decline in muscular function. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of menopause on vascular and muscular function by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We examined the effects of a stair climbing (SC) regimen on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), BP, and leg strength in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension. METHODS: Using a parallel experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to either SC (n = 21) or nonexercising control group (n = 20) for 12 weeks. Participants in the SC group trained 4 d/wk, climbing 192 steps 2 to 5 times/d. Participants' brachial-to-ankle PWV (baPWV), BP, and leg strength were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of their assigned intervention. RESULTS: There was a significant group by time interaction (P < 0.05) for baPWV, and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) which significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and leg strength which significantly increased (P < 0.05) after SC compared with no changes in the control. The changes in baPWV were correlated with changes in SBP (r = 0.66, P < 0.05) and leg strength (r = -0.47, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SC led to reductions in arterial stiffness, BP, and increases in leg strength in stage 2 hypertensive postmenopausal women. The decrease in arterial stiffness partially explained the improvements in SBP and leg strength. SC may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of menopause/aging-related vascular complications and muscle weakness.

13.
J Aging Phys Act ; 26(2): 214-221, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657825

RESUMO

The present study examined the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi (TC) training regimen on heart rate variability (HRV), symptomatology, muscle fitness and body composition in women with fibromyalgia. Participants were randomly assigned to either a TC training group (n = 18) or a control group (n = 19). HRV, symptomatology, muscle fitness and body composition were measured before and after 12 weeks. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in sympathovagal balance (LnLF/LnHF), sympathetic tone (LnLF, nLF), pain, and fatigue, and significant increases (p < 0.05) in parasympathetic tone (LnHF, nHF), strength and flexibility following TC compared with no changes after control. The changes in LnLF and LnLF/LnHF were correlated with changes in pain. There were no significant changes in HR, sleep quality and body composition after TC or control. TC may be an effective therapeutic intervention for improving sympathovagal balance, pain, fatigue, strength and flexibility in women with fibromyalgia.

14.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 18(2): 226-234, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220206

RESUMO

In recent years, prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased. A strategy for prevention and management of obesity is aerobic training (AT) due to its effectiveness to decrease fat mass. AT increases the content of SIRT3, a mitochondrial protein that increases the expression of PGC-1α and NFR1, thereby enhances mitochondrial function and metabolic health. Resistance training (RT) provides metabolic benefits but its effect on SIRT3 content is unknown. To compare the effect of AT and RT on SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 protein levels in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese adolescents. Twenty-seven sedentary obese male adolescents (age: 16.7 ± 0.9 years; BMI: 33.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2) completed a 1-month control period prior to randomization to one of two supervised exercise protocols: AT (3 days/week, 40 min/day, 70-80% peak heart rate) or RT (3 days/week, 11 exercises, 2 sets/exercise, 12 repetitions/set) for 12 weeks. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after 12 weeks to analyse SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 proteins content. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and anthropometric variables were evaluated before and after training. AT increased SIRT3 content, which was associated with improvements in PGC-1α content and body fat percentage. RT did not affect SIRT3 or PGC-1α. VO2peak increased only in AT. The increase in muscle mitochondrial SIRT3 was observed only following AT. In contrast, RT increased muscle mass without improving SIRT3 in obese male adolescents.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Treinamento de Resistência , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Força Muscular , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo
15.
Food Funct ; 8(11): 4139-4149, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099521

