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Hum Mol Genet ; 28(22): 3724-3733, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884517


The majority (99%) of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a deletion that is caused by non-allelic homologous recombination between two of four low copy repeat clusters on chromosome 22q11.2 (LCR22s). However, in a small subset of patients, atypical deletions are observed with at least one deletion breakpoint within unique sequence between the LCR22s. The position of the chromosome breakpoints and the mechanisms driving those atypical deletions remain poorly studied. Our large-scale, whole genome sequencing study of >1500 subjects with 22q11.2DS identified six unrelated individuals with atypical deletions of different types. Using a combination of whole genome sequencing data and fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the rearranged alleles in these subjects. In four of them, the distal breakpoints mapped within one of the LCR22s and we found that the deletions likely occurred by replication-based mechanisms. Interestingly, in two of them, an inversion probably preceded inter-chromosomal 'allelic' homologous recombination between differently oriented LCR22-D alleles. Inversion associated allelic homologous recombination (AHR) may well be a common mechanism driving (atypical) deletions on 22q11.2.

Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905


22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-7, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604657


BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common recurrent copy number variant disorders, is associated with dopaminergic abnormalities and increased risk for psychotic disorders.AimsGiven the elevated prevalence of substance use and dopaminergic abnormalities in non-deleted patients with psychosis, we investigated the prevalence of substance use in 22q11DS, compared with that in non-deleted patients with psychosis and matched healthy controls. METHOD: This cross-sectional study involved 434 patients with 22q11DS, 265 non-deleted patients with psychosis and 134 healthy controls. Psychiatric diagnosis, full-scale IQ and COMT Val158Met genotype were determined in the 22q11DS group. Substance use data were collected according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The prevalence of total substance use (36.9%) and substance use disorders (1.2%), and weekly amounts of alcohol and nicotine use, in patients with 22q11DS was significantly lower than in non-deleted patients with psychosis or controls. Compared with patients with 22q11DS, healthy controls were 20 times more likely to use substances in general (P < 0.001); results were also significant for alcohol and nicotine use separately. Within the 22q11DS group, there was no relationship between the prevalence of substance use and psychosis or COMT genotype. Male patients with 22q11DS were more likely to use substances than female patients with 22q11DS. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that patients with 22q11DS are at decreased risk for substance use and substance use disorders despite the increased risk of psychotic disorders. Further research into neurobiological and environmental factors involved in substance use in 22q11DS is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.Declaration of interestNone.

Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2182-2191, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194907


The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of current insights into the neurodevelopmental and psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in children and adolescents. The pediatric neuropsychiatric expression of 22q11DS is characterized by high variability, both interindividual and intraindividual (different expressions over the lifespan). Besides varying levels of intellectual disability, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit disorders, anxiety disorders, and psychotic disorders in young individuals with 22q11DS is significantly higher than in the general population, or in individuals with idiopathic intellectual disability. Possible explanations for this observed phenotypic variability will be discussed, including genetic pleiotropy, gene-environment interactions, the age-dependency of phenotypes, but also the impact of assessment and ascertainment bias as well as the limitations of our current diagnostic classification system. The implications inferred by these observations aforementioned bear direct relevance to both scientists and clinicians. Observations regarding the neuropsychiatric manifestations in individuals with 22q11DS exemplify the need for a dimensional approach to neuropsychiatric assessment, in addition to our current categorical diagnostic classification system. The potential usefulness of 22q11DS as a genetic model to study the early phases of schizophrenia as well as the phenomenon of neuropsychiatric pleiotropy observed in many CNV's will be delineated. From a clinical perspective, the importance of regular neuropsychiatric evaluations with attention to symptoms not always captured in diagnostic categories and of maintaining equilibrium between individual difficulties and competencies and environmental demands will be discussed.

Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Síndrome de DiGeorge/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
Neurology ; 90(23): e2059-e2067, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752303


OBJECTIVE: To delineate the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment response of Parkinson disease (PD) in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), and to determine if these patients differ from those with idiopathic PD. METHODS: In this international observational study, we characterized the clinical and neuroimaging features of 45 individuals with 22q11.2DS and PD (mean follow-up 7.5 ± 4.1 years). RESULTS: 22q11.2DS PD had a typical male excess (32 male, 71.1%), presentation and progression of hallmark motor symptoms, reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding with molecular imaging, and initial positive response to levodopa (93.3%). Mean age at motor symptom onset was relatively young (39.5 ± 8.5 years); 71.4% of cases had early-onset PD (<45 years). Despite having a similar age at onset, the diagnosis of PD was delayed in patients with a history of antipsychotic treatment compared with antipsychotic-naive patients (median 5 vs 1 year, p = 0.001). Preexisting psychotic disorders (24.5%) and mood or anxiety disorders (31.1%) were common, as were early dystonia (19.4%) and a history of seizures (33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Major clinical characteristics and response to standard treatments appear comparable in 22q11.2DS-associated PD to those in idiopathic PD, although the average age at onset is earlier. Importantly, treatment of preexisting psychotic illness may delay diagnosis of PD in 22q11.DS patients. An index of suspicion and vigilance for complex comorbidity may assist in identifying patients to prioritize for genetic testing.

Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Síndrome de DiGeorge/mortalidade , Síndrome de DiGeorge/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/mortalidade , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tetrabenazina/análogos & derivados , Tetrabenazina/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
Psychol Med ; 48(10): 1655-1663, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143717


BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive functioning precedes the first psychotic episode in the course of schizophrenia and is considered a hallmark symptom of the disorder. Given the low incidence of schizophrenia, it remains a challenge to investigate whether cognitive decline coincides with disease-related changes in brain structure, such as white matter abnormalities. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an appealing model in this context, as 25% of patients develop psychosis. Furthermore, we recently showed that cognitive decline also precedes the onset of psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS. Here, we investigate whether the early cognitive decline in patients with 22q11DS is associated with alterations in white matter microstructure. METHODS: We compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter in 22q11DS patients with cognitive decline [n = 16; -18.34 (15.8) VIQ percentile points over 6.80 (2.39) years] to 22q11DS patients without cognitive decline [n = 18; 17.71 (20.17) VIQ percentile points over 5.27 (2.03) years] by applying an atlas-based approach to diffusion-weighted imaging data. RESULTS: FA was significantly increased (p < 0.05, FDR) in 22q11DS patients with a cognitive decline in the bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, the bilateral cingulum bundle, all subcomponents of the left internal capsule and the left superior frontal-occipital fasciculus as compared with 22q11DS patients without cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Within 22q11DS, the early cognitive decline is associated with microstructural differences in white matter. At the mean age of 17.8 years, these changes are reflected in increased FA in several tracts. We hypothesize that similar brain alterations associated with cognitive decline take place early in the trajectory of schizophrenia.

Disfunção Cognitiva , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Transtornos Psicóticos , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem