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1.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-16, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450931

RESUMO

The present review aims to give dietary recommendations to reduce the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in foods and in vivo to reduce the body's advanced glycation/lipoxidation end products (AGE/ALE) pool. A healthy diet, food reformulation and good culinary practices may be feasible for achieving the goal. A varied diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, non-added sugar beverages containing inhibitors of the Maillard reaction, and foods prepared by steaming and poaching as culinary techniques is recommended. Intake of supplements and novel foods with low sugars, low fats, enriched in bioactive compounds from food and waste able to modulate carbohydrate metabolism and reduce body's AGE/ALE pool is also recommended. In conclusion, the recommendations made for healthy eating by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and Harvard University seem to be adequate to reduce dietary AGE/ALE, the body's AGE/ALE pool and to achieve sustainable nutrition and health.

2.
Food Sci Nutr ; 6(5): 1269-1275, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065828

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and protease inhibitor capacities on eggs and milk protein of a nor-dihydroguaiaretic (NDGA)-standardized aqueous extract of Larrea divaricata (AE) and to analyze the participation of polyphenols as NDGA in these actions. NDGA was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography; flavonoids and polyphenols were quantified by spectrophotometric methods as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, proteinase inhibitor capacity, advanced glycation end products (AGES) formation, and inhibition of albumin denaturation. The extract protected food for oxidative damage by preventing malondialdehyde formation in egg yolk and by preventing AGE formation in completely cooked eggs, also impeded albumin denaturation, and casein hydrolysis induced by trypsin and heat. Polyphenols, especially flavonoids and NDGA, were involved in these actions.

3.
Adv Nutr ; 6(4): 461-73, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26178030

RESUMO

Over the past 2 decades there has been increasing evidence supporting an important contribution from food-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to the body pool of AGEs and therefore increased oxidative stress and inflammation, processes that play a major role in the causation of chronic diseases. A 3-d symposium (1st Latin American Symposium of AGEs) to discuss this subject took place in Guanajuato, Mexico, on 1-3 October 2014 with the participation of researchers from several countries. This review is a summary of the different presentations and subjects discussed, and it is divided into 4 sections. The first section deals with current general knowledge about AGEs. The second section dwells on mechanisms of action of AGEs, with special emphasis on the receptor for advanced glycation end products and the potential role of AGEs in neurodegenerative diseases. The third section discusses different approaches to decrease the AGE burden. The last section discusses current methodologic problems with measurement of AGEs in different samples. The subject under discussion is complex and extensive and cannot be completely covered in a short review. Therefore, some areas of interest have been left out because of space. However, we hope this review illustrates currently known facts about dietary AGEs as well as pointing out areas that require further research.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Dieta , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Nível de Saúde , Agricultura/métodos , Culinária/métodos , Exercício Físico , Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos adversos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Inflamação , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/análise , México , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Solubilidade
4.
Phytother Res ; 27(2): 192-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22511286

RESUMO

The fresh leaves and stems of Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae) are employed to prepare the commercial product used in North-eastern Argentina, Southern Brazil and Eastern Paraguay named yerba maté. The presence of polyphenols and xanthines, which present antioxidant activity, has been described in I. paraguariensis. In living organism, reactive oxygen species can cause tissue damage affecting erythrocyte membranes leading to hemolysis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of an aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis (green leaves) on the hemolysis of red blood cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and to correlate this activity with the enzymatic activity related to hydrogen peroxide metabolism. The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and caffeine was also analysed to evaluate their contribution to the activity of the crude extract. The extract as well as the isolated compounds protected red blood cells from hemolysis. This effect was related to a catalase-like activity. This study could contribute to the knowledge of the antioxidant activity of I. paraguariensis in view of the great quantities of yerba maté consumed by the population.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Xantinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 18(2): 159-164, ago. 2011. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LIPECS | ID: biblio-1111387

RESUMO

Larrea divaricata Cav. is widely distributed in Argentina. Aqueous extract, of its leaves, has documented antitumoral and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract and a component, nordihydroguaiaretic acid was determined and compared using different assays. Both the aqueous extract and nordihydroguaiaretic acid exhibited antioxidant activity. However, results show that it is very likely that compounds other than nordihydroguaiaretic acid could be involved in the antioxidant activity of the extract. Since nordihydroguaiaretic acid is nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic agent, it is important to direct efforts toward the potential use of low-nordihydroguaiaretic acid L. divaricata extracts as antioxidant in foods.


