Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 43
Filtrar
1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 474-481, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine SARS-CoV-2-antibody prevalence in pediatric healthcare workers (pHCWs). DESIGN: Baseline prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG was assessed in a prospective cohort study from a large pediatric healthcare facility. Prior SARS-CoV-2 testing history, potential risk factors and anxiety level about COVID-19 were determined. Prevalence difference between emergency department (ED)-based and non-ED-pHCWs was modeled controlling for those covariates. Chi-square test-for-trend was used to examine prevalence by month of enrollment. RESULTS: Most of 642 pHCWs enrolled were 31-40years, female and had no comorbidities. Half had children in their home, 49% had traveled, 42% reported an illness since January, 31% had a known COVID-19 exposure, and 8% had SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. High COVID-19 pandemic anxiety was reported by 71%. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG prevalence was 4.1%; 8.4% among ED versus 2.0% among non-ED pHCWs (p < 0.001). ED-work location and known COVID-19 exposure were independent risk factors. 31% of antibody-positive pHCWs reported no symptoms. Prevalence significantly (p < 0.001) increased from 3.0% in April-June to 12.7% in July-August. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG prevalence was low in pHCWs but increased rapidly over time. Both working in the ED and exposure to a COVID-19-positive contact were associated with antibody-seropositivity. Ongoing universal PPE utilization is essential. These data may guide vaccination policies to protect front-line workers.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24690, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578603

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pediatric procedural sedation (PPS) is often performed outside of the operating room, and by various sub-specialty providers. There is no consistency in how pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellows are trained in PPS. The objective of this study was to survey PEM program directors (PDs) and PEM fellows about their current sedation teaching practices via a direct survey. While many fellowship programs train PEM fellows in PPS, we hypothesize that there is no consistent method of developing and measuring this skill.A 12-question survey was sent to PEM PDs directly via email. A separate 17-question survey was sent to current PEM fellows via their program coordinators by email. Each survey had multiple choice, yes-no and select-all program questions. Responses were collected in an online (REDCap) database and summarized as frequencies and percentages.Based on identifiable email, 67 programs were contacted, with a PD response rate of 46 (59%). Sixty-two program coordinators were contacted based on identifiable email with 78 fellow responses. We noted that 11/46 PD respondents offer a formal PPS rotation. Thirty programs report using propofol in the emergency department and 93% of PD respondents (28/30) actively train fellows in the use of propofol. Approximately 62% of PEM fellow respondents (48/78) report sedating without any attending oversight. Twenty-eight percent of PEM fellow respondents report using simulation as a component of their sedation training.PPS is a critical skill. However, there is a lack of consistency in both education and evaluation of competency in this area. An organized PPS rotation would improve PPS case exposure and PPS skills.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/educação , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/uso terapêutico , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Dados , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Escolaridade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Treinamento por Simulação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12773, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of body fat distribution in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether total and truncal fat deposition patterns in childhood/adolescence are associated with NAFLD risk at 24 years. METHODS: Data were from 1657 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Transient elastography was used to assess hepatic steatosis (low/moderate/severe) at 24 years and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess total body fat percent (TBF%) and trunk fat percent (TrF%) at 9, 13, 15, 17, and/or 24 years. Linear mixed models were constructed with quadratic age to examine trajectories of TBF% and TrF% by steatosis at 24 years, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: In both sexes, TBF% trajectories from 9 to 24 years followed a similar pattern based on steatosis group (P = .83 for boys and P = .14 for girls for age2 *steatosis fixed effect). However, at all ages TBF% was higher for moderate/severe vs low steatosis at 24 years (P < .05). In contrast, TrF% trajectories diverged based on steatosis group (P = .001 for boys and P = .0002 for girls for age2 *steatosis fixed effect), such that, in both sexes, participants with moderate/severe steatosis at 24 yrs exhibited less decline in TrF% from adolescence to adulthood compared to participants with low steatosis at 24 yrs. Similar to TBF%, TrF% was higher at nearly all ages for moderate/severe vs low steatosis. Results were similar after adjusting for BMI category at each age, except in boys some differences for TrF% were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that sex-specific body fat distribution patterns in childhood/adolescence may help to identify those at risk of developing NAFLD in adulthood.

5.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 60(1): 16-19, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715751

RESUMO

Background and Objective. Scald burns are a major cause of pediatric burn injuries. Instant soups have been identified as one source of these injuries. This study aims to quantify and characterize these injuries in pediatric patients. Methods. Ten-year query of National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database identified instant soup- and noodle-related scald burns in children aged 4 to 12 years. Data included patient demographics, injured body part, case narratives, and emergency department disposition. Results. A total of 4518 cases were identified, yielding an estimate of 9521 cases/year in the United States. Younger children were affected more than the older. Trunk was the most commonly burned body area. Approximately 10% of injuries required admission or transfer for further care. Conclusion. Instant soup and noodle products are a common cause of pediatric scald burns, potentially injuring 25 children per day in the United States and leading to high rates of health care utilization.

6.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 60(1): 42-49, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748645

RESUMO

Locked-up and unloaded firearm storage is a tenet of injury prevention campaigns to decrease children's access to firearms. This study cohort describes the reported presence of, storage mechanisms for, and children's perceived access to firearms. Parent-child dyads (n = 297) were recruited from pediatric emergency departments in Atlanta, GA. Gun owners were 25% of cohort; 53% reported storing some firearms insecurely. Gun owners were more likely to believe their child could access a firearm versus non-gun owners (11% vs 3%). Children of gun owners versus non-gun owners indicated increased ability to acquire a gun (14% vs 4%). Fifty-nine percent of children could not identify a real versus toy gun in a picture. This study highlights a plurality of parents storing firearms insecurely with a significant portion of children reporting gun access and demonstrating inability to recognize actual guns. This disconnect points to the importance of public health interventions to decrease access to firearms in this vulnerable population.

7.
Haemophilia ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with haemophilia, general psychological distress as measured by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) distress thermometer has been associated with pain, disability and increased healthcare utilization. AIMS: To develop and validate a measure of haemophilia-related distress. METHODS: After qualitative interviews, the Hemophilia-Related Distress Questionnaire (HRDq) was developed. To validate the HRDq, adults (≥18 years) with haemophilia were enrolled, reported demographic and clinical information, and completed the HRDq and other questionnaires that measured similar constructs. Analysis included factor analysis and assessment of internal consistency using Cronbach's α, convergent validity using Pearson's correlation coefficient, and discriminant validity by comparing subgroups of patients. Test-retest reliability was assessed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Among 130 enrolled participants, 126 (median age=32.7 years) completed the 24 item HRDq in a median time of 5.4 minutes with overall HRDq scores ranging from 2 to 83 (median score=31.5; higher scores indicating higher distress). Assessment of convergent validity demonstrated a strong correlation (ρ>.60) of the HRDq total score with the NCCN Distress Thermometer, Haem-A-QoL total Score, and PROMIS-29 Profile social role domain and a mild to moderate correlation with all other questionnaire domains (.3-.59, p < .05). Distress was higher among those who had less education, were not employed, and were disabled and was not significantly different among those with severe compared with non-severe disease. Assessment of test-retest reliability demonstrated an ICC value of .84 (95% CI .71-.91) for the total score. CONCLUSIONS: The HRDq demonstrates good internal consistency, construct and discriminant validity, and retest reliability with a low responder burden.

9.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 7: 2333794X20968676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195746

RESUMO

Rising rates of mumps in Georgia have been reported. We hypothesize that the incidence of parotitis and mumps presenting to Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (CHOA) has increased over the past decade among immunized children. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted using ICD9/10-codes for parotitis and mumps from January 2007 to December 2017. Data on demographics, vaccination status, labs, management and disposition were collected. 1017 parotitis cases were diagnosed; an upward trend in incidence occurred over time. Mumps testing was done in 47 (4.6%) parotitis cases; 9 mumps cases were identified, with 6 diagnosed in 2017. Seven patients (78%) were fully vaccinated. Median age for mumps was 13 years. Few symptoms differentiate mumps from non-mumps-parotitis. The incidence of parotitis and mumps in children has increased since 2007 in the Atlanta area, reflecting a nationwide trend. Mumps is likely underreported as rates of testing are low, and should be considered in children with parotitis regardless of vaccination history.

10.
Am J Hematol ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075179

RESUMO

Low arginine bioavailability is associated with vaso-occlusive painful crisis (VOC) severity in sickle cell anemia (SCA) and predicts need for pediatric hospitalization. Intravenous arginine therapy has opioid-sparing effects and was found to significantly decrease pain scores in children hospitalized with SCA-VOC in a phase-two randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT). Efficacy of oral arginine is unknown. Our objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral arginine therapy in Nigerian children with SCA. A double-blind RCT of oral L-arginine-hydrochloride (100 mg/kg TID) was conducted in children with SCA-VOC, aged 5-17 years, hospitalized at two Nigerian sites. The primary outcome measure was analgesic usage, quantified by difference in the mean Analgesic Medication Quantification Scale (MQS). Secondary outcomes included daily pain scores, time-to-crisis-resolution and length-of-hospital-stay. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Sixty-eight children (age 5-17 years, mean 10.6 ± 0.4 years; 56% male), were randomized to receive L-arginine (35 patients) or placebo (33 patients). The mean total MQS for the arginine group was 73.4 (95% CI, 62.4-84.3) vs 120.0 (96.7-143.3) for placebo (P < .001). The mean rate of decline in worst pain scores was faster in the arginine arm vs placebo (1.50 [1.23-1.77] vs 1.09 [0.94-1.24] point/d, P = .009). Children receiving arginine had a shorter time-to-crisis-resolution (P = .02), shorter hospital-stay (P = .002) and experienced no serious adverse event. Pain control was more rapid, total analgesic requirement was significantly reduced, and most notably, time-to-crisis-resolution and length-of-hospital-stay were shorter in children with SCA-VOC receiving arginine vs placebo. Given the established safety and low cost, oral arginine is a promising adjuvant therapy for SCA-VOC management.

11.
Children (Basel) ; 7(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882815

RESUMO

(1) Background: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is used to screen for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children; however, the optimal age to commence screening is not determined. Our objective was to describe whether ALT trends from 9-24 years were associated with hepatic steatosis at 24 years in a population-based UK cohort. (2) Methods: The sample included 1156 participants who were assessed for hepatic steatosis at 24 years and had at least two ALT measurements at 9, 15, 17, and/or 24 years. Controlled attenuation parameter scores were used to assess steatosis (low (<248 dB/m), mild/moderate (248-279 dB/m), severe (>279 dB/m)). Sex-stratified mixed-effects models were constructed to assess the liver enzyme trends by steatosis level. (3) Results: The final sample was 41.4% male and 10.4% had severe steatosis. In both sexes, ALT trends from 9 to 24 years differed in those with low vs. severe steatosis at 24 years (p < 0.001). There was no evidence of differences prior to puberty. At 17 years, the low vs. severe geometric mean ratio (GMR) was 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.85 in males and (0.81, 0.65-1.01) females. At 24 years, the GMR was (0.53, 0.42-0.66) in males and (0.67, 0.54-0.84) females. (4) Conclusions: Higher ALT concentration in adolescence was associated with hepatic steatosis at 24 years. The increased screening of adolescents could strengthen NAFLD prevention and treatment efforts.

