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1.
Crit Care Med ; 47(12): 1743-1750, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous trials suggest that vasopressin may improve outcomes in patients with vasodilatory shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vasopressin could be superior to norepinephrine to improve outcomes in cancer patients with septic shock. DESIGN: Single-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, and meta-analysis of randomized trials. SETTING: ICU of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Two-hundred fifty patients 18 years old or older with cancer and septic shock. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to either vasopressin or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor therapy. An updated meta-analysis was also conducted including randomized trials published until October 2018. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included 90-days all-cause mortality rate; number of days alive and free of advanced organ support at day 28; and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score 24 hours and 96 hours after randomization. We also measure the prevalence of adverse effects in 28 days. A total of 250 patients were randomized. The primary outcome was observed in 71 patients (56.8%) in the vasopressin group and 66 patients (52.8%) in the norepinephrine group (p = 0.52). There were no significant differences in 90-day mortality (90 patients [72.0%] and 94 patients [75.2%], respectively; p = 0.56), number of days alive and free of advanced organ support, adverse events, or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. CONCLUSIONS: In cancer patients with septic shock, vasopressin as first-line vasopressor therapy was not superior to norepinephrine in reducing 28-day mortality rate.

2.
Heart Fail Rev ; 24(6): 833-846, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197563

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome is a disease of great clinical importance that remains underdiagnosed. It is a form of acute heart failure characterized by a transient wall motion abnormality of the left ventricular apex typically triggered by emotional or physical stress. Takotsubo syndrome is commonly associated with cancer and results in poor outcomes. Therefore, early recognition and prompt therapy are essential to improve prognosis. The aim of this manuscript is to review the consequences of the association between cancer and Takotsubo to summarize the available evidence to guide physicians to improve the management of these patients.

3.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 317(7): H1-H12, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002284

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that doxorubicin (DX) and cyclophosphamide (CY) adjuvant chemotherapy (CHT) acutely impairs neurovascular and hemodynamic responses in women with breast cancer. Sixteen women (age: 47.0 ± 2.0 yr; body mass index: 24.2 ± 1.5 kg/m) with stage II-III breast cancer and indication for adjuvant CHT underwent two experimental sessions, saline (SL) and CHT. In the CHT session, DX (60 mg/m2) and CY (600 mg/m2) were administered over 45 min. In the SL session, a matching SL volume was infused in 45 min. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from peroneal nerve (microneurography), calf blood flow (CBF; plethysmography) and calf vascular conductance (CVC), heart rate (HR; electrocardiography), and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP; finger plethysmography) were measured at rest before, during, and after each session. Venous blood samples (5 ml) were collected before and after both sessions for assessment of circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs; flow cytometry), a surrogate marker for endothelial damage. MSNA and BP responses were increased (P < 0.001), whereas CBF and CVC responses were decreased (P < 0.001), during and after CHT session when compared with SL session. Interestingly, the vascular alterations were also observed at the molecular level through an increased EMP response to CHT (P = 0.03, CHT vs. SL session). No difference in HR response was observed (P > 0.05). Adjuvant CHT with DX and CY in patients treated for breast cancer increases sympathetic nerve activity and circulating EMP levels and, in addition, reduces muscle vascular conductance and elevates systemic BP. These responses may be early signs of CHT-induced cardiovascular alterations and may represent potential targets for preventive interventions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is known that chemotherapy regimens increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients treated for cancer. Here, we identified that a single cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in women treated for breast cancer dramatically increases sympathetic nerve activity and circulating endothelial microparticle levels, reduces the muscle vascular conductance, and elevates systemic blood pressure.

4.
Angiology ; 70(4): 337-344, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286625

RESUMO

It was a randomized trial, and 308 patients undergoing revascularization were randomly assigned: 155 to off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) and 153 to on-pump coronary artery bypass (ONCAB). End points were freedom from death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and cerebrovascular accidents. The rates for 10-year, event-free survival for ONCAB versus OPCAB were 69.6% and 64%, (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-1.02; P = .41), respectively. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratio was similar (HR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.61-1.38, P = .68). A difference occurred between the duration of OPCAB and ONCAB, respectively (4.9 ± 1.5 vs 6.6 ± 1.1 h, P < .001). Statistical differences occurred between OPCAB and ONCAB in the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (20 ± 2.5 vs 48 ± 10 hours, P < .001), time to extubation (5.5 ± 4.2 vs 10.2 ± 3.5 hours, P < .001), hospital stay (6.7 ± 1.4 vs 9.2 ± 1.3 days, P < .001), higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF; 33 vs 5 patients, P < .001), and blood requirements (46 vs 64 patients, P < .001). Grafts per patient was higher in ONCAB (3.15 vs 2.55 grafts, P < .001). No difference existed between the groups in primary composite end points at 10-year follow-up. Although OPCAB surgery was related to a lower number of grafts and higher incidence of AF, it had no effects related to long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Idoso , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 133, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic therapy (GDHT) has been advocated in high-risk patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that using cardiac index (CI)-guided GDHT in the postoperative period for patients undergoing high-risk surgery for cancer treatment would reduce 30-day mortality and postoperative complications. METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial was performed in a tertiary oncology hospital. All adult patients undergoing high-risk cancer surgery who required intensive care unit admission were randomly allocated to a CI-guided GDHT group or to a usual care group. In the GDHT group, postoperative therapy aimed at CI ≥ 2.5 L/min/m2 using fluids, inotropes and red blood cells during the first 8 postoperative hours. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of 30-day all-cause mortality and severe postoperative complications during the hospital stay. A meta-analysis was also conducted including all randomized trials of postoperative GDHT published from 1966 to May 2017. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients (64 in each group) were randomized. The primary outcome occurred in 34 patients of the GDHT group and in 28 patients of the usual care group (53.1% vs 43.8%, absolute difference 9.4 (95% CI, - 7.8 to 25.8); p = 0.3). During the 8-h intervention period more patients in the GDHT group received dobutamine when compared to the usual care group (55% vs 16%, p < 0.001). A meta-analysis of nine randomized trials showed no differences in postoperative mortality (risk ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.59-1.23; p = 0.4; p for heterogeneity = 0.7; I2 = 0%) and in the overall complications rate (risk ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.71-1.08; p = 0.2; p for heterogeneity = 0.07; I2 = 48%), but a reduced hospital length of stay in the GDHT group (mean difference (MD) - 1.6; 95% CI - 2.75 to - 0.46; p = 0.006; p for heterogeneity = 0.002; I2 = 74%). CONCLUSIONS: CI-guided hemodynamic therapy in the first 8 postoperative hours does not reduce 30-day mortality and severe complications during hospital stay when compared to usual care in cancer patients undergoing high-risk surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT01946269 . Registered on 16 September 2013.


Assuntos
Metas , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dobutamina/farmacologia , Dobutamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Período Pós-Operatório , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Crit Care Med ; 46(8): e742-e750, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump use in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: A single-center randomized controlled trial and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Heart Institute of São Paulo University. PATIENTS: High-risk patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to receive preskin incision intra-aortic balloon pump insertion after anesthesia induction versus no intra-aortic balloon pump use. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of 30-day mortality and major morbidity (cardiogenic shock, stroke, acute renal failure, mediastinitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and a need for reoperation). A total of 181 patients (mean [SD] age 65.4 [9.4] yr; 32% female) were randomized. The primary outcome was observed in 43 patients (47.8%) in the intra-aortic balloon pump group and 42 patients (46.2%) in the control group (p = 0.46). The median duration of inotrope use (51 hr [interquartile range, 32-94 hr] vs 39 hr [interquartile range, 25-66 hr]; p = 0.007) and the ICU length of stay (5 d [interquartile range, 3-8 d] vs 4 d [interquartile range, 3-6 d]; p = 0.035) were longer in the intra-aortic balloon pump group than in the control group. A meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials confirmed a lack of survival improvement in high-risk cardiac surgery patients with perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump use. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the perioperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump did not reduce the occurrence of a composite outcome of 30-day mortality and major complications compared with usual care alone.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego
7.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 12(1): 122, 2017 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of peri-procedural myocardial infarction is complex, especially after the emergence of high-sensitivity markers of myocardial necrosis. METHODS: In this study, patients with normal baseline cardiac biomarkers and formal indication for elective on-pump coronary bypass surgery were evaluated. Electrocardiograms, cardiac biomarkers, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement were performed before and after procedures. Myocardial infarction was defined as more than ten times the upper reference limit of the 99th percentile for troponin I and for creatine kinase isoform (CK-MB) and by the findings of new late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance. We assessed the release of cardiac biomarkers in patients with no evidence of myocardial infarction on cardiac magnetic resonance. RESULTS: Of 75 patients referred for on-pump coronary bypass surgery, 54 (100%) did not have evidence of myocardial infarction on cardiac magnetic resonance. However, all had a peak troponin I above the 99th percentile; 52 (96%) had an elevation 10 times higher than the 99th percentile. Regarding CK-MB, 54 (100%) patients had a peak CK-MB above the 99th percentile limit, and only 13 (24%) had an elevation greater than 10 times the 99th percentile. The median value of troponin I peak was 3.15 (1.2 to 3.9) ng/mL, which represented 78.7 times the 99th percentile. CONCLUSION: In this study, different from CK-MB findings, troponin was significantly increased in the absence of myocardial infarction on cardiac magnetic resonance. Thus, CK-MB was more accurate than troponin I for excluding procedure-related myocardial infarction. These data suggest a higher troponin cutoff for the diagnosis of coronary bypass surgery related myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN09454308 . Registered 08 May 2012.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Gadolínio , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Necrose/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue
8.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 9: 92, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201152

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic patients may be more susceptible to myocardial injury after coronary interventions. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the release of cardiac biomarkers, CK-MB and troponin, and the findings of new late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after elective revascularization procedures for multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Patients with multivessel CAD and preserved systolic ventricular function underwent either elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), off-pump or on-pump bypass surgery (CABG). Troponin and CK-MB were systematically collected at baseline, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h after the procedures. CMR with LGE was performed before and after the interventions. Patients were stratified according to diabetes status at study entry. Biomarkers and CMR results were compared between diabetic and nondiabetics patients. Analyses of correlation were also performed among glycemic and glycated hemoglobin (A1c) levels and troponin and CK-MB peak levels. Patients were also stratified into tertiles of fasting glycemia and A1c levels and were compared in terms of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) on CMR. Results: Ninety (44.5%) of the 202 patients had diabetes mellitus at study entry. After interventions, median peak troponin was 2.18 (0.47, 5.14) and 2.24 (0.69, 5.42) ng/mL (P = 0.81), and median peak CK-MB was 14.1 (6.8, 31.7) and 14.0 (4.2, 29.8) ng/mL (P = 0.43), in diabetic and nondiabetic patients, respectively. The release of troponin and CK-MB over time was statistically similar in both groups and in the three treatments, besides PCI. New LGE on CMR indicated that new myocardial fibrosis was present in 18.9 and 17.3% (P = 0.91), and myocardial edema in 15.5 and 22.9% (P = 0.39) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients, respectively. The incidence of PMI in the glycemia tertiles was 17.9% versus 19.3% versus 18.7% (P = 0.98), and in the A1c tertiles was 19.1% versus 13.3% versus 22.2% (P = 0.88). Conclusions: In this study, diabetes mellitus did not add risk of myocardial injury after revascularization interventions in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Trial Registration Name of Registry: Evaluation of cardiac biomarker elevation after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft; URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com.ISRCTN09454308.

9.
Anesthesiology ; 126(1): 85-93, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27841822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasoplegic syndrome is a common complication after cardiac surgery and impacts negatively on patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether vasopressin is superior to norepinephrine in reducing postoperative complications in patients with vasoplegic syndrome. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted at the Heart Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2012 and March 2014. Patients with vasoplegic shock (defined as mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg resistant to fluid challenge and cardiac index greater than 2.2 l · min · m) after cardiac surgery were randomized to receive vasopressin (0.01 to 0.06 U/min) or norepinephrine (10 to 60 µg/min) to maintain arterial pressure. The primary endpoint was a composite of mortality or severe complications (stroke, requirement for mechanical ventilation for longer than 48 h, deep sternal wound infection, reoperation, or acute renal failure) within 30 days. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were randomized, and 300 were infused with one of the study drugs (vasopressin, 149; norepinephrine, 151). The primary outcome occurred in 32% of the vasopressin patients and in 49% of the norepinephrine patients (unadjusted hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80; P = 0.0014). Regarding adverse events, the authors found a lower occurrence of atrial fibrillation in the vasopressin group (63.8% vs. 82.1%; P = 0.0004) and no difference between groups in the rates of digital ischemia, mesenteric ischemia, hyponatremia, and myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' results suggest that vasopressin can be used as a first-line vasopressor agent in postcardiac surgery vasoplegic shock and improves clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoplegia/tratamento farmacológico , Vasopressinas/farmacologia , Brasil , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Choque/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasoplegia/complicações
10.
Tob Control ; 26(6): 656-662, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27794066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking restriction laws have spread worldwide during the last decade. Previous studies have shown a decline in the community rates of myocardial infarction after enactment of these laws. However, data are scarce about the Latin American population. In the first phase of this study, we reported the successful implementation of the law in São Paulo city, with a decrease in carbon monoxide rates in hospitality venues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the 2009 implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban law in São Paulo city was associated with a reduction in rates of mortality and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction. METHODS: We performed a time-series study of monthly rates of mortality and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction from January 2005 to December 2010. The data were derived from DATASUS, the primary public health information system available in Brazil and from Mortality Information System (SIM). Adjustments and analyses were performed using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) method modelled by environmental variables and atmospheric pollutants to evaluate the effect of smoking ban law in mortality and hospital admission rate. We also used Interrupted Time Series Analysis (ITSA) to make a comparison between the period pre and post smoking ban law. RESULTS: We observed a reduction in mortality rate (-11.9% in the first 17 months after the law) and in hospital admission rate (-5.4% in the first 3 months after the law) for myocardial infarction after the implementation of the smoking ban law. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital admissions and mortality rate for myocardial infarction were reduced in the first months after the comprehensive smoking ban law was implemented.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
11.
Echocardiography ; 33(11): 1656-1664, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27480291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of proximal side branches on the patency of the internal thoracic artery (ITA) is controversial. We used echocardiography and Doppler to verify the effect of ligation of branches on the flow and coronary flow reserve (CFR) of the grafted ITA in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We prospectively investigated 53 patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF >50%) who underwent CABG of the ITA. In Group I (25 patients), major branches were ligated during ITA anastomosis to the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, whereas no ligation was performed in Group II (28 patients). Systolic flow (SF), diastolic flow (DF), and total flow (TF = SF + DF) were measured by Doppler echocardiography at the proximal level of the ITA preoperatively, at early postoperative stage, and 6 months after surgery. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed at 6 months to determine CFR. RESULTS: The ITA flow was predominantly systolic before surgery and diastolic in the postoperative period. We found no differences between the groups in DF. On DSE, SF (19.5±9 mL/min vs 32.7±19 mL/min; P=.003) and TF (79±21 mL/min vs 101±47 mL/min; P=.037) were higher in Group II. There were no differences in CFR (1.9±0.46 vs 2.11±0.56; P=.143). CONCLUSION: In patients with preserved LVEF, ligation of major side branches during anastomosis to the LAD does not alter ITA flow or CFR.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Artéria Torácica Interna/cirurgia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ligadura , Masculino , Artéria Torácica Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Torácica Interna/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
12.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 16(4): 275-284, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often prescribed to patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, this class of medication, especially omeprazole, has been associated with a reduction in clopidogrel efficacy, leading many clinicians to substitute omeprazole with ranitidine. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel before and after the addition of omeprazole or ranitidine. METHODS: We measured platelet aggregability at baseline and after 1 week of clopidogrel 75 mg daily. Subjects were then randomized in a double-blinded, double-dummy fashion to omeprazole 20 mg twice daily (bid) or ranitidine 150 mg bid. We repeated aggregability tests after 1 additional week, using VerifyNow P2Y12™ (Accumetrics; San Diego, CA, USA), depicting aggregability as percent inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA). RESULTS: We enrolled 41 patients in the omeprazole group and 44 in the ranitidine group. IPA was significantly decreased after the addition of omeprazole to clopidogrel (from 26.3 ± 32.9 to 17.4 ± 33.1 %; p = 0.025), with no statistical significant changes observed in the ranitidine group (from 32.6 ± 28.9 to 30.1 ± 31.3 %; p = 0.310). The comparison of IPA in both groups at the end of the follow-up showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to 26.59); after excluding homozygous patients for 2C19*2 genotype, the comparison of IPA between the groups reached statistical significance (32.7 ± 30.8 vs. 17.7 ± 33.4 %, respectively, for ranitidine and omeprazole groups; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike omeprazole, ranitidine did not influence platelet aggregability response to clopidogrel. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01896557.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Interações de Medicamentos , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Ranitidina/uso terapêutico , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clopidogrel , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico
13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 101(5): 1735-44, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26794894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well studied, and the best treatment for this condition is not established. Our aim was to compare three therapeutic strategies for CAD in diabetic patients stratified by renal function. METHODS: Patients with multivessel CAD that underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), or medical therapy alone (MT) were included. Data were analyzed according to glomerular filtration rate in three strata: normal (>90 mL/min), mild CKD (60 to 89 mL/min), and moderate CKD (30 to 59 mL/min). End points comprised overall rate of mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and need for additional revascularization. RESULTS: Among patients with normal renal function (n = 270), 122 underwent CABG, 72 PCI, and 76 MT; among patients with mild CKD (n = 367), 167 underwent CABG, 92 PCI, and 108 MT; and among patients with moderate CKD (n = 126), 46 underwent CABG, 40 PCI, and 40 MT. Event-free survival was 80.4%, 75.7%, 67.5% for strata 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.037). Survival rates among patients with no, mild, and moderate CKD are 91.1%, 89.6%, and 76.2%, respectively (p = 0.001) (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.95; p = 0.024 for stratum 1 versus 3). We found no differences for overall number of deaths or acute myocardial infarctions irrespective of strata. The need of new revascularization was different in all strata, favoring CABG (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.029 for no, mild, and moderate CKD, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates were higher in patients with mild and moderate CKD. Higher event-free survival was observed in the CABG group among patients with no and mild CKD. Besides, CABG was associated with less need for new revascularization compared with PCI and MT in all renal function strata. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN66068876.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 70(11): 726-32, 2015 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26602518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with left bundle branch block.


Assuntos
Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Idoso , Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Radioisótopos de Rubídio , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
16.
Clinics ; 70(11): 726-732, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-766153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with left bundle branch block.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio de Ramo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Radioisótopos de Rubídio , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
17.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 150(5): 1314-20, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26318355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who are aged 60 years or more or less than 60 years after implementation of a restrictive or a liberal transfusion strategy. METHODS: This is a substudy of the Transfusion Requirements After Cardiac Surgery (TRACS) randomized controlled trial. In this subgroup analysis, we separated patients into those aged 60 years or more (elderly) and those aged less than 60 years randomized to a restrictive or a liberal strategy of red blood cell transfusion. The primary outcome was a composite defined as a combination of 30-day all-cause mortality and severe morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 502 patients included in the Transfusion Requirements After Cardiac Surgery study, 260 (51.8%) were aged 60 years or more and 242 (48.2%) were aged less than 60 years and were included in this study. The primary end point occurred in 11.9% of patients in the liberal strategy group and 16.8% of patients in the restrictive strategy group (P = .254) for those aged 60 years or more and in 6.8% of patients in the liberal strategy group and 5.6% of patients in the restrictive strategy group for those aged less than 60 years (P = .714). However, in the older patients, cardiogenic shock was more frequent in patients in the restrictive transfusion group (12.8% vs 5.2%, P = .031). Thirty-day mortality, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute renal injury were similar in the restrictive and liberal transfusion groups in both age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no difference between groups regarding the primary outcome, a restrictive transfusion strategy may result in an increased rate of cardiogenic shock in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery compared with a more liberal strategy. Cardiovascular risk of anemia may be more harmful than the risk of blood transfusion in older patients.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Choque Cardiogênico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(33): e1161, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287407

RESUMO

Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a powerful cardioprotective cellular mechanism that has been related to the "warm-up phenomenon" or "walk-through" angina, and has been documented through the use of sequential exercise tests (ETs). It is known that several drugs, for example, cromokalim, pinacidil, adenosine, and nicorandil, can interfere with the cellular pathways of IP. The purpose of this article is to report the effect of the anti-ischemic agent trimetazidine (TMZ) on IP in symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.We conducted a prospective study evaluating IP by the analysis of ischemic parameters in 2 sequential ETs. In phase I, without TMZ, patients underwent ET1 and ET2 with a 30-minute interval between them. In phase II, after 1 week of TMZ 35 mg twice daily, all patients underwent 2 consecutive ETs (ET3 and ET4). IP was considered present when the time to 1.0-mm segment ST on electrocardiogram deviation (T-1.0 mm) and rate pressure product (RPP) were greater in the second of 2 tests. The improvement in T-1.0 mm and RPP were compared in the 2 phases: without TMZ and after 1-week TMZ to assess the action of such drug in myocardial protective mechanisms. ETs were analyzed by 2 independent cardiologists.From 135 CAD patients screened, 96 met inclusion criteria and 62 completed the study protocol. Forty patients manifested IP by demonstrating an improvement in T-1.0 mm in ET2 compared with ET1, without the use of any drugs (phase I). In phase II, after 1-week TMZ, 26 patients (65%) did not show any incremental result in ischemic parameters in ET4 compared with ET3. Furthermore, of these patients, 8 (20%) had IP blockage.In this study, TMZ did not add any benefit to IP in patients with stable symptomatic CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
20.
Diagn. tratamento ; 19(3)set. 2014. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-720027

RESUMO

Contexto e objetivos: Estudos sugerem que a utilização da bomba centrífuga na circulação extracorpórea é melhor do ponto de vista fisiológico se comparada a bomba de rolete nos pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar os níveis séricos delactato em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio utilizando as bombas de rolete e centrífugas durante a circulação extracorpórea (CEC) como um marcador prognóstico. Desenho e local: Trata-se de um estudo observacional retrospectivo, baseado em levantamento de dados de prontuários médico hospitalares, realizado no Hospital Sírio-Libanês. Método: Foi estudada uma coorte histórica de pacientes, dividida em dois grupos: o primeiro grupo, de 61 pacientes, operados no período de março de 2007 a julho de 2008, com bomba rolete, e o segundo grupo, de 74 pacientes, no período de julho de 2008 a fevereiro de 2011, com bomba centrífuga. As amostras sanguíneas dos pacientes foram colhidas em quatro diferentes tempos durante a operação: pré-circulação extracorpórea (T1); hipotermia a 32 °C (T2); hipotermia a 34 °C (T3); pós-circulação extracorpórea (T4). Resultados: Houve diferença significativa na amostra do lactato em T4 (P = 0,049). Conclusão: Na bomba centrífuga, observamos melhora do lactato ao final da circulação extracorpórea em comparação com a bomba rolete.

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