Larrea divaricata Cav. está ampliamente distribuida en la Argentina. Se han documentado actividades antitumorales e inmunomoduladoras de los extractos acuosos de sus hojas. En este estudio, la actividad antioxidante del extracto acuoso y un componente, el ácido nordihidroguayarético, se determinaron y compararon mediante diferentes ensayos. Tanto el extracto acuoso como el ácido nordihidroguayarético mostraron actividad antioxidante. Sin embargo, los resultados muestran que es muy probable que otros compuestos diferentes al ácido nordihidroguayarético pudieran estar involucrados en la actividad antioxidante de los extractos. Dado que el ácido nordihidroguayarético es un agente nefrotóxico y hepatotóxico, es importante dirigir los esfuerzos hacia el uso potencial de extractos de L. divaricata con bajas cantidades de ácido nordihidroguayarético como antioxidantes en alimentos.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Catalase , Larrea , Masoprocol , Superóxido Dismutase
6.
Phytother Res ; 25(9): 1342-7, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21328620

RESUMO

The flowers of Tilia species have been used in Europe for many years to treat colds, bronchitis, fever, inflammations and influenza. It is well known that lymphocytes play a role in acquired immunity related to pathogens and tumor cells attachment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an aqueous (AE) and a dichloromethane extract (DM) from Tilia x viridis which is widely used and distributed in Argentina, on normal murine lymphocyte proliferation after being administered to mice. Both extracts presented a stimulatory effect on normal murine lymphocyte proliferation. The effect exerted by DM was principally related to macrophage activation, meanwhile AE exerted an important direct effect on lymphocytes related to the rutin presence. The stimulating effect, exerted on normal lymphocytes was due to a protective effect of apoptosis and also to cell IL2 production.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tilia/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Flores/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Rutina/farmacologia
7.
Phytother Res ; 24(5): 715-9, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19827026

RESUMO

Malassezia furfur is a lipodependent, dimorphic and saprophyte fungus which causes pityriasis versicolor, dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis in humans. The drugs available to treat this fungal infection are few. These drugs are highly toxic and are costly when used in prolonged treatments. For these reasons, it is necessary to find new compounds to treat these infections. Ilex paraguariensis St Hilaire is a plant that grows in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis on the growth of M. furfur. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and isolate compounds of I. paraguariensis and the agar-well diffusion method was used to assess the antifungal activity of the extract. The fungicidal/fungistatic effect was evaluated by the modified Thompson assay. The results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis (1000 mg/ml) possesses inhibitory activity against M. furfur. This antimalassezial activity was equivalent to 2.7 microg/ml of ketoconazole. Therefore, the topical use of Ilex paraguariensis extract as alternative antifungal agent can be suggested.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
Arch Oral Biol ; 54(2): 179-84, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18976744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this work, we analysed the mechanism of action of caffeine on peroxidase secretion in the female rat submandibular gland. The signaling molecules cAMP and nitric oxide were monitored as potential mediators. DESIGN: The salivary gland peroxidase secretion of female albino Wistar rats was assessed by a spectroscopic method. RESULTS: Caffeine was found to exert an increase on peroxidase secretion in a concentration-response manner: the peroxidase secretion stimulation index (SI) (secreted peroxidase from treated/secreted peroxidase from basal) for caffeine 10 microg/ml: 2.2+/-0.18 (P<0.05); caffeine 100 microg/ml alone: 3+/-0.18 (P<0.01); +LNMMA (LN monomethyl arginine): 1+/-0.1 (P<0.05); caffeine 1000 microg/ml alone: 5+/-0.35 (P<0.01); +LNMMA: 2+/-0.2 (P<0.05). These results were associated with an increase in cAMP and total nitrites production. Total nitrites, SI caffeine 100 microg/ml alone: 2.8+/-0.2 (P<0.01); +LNMMA: 1+/-0.08 (P<0.05); caffeine 1000 microg/ml alone: 4.8+/-0.3 (P<0.01); +LNMMA: 2.3+/-0.18 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: It could thus be concluded that cAMP and NO are involved in the mechanism of action displayed by caffeine. This is the first report on the mechanism of action of caffeine on peroxidase secretion.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glândula Submandibular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cafeína/antagonistas & inibidores , AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/fisiologia , Nitritos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glândula Submandibular/enzimologia , Glândula Submandibular/metabolismo , ômega-N-Metilarginina/farmacologia
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 56(19): 9225-9, 2008 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18778031

RESUMO

Tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) is cultivated in Argentina in the northeastern region (provinces of Misiones and Corrientes), between 26 degrees and 28 degrees south latitude, the southernmost area of the world where tea is cultivated. The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenol content and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of green and black tea cultivated and industrialized in Argentina. Twelve samples of eight brands were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was determined according to the International Organization for Standardization method (ISO) 14502-1 for the determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea. The antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay. Green tea showed a higher polyphenol content than black tea. The total polyphenol concentration in green tea was found to vary from 21.02 +/- 1.54 to 14.32 +/- 0.45% of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), whereas in black tea, the polyphenol content ranged from 17.62 +/- 0.42 to 8.42 +/- 0.55% of GAE (P < 0.05). A similar profile was observed for the antioxidant capacity determined by both methods. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total polyphenol content (r (2) = 0.9935 for the ferric thiocyanate method and r (2) = 0.9141 for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay). This is the first systematic screening for the quantification of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in tea commercialized in Argentine markets. The results obtained herein allow one to conclude that Argentine tea is of very good quality when compared to teas from other sources.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Chá/química , Argentina , Compostos de Bifenilo , Ferro , Picratos , Polifenóis , Tiocianatos
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 45(4): 649-55, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17141390

RESUMO

Free radicals are involved in diverse disorders such as tumoral, central nervous system alterations, immunological and inflammatory pathologies. Peroxidase is an oral enzyme involved in the defense of the oral cavity. Ilex species such as Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. and the commercial product made with it "Yerba Mate" are used traditionally as antirheumatics and for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases among others and also as a beverage with nutritional and stimulant properties. The presence of polyphenolic derivatives and flavonoids in the aqueous extract has been determined by HPLC analysis. In this study, the activity of aqueous extracts of I. paraguariensis and "Yerba Mate" on peroxidase secretion in female rat submandibular glands was investigated. The contribution to this pharmacological activity by some major hydrocynnamic acid derivatives present in the crude extracts, such as chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid and the most abundant methylxanthine, caffeine, was also evaluated. Spectrophotometrical determination of peroxidase activity showed that both extracts produced a significant increase in both secreted peroxidase and total peroxidase activity, though "Yerba Mate" showed a higher activity (EC(50) "Yerba Mate": 148+/-10 microg/ml; EC(50)I. paraguariensis: 841+/-20 microg/ml). The HPLC/DAD analysis of the crude extracts was performed and chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and caffeine were identified and quantified. The results (expressed as W/W percentage of dried material) were as follows: I. paraguariensis: chlorogenic acid: 2.80+/-0.30, caffeic acid: 0.023+/-0.004, caffeine: 1.06+/-0.06; "Yerba Mate": chlorogenic acid: 1.98+/-0.37; caffeic acid: 0.020+/-0.003, caffeine: 0.70+/-0.06. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid were proved to play an important role in the induction of peroxidase secretion induced by the extracts.


Assuntos
Ilex/química , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Glândula Submandibular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glândula Submandibular/enzimologia
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