12.
Ann Emerg Med ; 76(3S): S46-S55, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928462

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Acute chest syndrome is a leading cause of mortality in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Because early detection of acute chest syndrome is directly tied to prognosis, young patients with SCD undergo countless chest radiography screenings throughout their lifetime for commonly occurring acute chest syndrome risk factors such as fever, chest pain, or cough. Chest radiography is not an ideal screening method because it is associated with radiation exposure, which accumulates with repeated imaging. Point-of-care lung ultrasonography is a nonradiating imaging modality that has been used to identify other lung pathology and may have a role in SCD. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of point-of-care lung ultrasound to identify an infiltrate suggestive of acute chest syndrome in patients with SCD compared to chest radiography as the gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in 2 urban pediatric emergency departments to evaluate the accuracy of point-of-care lung ultrasonography in identifying patients with SCD who were aged 0 to 21 years and had an infiltrate suggestive of acute chest syndrome compared with chest radiography. Clinicians and trainees with point-of-care lung ultrasonographic training obtained informed consent and performed investigational point-of-care lung ultrasonography to evaluate for lung consolidation. A blinded point-of-care lung ultrasonographic expert reviewed results for quality assurance and agreement. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive value were calculated for point-of-care lung ultrasonography test performance characteristics, with chest radiography as a reference standard. RESULTS: Point-of-care lung ultrasonography was performed on 191 SCD patients with a mean age of 8 years; 41% were female patients, and there was a 17% prevalence of acute chest syndrome. Accuracy of point-of-care lung ultrasonography to detected acute chest syndrome was 92%, sensitivity was 88%, and specificity was 93% compared with that for chest radiography. CONCLUSION: Point-of-care lung ultrasonography is a feasible alternative to chest radiography for screening for acute chest syndrome in young patients with SCD. Further studies are needed to determine how this test performs within clinical practice.


Assuntos
Síndrome Torácica Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Testes Imediatos , Ultrassonografia , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Torácica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia/métodos
13.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(12): 1517-1525, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern exists over exponential growth in cardiac imaging in adults, but there is paucity of such data for cardiac imaging trends in pediatric patients. The aims of this study were to determine temporal trends in the use of noninvasive cardiac imaging and compare these with trends in the use of noncardiac imaging and to identify factors influencing those trends using the Pediatric Health Information Service database. METHODS: Pediatric inpatient encounter data from January 2004 to December 2017 at 35 pediatric hospitals were extracted from the Pediatric Health Information Service database. Temporal imaging utilization trends in cardiac and noncardiac ultrasound or echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. Models were adjusted for case-mix index, complex chronic conditions, patient age, length of stay, payer source, and cardiac surgical volume. RESULTS: A total of 5,869,335 encounters over 14 years were analyzed (median encounters per center per year, 11,411; median patient age, 4 years; median length of stay, 3 days). From 2004 to 2017, the rates of pediatric inpatient cardiac and noncardiac ultrasound and MRI increased, whereas the rate of noncardiac CT decreased. Cardiac CT use increased beginning in 2014 (+0.264 cardiac CT encounters per 1,000 encounters per year), surpassing the rate of rise of cardiac MRI. Case-mix index, cardiac surgical volume, and payer source affected the largest number of imaging trends. CONCLUSIONS: Among pediatric inpatients, utilization of cardiac and noncardiac ultrasound and MRI has steadily increased. Noncardiac CT use declined and cardiac CT use increased after 2014. Factors influencing imaging trends include case-mix index, cardiac surgical volume, and payer source. This study lays a foundation for investigations of imaging-related resource utilization and outcomes among pediatric inpatients.

14.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 25(6): 540-546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative bleeding is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in cardiac patients who undergo cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pediatric patients are especially at risk for adverse effects of surgery and CPB on the coagulation system. This can result in bleeding, transfusions, and poor outcomes. Excessive bleeding unresponsive to blood products can warrant the off-label use of recombinant activated clotting factor VIIa (rFVIIa) and/or anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (FEIBA). Several studies have shown the utility in these agents off-label in patients who have undergone cardiac bypass surgery with acute bleeding episodes that are refractory to blood products. However, data regarding use of these agents in pediatrics are sparse. The purpose of this study is to report the use of rFVIIa and FEIBA in pediatric cardiac surgery patients in our institution. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of pediatric cardiothoracic surgery patients who received rFVIIa or FEIBA at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta during the study period. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients received rFVIIa and 9 patients received FEIBA either intraoperatively or postoperatively for bleeding related to the cardiac procedure. Approximately 13% of rFVIIa patients and 55% of FEIBA patients required repeat doses. There were decreases for all blood products administered after rFVIIa and FEIBA were given. However, the doses used did not correlate with either positive or negative outcomes. Seventeen percent (n = 7) of rFVIIa patients experienced a thrombus and 22% (n = 2) of FEIBA patients experienced a thrombus. CONCLUSIONS: Both rFVIIa and FEIBA reduced blood product usage in pediatric patients following cardiac procedures.