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates that strawberries are cardioprotective. We conducted an eight-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm clinical trial to investigate the effects of daily consumption of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women. Sixty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) control, (2) 25 g FDSP and (3) 50 g FDSP (n = 20 per group). Assessments of body weight, BP, arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and collection of blood samples for analyses of vasoactive and antioxidant molecules were performed at baseline, four and eight weeks. After eight weeks, systolic BP, as well as brachial- and femoral-ankle PWV were lower than baseline in the 25 g FDSP group (141 ± 3 to 135 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.02; 15.5 ± 0.5 to 14.8 ± 0.4 m s-1, P = 0.03, and 11.0 ± 0.2 to 10.4 ± 0.2 m s-1, P = 0.02, respectively), whereas no statistically significant changes were observed in the control or 50 g FDSP groups. Plasma nitric oxide metabolite levels increased at four and eight weeks in the 50 g FDSP group compared to baseline (8.5 ± 1.2 to 13.6 ± 1.3 and 13.3 ± 1.5, respectively, P = 0.01), whereas no significant changes were observed in the control or 25 g FDSP groups. Serum levels of superoxide dismutase increased at four weeks returning to baseline levels at eight weeks in all three groups. Significant differences among groups were not detected for any of the parameters. Although BP and arterial stiffness improved in the 25 g FDSP group over time, a treatment effect was not observed. Thus, it would be premature to affirm that daily consumption of FDSP improves BP or vascular function in pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at as NCT02099578.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Fragaria/metabolismo , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Atherosclerosis ; 265: 140-146, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid extra-media thickness (EMT) encompasses arterial adventitia and perivascular adipose tissue (PAT). Adventitial remodeling and PAT may contribute independently to functional (stiffness) and structural (remodeling) changes in artery wall properties. Visceral adiposity may contribute to PAT, thereby affecting artery stiffness. We investigated the relationships between carotid artery stiffness, EMT, and visceral adiposity in young, healthy individuals. METHODS: 135 healthy males (20 ± 2 yr, body mass index [BMI] 24.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2) underwent anthropometric and vascular measures on two separate days. Visceral adiposity was assessed using waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Brachial and carotid systolic, diastolic, and pulsatile (PP) blood pressures were assessed using an oscillometric cuff and applanation tonometry, respectively. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and EMT were assessed using Doppler ultrasound. Carotid artery stiffness was calculated as ß-stiffness and calibrated to carotid pressures. RESULTS: Separate stepwise multiple regression models demonstrated that carotid PP (ß = 0.205) and EMT (ß = 0.267) accounted for 12.6% of variance in ß-stiffness, while carotid PP (ß = 0.195) and SAD (ß = 0.226) accounted for 10.5% of variance in EMT (p < 0.05). Mediation analyses revealed carotid PP partially mediated the relationship between a) EMT and ß-stiffness, and b) SAD and EMT (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Carotid PP and EMT, but not IMT, are related to carotid ß-stiffness. Carotid PP and visceral adiposity (SAD) are related to EMT. Carotid PP partially mediates the association between a) EMT and carotid ß-stiffness, and b) SAD and EMT. Our findings suggest visceral adiposity may detrimentally affect subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease risk (carotid PP, EMT) and contribute to artery stiffness.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Rigidez Vascular , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pressão Arterial , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
17.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 23(2): 20-26, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323625

RESUMO

Context • Menopause and obesity are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Unconventional exercise modalities that include an important flexibility component seem to improve cardiac autonomic function by lowering sympathetic tone and increasing vagal modulation of the heart rate (HR). Yet clear evidence of the effects of stretching training (ST) on cardiac autonomic modulation is limited. Objective • The present study intended to examine the effects of ST on HR variability (HRV) and flexibility in obese postmenopausal women. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study was conducted at the Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL, USA). Participants • Twenty-four obese, postmenopausal women, aged 50-65 y with a body mass index of >30 but <40 kg/m2 participated in the study. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned either to an ST group (n = 12) or a no-exercise control group (n = 12). The study was 8 wk in duration. Outcome Measures • Participant HRV and sit-and-reach scores (SRSs) were measured at baseline and after 8 wk of training. Results • Significant decreases occurred for the ST group between baseline and postintervention in sympathetic activity, as measured by normalized low frequency (nLF) power, and in sympathovagal balance, as measured by the ratio of the natural logarithm low frequency (LnLF) activity to the natural logarithm high frequency (LnHF) power, with P < .01 for both measures. The decreases for the ST group were significantly greater than those for the control group for the nLF and LnLF/LnHF, with P < .05 for both measures. Significant increases in vagal tone occurred for the ST group between baseline and postintervention, as measured by the normalized high frequency (nHF) power, with P < .01, and in SRS following ST, with P < .001. The increases for the ST group were significantly greater than those for the control group for the nHF and SRS, with P < .05 for both measures. The changes in SRS were correlated with the changes in the LnLF/LnHF power, with r = .65 and P < .03 negatively correlated. Conclusions • The findings indicated that ST can improve cardiac autonomic modulation by increasing vagal tone and decreasing sympathetic activity in obese postmenopausal women. The improvement in SRS partially explained the decrease in the sympathovagal balance. Because older or obese individuals have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from ST.

