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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516505

RESUMO

This study evaluates a simple clinical audit tool for assessing quality of care and blood pressure control among persons with hypertension in primary care clinics. A systematic random sampling of persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) attending five health centers in Kingston, Jamaica, was conducted. A modified Ministry of Health paper-based audit tool captured quality of care and outcome indicators (blood pressure and glycemic control). Additional chart audits were conducted by a physician and nurse to assess reliability. One hundred and forty-nine charts were audited between January and September 2017. One hundred and thirty-eight persons (92.6%) had hypertension (27 men and 111 women); 77 persons (51.7%) had DM (14 men and 63 women). The median age was 64 years old. Approximately two-thirds of persons with HTN and DM had electrolytes, lipid profile, and ECG done within the last year. One-fifth of persons with hypertension (18.5% men and 19.8% women, P = 1.000) had adequate blood pressure control with greater control among persons with HTN only compared to persons with both DM and HTN. Poor glycemic control was recorded for 69% of persons with DM (57% men and 71% women, P = .297). Moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement was observed for quality of care indicators. Our findings confirmed that hypertension and glycemic control are inadequate among persons attending primary care clinics in Jamaica's capital city. Simplified clinical audits can provide important quality of care and outcome indicators without losing the meaningfulness of the data collected.

3.
Vaccine ; 37(44): 6584-6587, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537448

RESUMO

The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 called for all countries to establish a National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) by 2020. The Caribbean, with its unique geographical context of 22 countries/territories, had limited technical expertise to establish individual NITAGs in small countries. The Caribbean Immunization Technical Advisory Group (CITAG) was launched in 2018. This paper describes the Caribbean context for a common framework for policy and evidence-based decision-making for immunization. Challenges in immunization in the region are reviewed and potential solutions are outlined. A recent decline in immunization rates in the Caribbean, along with outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases globally, places the region, a premier tourist destination, in a vulnerable position. The CITAG aims to strengthen the policy and evidence-based decision-making process for immunization to enable the Caribbean to remain at the forefront of vaccine-preventable disease elimination.

5.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(6): 536-541, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074362

RESUMO

A cross-sectional survey of 295 persons attending a major sexually transmitted infection clinic in Jamaica's capital city showed that the Ministry of Health's syndromic algorithm has moderate sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing cervicitis. In the absence of diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections, a syndromic algorithm continues to be useful for diagnosing sexually transmitted infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Cervicite Uterina/diagnóstico , Cervicite Uterina/microbiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Síndrome , Cervicite Uterina/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206962, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV prevention strategies often include outreach to female sex workers at social venues identified as places where people meet new sexual partners. Patrons and staff at these venues may include female sex workers, their clients, as well as others who have high rates of new sexual partnerships. Few studies have compared HIV/STI among venue-based and general populations, across types of venues, or by sub-group of the venue population. Program planners often assume that the prevalence of infection is highest among female sex workers and considerably lower among other people at these venues, but there are few empiric studies assessing the prevalence of infection by sex worker status and type of venue. METHODS: In 2011, we used the PLACE method to identify public venues where people meet new sexual partners across Jamaica. The study team visited all venues with reported sex work as well as a 10% random sample of other venues and subsequently interviewed and tested a probability sample of 991 venue patrons and workers for HIV and other STI. RESULTS: Community informants identified 1207 venues. All venues where sex work was reported (735 venues) and a random sample of the remainder (134 of 472) were selected for onsite visits. Of these, 585 were found and operational. At a stratified random sample of venues, survey teams interviewed and tested 717 women and 274 men. 394 women reported recent sex work and 211 of these women reported soliciting clients on the street. Women exchanging sex for money were more likely to be infected with HIV (5.4% vs 1.0%; OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.8,17.3) or syphilis (11.7% vs. 5.8%, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7,4,0) than other women, but not significantly more likely to be infected with gonorrhea (8.4% vs 7.8%; OR = 1.1,95% CI = 0.6,1.9), chlamydia (16.2% vs 21.6%;OR = 0.7,95% CI = 0.5,1.0) or trichomoniasis (23.0% vs 17.0%, OR = 1.5,95% CI = 0.9,2.2). Women at venues were more likely to report sex work and multiple partners than women interviewed in a 2008 national population-based household survey commissioned by the Ministry of Health. CONCLUSIONS: In Jamaica, although the highest HIV prevalence was among street-based sex workers, the risk of HIV and STI extends to men and women at high risk venues, even those who do not self-identify as sex workers. Findings confirm the appropriateness of outreach to all men and women at these venues.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Vigilância da População , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto Jovem
7.
AIDS Care ; 30(5): 604-608, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971701

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study explored the range of psychiatric and substance use disorders and unmet need for mental health care among 84 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative public clinic attendees in Jamaica. We used a brief interviewer-administered diagnostic tool, the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire. Two-thirds (65.6%) screened positive for at least one psychiatric disorder; 30.5% screened positive for multiple disorders. The most common disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (41.4%), alcohol abuse (22.7%), and depressive disorders (21.9%). One in fourteen (7.1%) participants with at least one diagnosis received care in the last 6 months. Adjusting for age and sex, PTSD was associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment (AOR = 5.32), anxiety disorders (AOR = 5.82), depression (AOR = 4.29), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 8.17). Psychiatric and substance use disorders, particularly PTSD, were common among STI/HIV clinic attendees in Jamaica. Such clinics may be efficient places to screen, identify, and treat patients with psychiatric disorders in low- and middle- income countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis ; 2: e61-e67, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242846

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia among primary care patients with hypertension and diabetes in Jamaica and the proportion of patients who achieve recommended targets. Material and methods: An audit of 500 dockets of adult patients with chronic disease attending public primary care clinics in Jamaica was conducted between October and December 2013. Data were collected on patient characteristics including medical history, medications, anthropometry, and lipid profiles (since January 1, 2011). Lipid targets were based on the Ministry of Health 2007 management guidelines. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors of achieving lipid targets. Results: Four hundred and thirty-seven patient records had a lipid profile done and 90% of these had at least one abnormal lipid value. 15.3% of the patients achieved the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target, 63.2% high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 85.1% triglycerides and 57.4% the total cholesterol target. Statins were prescribed for 49% and these patients were less likely to achieve LDL-C (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33-0.97; p = 0.04) or total cholesterol (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.13-0.33; p < 0.001) targets. Patients over 80 years were more likely to achieve the LDL-C target (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.64-6.28; p = 0.002) than those less than 50 years old. More men than women achieved total cholesterol targets (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4-3.6; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Dyslipidemia is widespread among primary care patients with hypertension and diabetes. The proportion of patients who achieve the respective lipid targets must be documented and routinely monitored and appropriate medication and lifestyle changes implemented to improve this.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34394

RESUMO

The Pan American Journal of Public Health recognizes with appreciation the contributions of the members of the Editorial Committee, and authors of the Overview article. Their contributions and dedication to this issue on immunization in the Region of the Americas were extraordinary and helped make the manuscripts more interesting, more accurate, and more useful to our readers and all others who work to improve the health of the peoples of the Americas. The Journal would like to give special thanks to the General Coordination of the National Immunization Program, Department of Transmissible Disease Surveillance, Health Surveillance Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Brazil, whose financial and programmatic contributions were essential to the publication of this special issue.


Assuntos
Imunização , América Latina , Vacinação , Imunização , América Latina , Vacinas , Imunização , Vacinas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34363

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. The year 2017 marks the 40th year of the establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the regional office of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Americas, the first WHO region certified as eliminating poliomyelitis (1994), measles (2016), and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (2015). The English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean subregion of the Americas paved the way in eliminating these diseases. This report highlights the innovative strategies used in this subregion that helped make the EPI a success. A review of published/unpublished reports and written and oral accounts of the experiences of Immunization Advisors and national EPI managers was conducted to identify the strategies used to strengthen the Immunization program in the subregion since its implementation by countries in 1977. The results show that these include strong collective political commitment, country-specific immunization legislation, joint use of a standard coverage monitoring chart, annual meetings of national EPI managers, collaborative development of annual national Plans of Action for Immunization, coordinated implementation of vaccination campaigns, subregional oversight of surveillance and laboratory support, a performance award system for countries, and subregional standardized templates for immunization manuals and procedural guidelines. Political will and support for immunization has been particularly strong in this subregion, where 99% of EPI costs are borne by governments. Dedicated health staff and multi-country agreement and application of strategies have led to high sustained coverage and good-quality surveillance, resulting in the absence of wild polio for 34 years, measles for 25 years, CRS for 17 years, and rubella for 15 years.