15.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 16(12): 1920-1926, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols have been successfully implemented in several surgical fields; however, the application of ERAS in the pediatric population is still limited. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine if implementation of an ERAS protocol can improve outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in adolescents. SETTING: University Hospital, United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 112 adolescent patients who underwent LSG from February 2011 to July 2019 was conducted. An ERAS protocol was instituted in June 2016. Conventional care patients (n = 51) were compared with ERAS patients (n = 61). Comparisons were made using Χ2 tests or Fisher's exact for categoric data and Wilcoxon-rank sum tests for continuous data. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust length of stay for patient characteristics. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts were similar in age, sex, race, number of co-morbidities, and preoperative body mass index. The volume of intraoperative fluid, intraoperative and postoperative opioids were significantly reduced in the ERAS group (P < .0001). The number of ERAS elements received per patient increased from a median of 9 to 15 (P < .0001). ERAS group had more discharges on postoperative day 1 (48% versus 6 %, respectively). Length of stay was significantly lower in the ERAS group (2.34 versus 2.04 median d, respectively). Difference was still significant after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, payor status, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative body mass index, and the duration of surgery (P < .0001). There were no differences in postoperative complications and 30-day readmissions. CONCLUSIONS: An LSG ERAS protocol is associated with significant reduction in perioperative opioid use and length of stay with no increase in complications or readmission rates.

16.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(10): 984-994, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend universal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening starting at 13 years, which has been implemented in many general U.S. emergency departments (EDs) but infrequently in pediatric EDs. We aimed to 1) implement a pilot of routine adolescent HIV screening in a pediatric ED and 2) determine the unique barriers to CDC-recommended screening in this region of high HIV prevalence. METHODS: This was a prospective 4-month implementation of a routine HIV screening pilot in a convenience sample of adolescents 13 to 18 years at a single pediatric ED, based on study personnel availability. Serum-based fourth-generation HIV testing was run through a central laboratory. Parents were allowed to remain in the room for HIV counseling and testing. Data were collected regarding patient characteristics and HIV testing quality metrics. Comparisons were made using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Regression analysis was performed to assess for an association between parent presence at the time of enrollment and adolescent decision to participate in HIV screening. RESULTS: Over 4 months, 344 of 806 adolescents approached consented to HIV screening (57% female, mean ± SD = 15.1 ± 1.6 years). Adolescents with HIV screening were more likely to be older than those who declined (p = 0.025). Other blood tests were collected with the HIV sample for 21% of adolescents; mean time to result was 105 minutes (interquartile range = 69 to 123) and 79% were discharged before the result was available. Having a parent present for enrollment was not associated with adolescent participation (adjusted odds ratio = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.70). Barriers to testing included: fear of needlestick, time to results, cost, and staff availability. One of 344 tests was positive in a young adolescent with Stage 1 HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Routine HIV screening in adolescents was able to be implemented in this pediatric ED and led to the identification of early infection in a young adolescent who would have otherwise been undetected at this stage of disease. Addressing the unique barriers to adolescent HIV screening is critical in high-prevalence regions and may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment in this vulnerable population.

17.
J Pediatr ; 227: 170-175, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine levels of plasma osteopontin (OPN), a recently described neuroinflammatory biomarker, in children with abusive head trauma (AHT) compared with children with other types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). STUDY DESIGN: The study cohort comprised children aged <4 years diagnosed with TBI and seen in the intensive care unit in a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were classified as having confirmed or suspected AHT or TBI by other mechanisms (eg, motor vehicle accidents), as identified by a Child Protection Team clinician. Serial blood samples were collected at admission and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after admission. Levels of OPN were compared across groups. RESULTS: Of 77 patients identified, 24 had confirmed AHT, 12 had suspected AHT, and 41 had TBI. There were no differences in the Glasgow Coma Scale score between the patients with confirmed AHT and those with suspected AHT and those with TBI (median score, 4.5 vs 4 and 7; P = .39). At admission to the emergency department, OPN levels were significantly higher in children with confirmed AHT compared with the other 2 groups (mean confirmed AHT, 471.5 ng/mL; median suspected AHT, 322.3 ng/mL; mean TBI, 278.0 ng/mL; P = .03). Furthermore, the adjusted mean trajectory levels of OPN were significantly higher in the confirmed AHT group compared with the other 2 groups across all subsequent time points (P = <.01). CONCLUSIONS: OPN is significantly elevated in children with confirmed AHT compared with those with suspected AHT and those with other types of TBI. OPN expression may help identify children with suspected AHT to aid resource stratification and triage of appropriate interventions for children who are potential victims of abuse.

18.
Blood ; 136(12): 1402-1406, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384147

RESUMO

Altered mitochondrial function occurs in sickle cell disease (SCD), due in part to low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Arginine, the substrate for NO production, becomes acutely deficient in SCD patients with vaso-occlusive pain episodes (VOE). To determine if arginine improves mitochondrial function, 12 children with SCD-VOE (13.6 ± 3 years; 67% male; 75% hemoglobin-SS) were randomized to 1 of 3 arginine doses: (1) 100 mg/kg IV 3 times/day (TID); (2) loading dose (200 mg/kg) then 100 mg/kg TID; or (3) loading dose (200 mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion (300 mg/kg per day) until discharge. Platelet-rich plasma mitochondrial activity, protein expression, and protein-carbonyls were measured from emergency department (ED) presentation vs discharge. All VOE subjects at ED presentation had significantly decreased complex-V activity compared to a steady-state cohort. Notably, complex-V activity was increased at discharge in subjects from all 3 arginine-dosing schemes; greatest increase occurred with a loading dose (P < .001). Although complex-IV and citrate synthase activities were similar in VOE platelets vs steady state, enzyme activities were significantly increased in VOE subjects after arginine-loading dose treatment. Arginine also decreased protein-carbonyl levels across all treatment doses (P < .01), suggesting a decrease in oxidative stress. Arginine therapy increases mitochondrial activity and reduces oxidative stress in children with SCD/VOE. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02536170.

19.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121093

RESUMO

This study sought to assess clinical characteristics and differences in outcomes between children with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) osteomyelitis or septic arthritis and whether initial antibiotic regimen affects patient outcomes. We analyzed records of children ages 15 days to 18 years admitted between 2009 and 2016 to two tertiary children's hospitals who were diagnosed with an osteoarticular infection and had a microorganism identified. A total of 584 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 365 (62.5%) had a microbiological diagnosis. MSSA was the most common pathogen identified (45.5%), followed by MRSA (31.2%). Compared to MSSA, patients with MRSA had a higher initial C-reactive protein and longer hospitalization. Patients whose initial antibiotic regimens included vancomycin had a longer hospitalization than those initiated on clindamycin without vancomycin, even after removing sicker patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. While MRSA was associated with increased severity of osteoarticular infections compared to MSSA, the incidence of MRSA has been declining at our institution. Patients with longer lengths of stay were more likely to be on vancomycin. Clindamycin should be considered in the initial antibiotic regimen for osteomyelitis and septic arthritis with ongoing surveillance of local microbiology and outcomes.

20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Children in the emergency department who require computerized tomography (CT) of the head often are given sedative medications to facilitate completion of the study with adequate imaging. A prior study found the two most common medications used to obtain head CT in children were pentobarbital and chloral hydrate; however, these medications have become less popular. We hypothesized that there was variability in medication choice amongst providers in the emergency department and there has been a change in the preferred sedatives used in the last decade. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cross-sectional study of children 0-18 years old who received a medication with sedative properties and underwent head CT while in the emergency department from 2007 to 2018, using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. The primary outcome measure was the frequency of administration of drugs within an individual sedative class. RESULTS: We analyzed 24,418 patient encounters, of whom 53% received an opioid and 41% received a benzodiazepine. There were statistically significant decreases in the use of barbiturates, chloral hydrate, anti-emetic sedatives, and opioids, while increases in barbiturate combination drugs, benzodiazepines and dexmedetomidine were observed over the study period. The majority of medications were administered parenterally. CONCLUSION: There is wide variability in sedatives used in children to obtain head CT and the preferred drugs have shifted over the last decade.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...