18.
Hypertens Res ; 40(5): 487-492, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077859

RESUMO

The early arterial dysfunction linked with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle heightens the likelihood of suffering from future cardiovascular events. Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) may improve systemic arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)) and muscle strength in pre- and post-menopausal women. However, the effectiveness of WBVT to impact the arterial segments included in baPWV is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WBVT on aortic and leg arterial stiffness in young sedentary overweight/obese women. Thirty-eight young (21 years) overweight/obese women were randomized to WBVT (n=25) or a nonexercising control (CON, n=13) groups for 6 weeks. PWV, brachial and aortic blood pressures (BP), wave reflection (augmentation index (AIx)) and leg muscle strength measurements were acquired before and after 6 weeks. WBVT significantly reduced carotid-femoral PWV (aortic stiffness, P<0.05), femoral-ankle (leg arterial stiffness, P<0.01) and baPWV (systemic arterial stiffness, P<0.01) compared with CON. The reduction in brachial systolic BP (SBP), heart rate, aortic SBP, aortic diastolic BP, AIx normalized to a heart rate of 75 beats per min (AIx@75; P<0.01) and AIx (P<0.05) following WBVT was significant compared with CON (P<0.05). WBVT increased leg muscle strength compared with CON (P<0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between changes in relative muscle strength and aortic stiffness (r=-0.41, P<0.05). WBVT led to reductions in arterial stiffness, central BP and wave reflection in young obese women. WBVT may be an effective intervention toward vascular health promotion and prevention in young overweight/obese women (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02679898).


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Vibração , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Força Muscular , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Resultado do Tratamento , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Funct ; 8(1): 372-380, 2017 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28059417

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and inflammation are central to the development of a number of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and previous research suggests that blueberry consumption may attenuate these processes. The present study investigated the effects of blueberries on blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension. In a randomized, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women aged 45 to 65 years were randomly assigned to receive 22 g freeze-dried highbush blueberry powder per day (Blueberry) or 22 g placebo powder per day (Control) for 8 weeks. A blood biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. 8-OHdG levels were significantly (P = 0.008) lower in Blueberry compared to Control at 4 weeks with a significant time-by-treatment interaction (P = 0.04). Levels were not different between groups at 8 weeks. Other biomarkers measured were not affected by blueberry consumption. Daily consumption of blueberries for 4 weeks, but not 8 weeks, attenuated a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women. Future clinical studies should directly evaluate the effects of blueberry consumption on oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense at the cellular level and in the vasculature in this population.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dano ao DNA , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/imunologia
20.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 23(1): 38-44, ene.-jun. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-902070

RESUMO

Las levaduras del género Candida causan enfermedades en los humanos que abarcan desde infecciones superficiales no graves, hasta sistémicas y potencialmente mortales. La candidiasis o candidosis, es el origen común de enfermedad vaginal y aunque es una infección no considerada como incapacitante, suele causar síntomas molestos que alteran la conducta del paciente. En México se considera la única micosis de reporte obligatorio ante las autoridades sanitarias. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se efectuó una revisión bibliográfica para conocer el estado del arte de la vulvovaginitis causada por Candida spp. (VVC), y ofrecer una breve descripción acerca de la frecuencia presentada por esta infección en diversos países de Latinoamérica, con especial énfasis en México. Se muestra que las frecuencias de VVC en Latinoamérica, son muy parecidas a las reportadas en países como Estados Unidos de América; asimismo, Candida albicans sigue prevaleciendo como el principal agente etiológico. Las diferencias encontradas entre países desarrollados con respecto a los latinoamericanos, consisten básicamente en los métodos diagnósticos y el tipo de tratamiento. Desafortunadamente, en México, a pesar de que la VVC ocupa el noveno lugar entre las 20 principales causas de enfermedad del país, en muy pocos casos se efectúa la identificación de la especie causante, lo que constituye un dato de importancia epidemiológica, considerado como la base para investigar los factores que aumentan el riesgo de contagio, en especial por especies Candida no-albicans y para determinar si la enfermedad es prevenible o controlable


Yeasts of the genus Candida cause diseases in humans ranging from superficial, non-serious, to systemic and potentially life-threatening infections. Candidiasis or thrush, is the common origin of vaginal disease and although it is not considered disabling, infection usually cause troublesome symptoms that alter the behavior of the patient. In Mexico it is considered the unique mycosis of mandatory reporting to health authorities. Therefore, in this work a literature review was conducted to know the state of the art of the vulvovaginitis caused by Candida spp. (VVC), as well as provide a brief description about the frequency presented by this infection in different countries of Latin America, with special emphasis on Mexico. It shows that the frequencies of VVC in Latin America, are very similar to those reported in countries such as the United States of America; in addition, Candida albicans still prevails as the main etiologic agent. The differences found between developed countries with respect to Latin American countries basically consist of the diagnostic methods and the type of treatment. Unfortunately, in Mexico, while the VVC ranks ninth among the 20 principal causes of disease in the country, in very few cases is carried out the identification of the causative species, which constitutes a fact of epidemiological importance, considered as the basis for investigating the factors that increase the risk of infection, especially by Candida nonalbicans species and to determine if the disease is preventable or controllable

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