[RESUMEN]. En el 2017 se celebra el cuadragésimo año de la instauración del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (PAI) por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), la Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para las Américas. Esta fue la primera región de la OMS que obtuvo la certificación de la eliminación de la poliomielitis (1994), el sarampión (2016) y la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita (2015). La subregión de habla inglesa y holandesa del Caribe en las Américas abrió el camino a la eliminación de estas enfermedades. En el presente artículo se destacan las estrategias innovadoras utilizadas en esta subregión que contribuyeron al éxito del PAI. Se llevó a cabo una revisión de los informes publicados e inéditos y de los relatos escritos y orales de las experiencias de los Expertos en Inmunización y los gerentes nacionales del PAI con el objeto de determinar las estrategias utilizadas con miras a fortalecer el programa de vacunación en la subregión, desde su introducción en los países en 1977. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los programas comportaban un fuerte compromiso político colectivo, legislaciones en materia de inmunización propias de cada país, la utilización común de un registro gráfico normalizado de monitoreo de coberturas de vacunación, reuniones anuales de los gerentes nacionales del PAI, la elaboración conjunta de planes de acción anuales nacionales sobre vacunas, la ejecución coordinada de campañas de vacunación, la supervisión de la vigilancia y el apoyo a los laboratorios a escala subregional, un sistema de reconocimiento al desempeño de los países y plantillas subregionales normalizadas de los manuales de vacunación y los procedimientos recomendados. La voluntad política y el apoyo a la vacunación han sido muy sólidos en esta subregión, donde los gobiernos sufragan 99% de los costos del PAI. La existencia de personal sanitario dedicado y los acuerdos multinacionales y la aplicación de las estrategias permitieron alcanzar una alta cobertura de manera sostenida y una vigilancia de buena calidad, cuyo resultado fue la ausencia de poliomielitis salvaje durante 34 años, de sarampión durante 25 años, del síndrome de la rubéola congénita durante 17 años y de la rubéola durante 15 años.


[RESUMO]. O ano de 2017 marca o 40º aniversário da criação do Programa Ampliado de Imunização (PAI) pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Escritório Regional da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) nas Américas, primeira Região da OMS certificada como tendo eliminado a poliomielite (1994), o sarampo (2016) e a rubéola e síndrome da rubéola congênita (2015). A sub-região das Américas constituída pelos países do Caribe de língua inglesa e holandesa abriu caminho ao eliminar essas doenças. Este relato destaca as estratégias inovadoras usadas nesta sub-região que contribuíram para tornar o PAI um programa bem-sucedido. Foi realizada uma análise de informes publicados/inéditos e relatos orais e escritos da experiência dos assessores para assuntos de imunização e coordenadores nacionais do PAI visando identificar as estratégias aplicadas para consolidar o programa nos países da sub-região desde a sua implementação em 1977. Os resultados demonstram firme compromisso político coletivo, legislação de vacinação própria em cada país, uso conjunto de uma lista padrão para o monitoramento da cobertura, reuniões anuais dos coordenadores nacionais do PAI, desenvolvimento colaborativo de planos de ação nacionais anuais para vacinação, campanhas coordenadas de vacinação, supervisão sub-regional da vigilância e infraestrutura laboratorial, sistema de premiação dos países por bom desempenho, modelos padronizados para os manuais de vacinação e protocolos de procedimentos. A sub-região se caracteriza sobretudo pela vontade e apoio políticos para vacinação, sendo 99% do custo do PAI financiados pelos governos. Equipes de saúde diligentes, acordos entre vários países e emprego de estratégias são fatores que contribuem para elevada cobertura sustentada e vigilância de boa qualidade com a consequente não ocorrência de casos de poliomielite por vírus selvagem por 34 anos, de casos de sarampo por 25 anos, de casos de síndrome da rubéola congênita por 17 anos e de casos de rubéola por 15 anos.


Assuntos
Imunização , Sarampo , Erradicação de Doenças , Região do Caribe , Imunização , Sarampo , Erradicação de Doenças , Região do Caribe , Sarampo , Erradicação de Doenças
11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 41: e127, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384260

RESUMO

The year 2017 marks the 40th year of the establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the regional office of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Americas, the first WHO region certified as eliminating poliomyelitis (1994), measles (2016), and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (2015). The English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean subregion of the Americas paved the way in eliminating these diseases. This report highlights the innovative strategies used in this subregion that helped make the EPI a success. A review of published/unpublished reports and written and oral accounts of the experiences of Immunization Advisors and national EPI managers was conducted to identify the strategies used to strengthen the Immunization program in the subregion since its implementation by countries in 1977. The results show that these include strong collective political commitment, country-specific immunization legislation, joint use of a standard coverage monitoring chart, annual meetings of national EPI managers, collaborative development of annual national Plans of Action for Immunization, coordinated implementation of vaccination campaigns, subregional oversight of surveillance and laboratory support, a performance award system for countries, and subregional standardized templates for immunization manuals and procedural guidelines. Political will and support for immunization has been particularly strong in this subregion, where 99% of EPI costs are borne by governments. Dedicated health staff and multi-country agreement and application of strategies have led to high sustained coverage and good-quality surveillance, resulting in the absence of wild polio for 34 years, measles for 25 years, CRS for 17 years, and rubella for 15 years.

13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e127, 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-961674

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The year 2017 marks the 40th year of the establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the regional office of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Americas, the first WHO region certified as eliminating poliomyelitis (1994), measles (2016), and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (2015). The English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean subregion of the Americas paved the way in eliminating these diseases. This report highlights the innovative strategies used in this subregion that helped make the EPI a success. A review of published/unpublished reports and written and oral accounts of the experiences of Immunization Advisors and national EPI managers was conducted to identify the strategies used to strengthen the Immunization program in the subregion since its implementation by countries in 1977. The results show that these include strong collective political commitment, country-specific immunization legislation, joint use of a standard coverage monitoring chart, annual meetings of national EPI managers, collaborative development of annual national Plans of Action for Immunization, coordinated implementation of vaccination campaigns, subregional oversight of surveillance and laboratory support, a performance award system for countries, and subregional standardized templates for immunization manuals and procedural guidelines. Political will and support for immunization has been particularly strong in this subregion, where 99% of EPI costs are borne by governments. Dedicated health staff and multi-country agreement and application of strategies have led to high sustained coverage and good-quality surveillance, resulting in the absence of wild polio for 34 years, measles for 25 years, CRS for 17 years, and rubella for 15 years.


RESUMEN En el 2017 se celebra el cuadragésimo año de la instauración del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (PAI) por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), la Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para las Américas. Esta fue la primera región de la OMS que obtuvo la certificación de la eliminación de la poliomielitis (1994), el sarampión (2016) y la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita (2015). La subregión de habla inglesa y holandesa del Caribe en las Américas abrió el camino a la eliminación de estas enfermedades. En el presente artículo se destacan las estrategias innovadoras utilizadas en esta subregión que contribuyeron al éxito del PAI. Se llevó a cabo una revisión de los informes publicados e inéditos y de los relatos escritos y orales de las experiencias de los Expertos en Inmunización y los gerentes nacionales del PAI con el objeto de determinar las estrategias utilizadas con miras a fortalecer el programa de vacunación en la subregión, desde su introducción en los países en 1977. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los programas comportaban un fuerte compromiso político colectivo, legislaciones en materia de inmunización propias de cada país, la utilización común de un registro gráfico normalizado de monitoreo de coberturas de vacunación, reuniones anuales de los gerentes nacionales del PAI, la elaboración conjunta de planes de acción anuales nacionales sobre vacunas, la ejecución coordinada de campañas de vacunación, la supervisión de la vigilancia y el apoyo a los laboratorios a escala subregional, un sistema de reconocimiento al desempeño de los países y plantillas subregionales normalizadas de los manuales de vacunación y los procedimientos recomendados. La voluntad política y el apoyo a la vacunación han sido muy sólidos en esta subregión, donde los gobiernos sufragan 99% de los costos del PAI. La existencia de personal sanitario dedicado y los acuerdos multinacionales y la aplicación de las estrategias permitieron alcanzar una alta cobertura de manera sostenida y una vigilancia de buena calidad, cuyo resultado fue la ausencia de poliomielitis salvaje durante 34 años, de sarampión durante 25 años, del síndrome de la rubéola congénita durante 17 años y de la rubéola durante 15 años.


RESUMO O ano de 2017 marca o 40° aniversário da criação do Programa Ampliado de Imunização (PAI) pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Escritório Regional da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) nas Américas, primeira Região da OMS certificada como tendo eliminado a poliomielite (1994), o sarampo (2016) e a rubéola e síndrome da rubéola congênita (2015). A sub-região das Américas constituída pelos países do Caribe de língua inglesa e holandesa abriu caminho ao eliminar essas doenças. Este relato destaca as estratégias inovadoras usadas nesta sub-região que contribuíram para tornar o PAI um programa bem-sucedido. Foi realizada uma análise de informes publicados/inéditos e relatos orais e escritos da experiência dos assessores para assuntos de imunização e coordenadores nacionais do PAI visando identificar as estratégias aplicadas para consolidar o programa nos países da sub-região desde a sua implementação em 1977. Os resultados demonstram firme compromisso político coletivo, legislação de vacinação própria em cada país, uso conjunto de uma lista padrão para o monitoramento da cobertura, reuniões anuais dos coordenadores nacionais do PAI, desenvolvimento colaborativo de planos de ação nacionais anuais para vacinação, campanhas coordenadas de vacinação, supervisão sub-regional da vigilância e infraestrutura laboratorial, sistema de premiação dos países por bom desempenho, modelos padronizados para os manuais de vacinação e protocolos de procedimentos. A sub-região se caracteriza sobretudo pela vontade e apoio políticos para vacinação, sendo 99% do custo do PAI financiados pelos governos. Equipes de saúde diligentes, acordos entre vários países e emprego de estratégias são fatores que contribuem para elevada cobertura sustentada e vigilância de boa qualidade com a consequente não ocorrência de casos de poliomielite por vírus selvagem por 34 anos, de casos de sarampo por 25 anos, de casos de síndrome da rubéola congênita por 17 anos e de casos de rubéola por 15 anos.


Assuntos
Vacinação em Massa , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 40(6), dic. 2016
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-33658

RESUMO

The world has pledged within the Sustainable Development Goals to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. In Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015 approximately 2.0 million people were living with HIV and an estimated 100 000 new infections occurred. Yet, significant progress has been made in the Region of the Americas over the past ten years in expanding access and coverage of HIV care and treatment and in achieving elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis (1, 2). Regarding HIV prevention, and HIV stigma and discrimination new regional elimination targets have also been developed and endorsed (3). However, challenges still persist; among them, a 3% increase in the rate of new HIV infections in the Region between 2010 and 2015 (4). This special issue on HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment in the Region of the Americas: achievements, challenges and perspectives provides an opportunity to present the current response to HIV/AIDS in the Region with a focus on three main areas: HIV prevention, HIV care and treatment, and the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. A call for papers was issued in early 2016, and 12 articles were selected for publication—nine original research papers, one brief communication, one review, and one opinion and analysis article. The papers represent seven different countries as well as an overview of the Caribbean sub-region. A successful HIV prevention program requires a combination of structural, biomedical, and behavioral interventions that are mutually reinforcing, continually evaluated, and tailored to the needs and risks of specific key populations and others who are vulnerable to infection. Previous reports have shown the importance of combination prevention strategies (5). The special issue addresses this by focusing on HIV prevention strategies available for men who have sex with men in the United States (6), as well as the social vulnerability of transgender persons (7). Both papers highlight the need for tailored interventions that take into account local epidemiological contexts....


Assuntos
HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida
15.
Arch Sex Behav ; 45(4): 911-21, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836026

RESUMO

The Jamaican government has provided targeted HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment, and other services for female sex workers (FSW) since 1989. HIV prevalence among FSW declined from 20 to 12% between 1989 and 1994, then to 9% in 2005, 5% in 2008, and 4.1% in 2011. This article distills the literature and two decades of experience working with FSW in Jamaica. Drawing on the constant comparative method, we put forward an innovative conceptual framework for explaining sexual decision-making and risk behaviors within both transactional and relational sexual situations. This framework helps fill the gaps in existing models that focus on individual behaviors. The model identifies interactions between environmental and structural elements of sex work, and three individual-level factors: risk perception, perceived relationship intimacy, and perceived control, as the four primary mediating factors influencing sexual decision-making among FSW. We propose that other factors such as violence, socioeconomic vulnerability, and policy/legal frameworks influence sexual decision-making through these primary mediating factors. This conceptual model may offer a useful framework for planning and evaluating prevention interventions among sex workers. However, it remains to be tested in order to establish its value.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jamaica , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Violência/prevenção & controle
17.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 31(8): 841-4, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26133540

RESUMO

The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is highest among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica but no genotypic data are available on the virus strains that are responsible for the epidemic among this key population. HIV-1 polymerase (pol) genes from 65 MSM were sequenced and used to predict drug resistance mutations. An HIV drug resistance prevalence of 28% (minimum 13%) was observed among this cohort, with the most frequent mutations conferring resistance to efavirenz, nevirapine, and lamivudine. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed 10 times the number of linked HIV infections among this cohort than respondent reporting. HIV treatment and prevention efforts in Jamaica could benefit significantly from Pol genotyping of the HIV strains infecting socially vulnerable MSM prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), as this would guide suppressive ART and unearth HIV transmission clusters to enable more effective delivery of treatment and prevention programs.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 10(2): e0117686, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25659122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study estimates HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica and explores social determinants of HIV infection among MSM. DESIGN: An island-wide cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited by peer referral and outreach was conducted in 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered and HIV/STI tests done. We compared three groups: MSM who accepted cash for sex within the past 3 months (MSM SW), MSM who did not accept cash for sex (MSM non-SW), and MSM with adverse life events (ever raped, jailed, homeless, victim of violence or low literacy). RESULTS: HIV prevalence among 449 MSM was 31.4%, MSM SW 41.1%, MSM with adverse life events 38.5%, 17 transgender MSM (52.9%), and MSM non-SW without adverse events 21.0%. HIV prevalence increased with age and number of adverse life events (test for trend P < 0.001), as did STI prevalence (P = 0.03). HIV incidence was 6.7 cases/100 person-years (95% CI: 3.74, 12.19). HIV prevalence was highest among MSM reporting high-risk sex; MSM SW who had been raped (65.0%), had a STI (61.2%) and who self identified as female (55.6%). Significant risk factors for HIV infection common to all 3 subgroups were participation in both receptive and insertive anal intercourse, high-risk sex, and history of a STI. Perception of no or little risk, always using a condom, and being bisexual were protective. CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence was high among MSM SW and MSM with adverse life events. Given the characteristics of the sample, HIV prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is probably in the range of 20%. The study illustrates the importance of social vulnerability in driving the HIV epidemic. Programs to empower young MSM, reduce social vulnerability and other structural barriers including stigma and discrimination against MSM are critical to reduce HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Homossexualidade Masculina , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Int J STD AIDS ; 26(1): 37-41, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24695013

RESUMO

To estimate the association between a simple measure of sexual partner concurrency and sexually transmitted infection (STI) we conducted a cross-sectional population-based household survey (n = 1795) and targeted surveys of people at venues where people meet sexual partners (n = 1580) to ask about sexual behaviour. Persons interviewed at venues were tested for HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. We compared the association between STI and reporting a partner had other partners. More women than men reported their main partner had other partners. Thirteen percent of all women in the population-based survey and 14.4% in the targeted survey reported having one partner in the past 12 months and that partner had additional partners. STI prevalence was significantly associated with reporting a partner had other partners (36.8% vs. 30.2%; prevalence ratio [PR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.4). Construction of complete sexual networks is costly and not routinely feasible. We recommend adding a question to cross-sectional surveys used to monitor sexual behaviour about whether the respondent believes his or her partner has other sexual partners. Although subject to bias, the question was useful in Jamaica to identify a group of women with only one sexual partner at increased risk of infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 11(2): 158-67, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24623473

RESUMO

This paper reviews the recent literature on HIV in the Caribbean and discusses the challenges faced. HIV incidence in the Caribbean has declined by 49 % in the past decade, coverage of persons living with HIV among those eligible for antiretroviral treatment as per national guidelines was 70 % in 2012, and some countries are meeting the target of virtual elimination of mother-to-child transmission. HIV prevalence in the Caribbean is 1 % with features of both a generalized and concentrated HIV epidemic. HIV prevalence among female sex workers has declined but remains unacceptably high among men who have sex with men. Social and cultural factors, gender norms, and strong stigma associated with HIV and homosexuality contribute to the continued spread of HIV. Caribbean countries and their partners have invested significant resources, creative effort and impressive research in strengthening the HIV response nationally and regionally. However, in order to control the HIV epidemic, leaders at all levels, and the people, must address fundamental structural barriers in society that deny marginalized persons their rights, undermine public health goals, and impede universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/tendências , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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