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1.
Cardiol J ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642922

RESUMO

Colchicine is an effective anti-inflammatory agent used to treat gout, coronary artery disease, viral pericarditis, and familial Mediterranean fever. It has been found to act by preventing the polymerization of the protein called tubulin, thus inhibiting inflammasome activation, proinflammatory chemokines, and cellular adhesion molecules. Accumulating evidence suggests that some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suffer from "cytokine storm" syndrome. The ideal anti-inflammatory in this setting would be one that is readily available, cheap, orally administered, with a good safety profile, well-tolerated, and that prevents or modulates inflammasome activation. The researchers selected colchicine for their study. This paper is a review of the literature describing the effects of colchicine, which is a drug that is being increasingly used, especially when standard therapy fails. Colchicine was shown to reduce inflammatory lung injury and respiratory failure by interfering with leukocyte activation and recruitment. In this publication, we try to systematically review the current data on new therapeutic options for colchicine. The article focuses on new data from clinical trials in COVID-19, rheumatic, cardiovascular, and other treatment such as familial Mediterranean fever, chronic urticaria, and PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous, stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis). We also summarize new reports on the side effects, drug interactions, and safety of colchicine.

2.
Cardiol J ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a likely candidate for treatment as its immune modulating characteristics have effects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. It was sought herein, to summarize the studies published to date regarding the vitamin D supplementation to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive patients. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The primary outcome were 14-day and in-hospital mortality reported as an odds ratio (OR) with the associated 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Eight articles were included in the review with a combined total of 2,322 individual patients, 786 in the vitamin D supplementation group and 1,536 in the control group. The use of vitamin D compared to the group without vitamin D supplementation was associated with a lower 14-day mortality (18.8% vs. 31.3%, respectively; OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.12-2.19; p = 0.36), a lower in-hospital mortality (5.6% vs. 16.1%; OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.23-1.37; I² = 74%; p = 0.20), the rarer intensive care unit admission (6.4% vs. 23.4%; OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.54; I² = 77%; p = 0.002) as well as rarer mechanical ventilation (6.5% vs. 18.9%; OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.16-0.80; I² = 0.48; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients has the potential to positively impact patients with both mild and severe symptoms. As several high-quality randomized control studies have demonstrated a benefit in hospital mortality, vitamin D should be considered a supplemental therapy of strong interest. Should vitamin D prove to reduce hospitalization rates and symptoms outside of the hospital setting, the cost and benefit to global pandemic mitigation efforts would be substantial.

4.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13682, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is generating clinical challenges, lifestyle changes, economic consequences. The pandemic imposes to familiarize with concepts as prevention, vulnerability and resilience. METHODS: We analysed and reviewed the most relevant papers in the MEDLINE database on syndemic, noncommunicable diseases, pandemic, climate changes, pollution, resilience, vulnerability, health costs, COVID-19. RESULTS: We discuss that comprehensive strategies must face multifactorial consequences since the pandemic becomes syndemic due to interactions with noncommunicable diseases, climate changes and iniquities. The lockdown experience, on the other hand, demonstrates that it is rapidly possible to reverse epidemiologic trends and to reduce pollution. The worst outcome is evident in eight highly industrialized nations, where 12% of the world population experienced about one-third of all COVID-19-deaths worldwide. Thus, a great economic power has not been fully protective, and a change of policy is obviously needed to avoid irreversible consequences. CONCLUSIONS: We are accumulating unhealthy populations living in unhealthy environments and generating unhealthy offspring. The winning policy should tackle structural inequities through a syndemic approach, to protect vulnerable populations from present and future harms.

5.
Platelets ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355639

RESUMO

Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) an alternative to open surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). The effect of EVAR on platelet reactivity is unknown. We prospectively determined the effect of branched EVAR (bEVAR) on platelet reactivity in patients with TAAA, and evaluated the predictive value of preoperative platelet reactivity for post-operative bleeding in 50 consecutive patients undergoing elective bEVAR (mean age 70.9 ± 5.7 years, 66% male). Blood samples were collected within 24 hours before bEVAR, after bEVAR and at hospital discharge. Platelet reactivity was assessed with impedance aggregometry using ASPI, ADP and TRAP tests. Platelet reactivity decreased within 24 hours after bEVAR compared to the measurement before bEVAR in all tests (p ≤ 0.04), with a further decrease in hospital discharge in the ADP test (p = .004). Twenty-three patients experienced post-operative bleeding complications (transfusion ≥2 red blood cell [RBC] units). Preoperative platelet reactivity below the cutoff value of 30 AUC units predicted post-operative bleeding with 78% sensitivity and 59% specificity (p = .045). In the multivariable analysis, platelet reactivity was the only independent predictor of postoperative bleeding (OR 6.507, 95% CI 1.227-34.506, p = .028). We conclude that platelet reactivity decreases following bEVAR of TAAA and is a strong and independent predictor for postoperative bleeding complications.

8.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(9): 980-987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities increase the likelihood of heart failure (HF) but have low specificity and their occurrence is multifactorial. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and association of major ECG abnormalities with clinical characteristics and outcomes in a large cohort of real-life HF patients enrolled in HF Registries (Pilot and Long-Term) of the European Society of Cardiology. METHODS: Standard 12-lead ECG containing at least one of the following simple parameters was considered a major abnormality: abnormal rhythm; >100 bpm; QRS ≥120 ms; QTc ≥450 ms; pathological Q-wave; left ventricle hypertrophy; left bundle branch block. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify predictors of the primary (all-cause death) and secondary (all-cause death or hospitalization for worsening HF) endpoints. RESULTS: Patients with abnormal ECG (1222/1460; 83.7%) were older, more frequently were male and had HF with reduced ejection fraction, valvular heart disease, comorbidities, higher New York Heart Association class, or higher concentrations of natriuretic peptides as compared to those with normal ECG. In a one-year follow-up, the primary and secondary endpoints occurred more frequently in patients with abnormal ECG compared to normal ECG (13.8% vs 8.4%; P = 0.021 and 33.0% vs 24.7%; P = 0.016; respectively). Abnormal rhythm, tachycardia, QRS ≥120 ms, and QTc ≥450 ms were significant in univariable (both endpoints) analyses but only tachycardia remained an independent predictor of the primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: HF patients with major ECG abnormalities were characterized by worse clinical status and one-year outcomes. Only tachycardia was an independent predictor of all-cause death.

9.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(9): 995-1002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) negatively affect the post-procedural prognosis. Routine use of protamine sulfate (PS) to reverse unfractionated heparin after TAVI was never assessed in a randomized controlled trial. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of PS on bleeding complications after TAVI. METHODS: Between December 2016 and July 2020 311 patients qualified to TAVI in one academic center were screened. Patients that met the inclusion criteria were randomized to either PS or normal saline administration at the moment of optimal valve deployment. Baseline, procedural, and follow-up data for up to 30 days were collected and analyzed. The primary endpoint (PE) was a composite of life-threatening and major bleeding according to Valve Academic Research Consortium within 48 hours after the procedure. RESULTS: Overall, 100 patients (48 males, median age 82 years) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Forty-seven subjects (47%) were randomized to PS. The primary endpoint occurred in 29% of the study population. Despite numerically lower rates of PE in patients randomized to PS, a statistical significance was not reached (21% in the PS group and 36% in the placebo group; odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.2-1.2; P = 0.11). There were no significant differences in secondary endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Routine protamine sulfate administration did not significantly decrease the rate of major and life-threatening bleeding complications after TAVI. Larger studies are required to assess the impact of routine PS use.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 155: 23-31, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315572

RESUMO

Data on long-term neointimal healing and neoatherosclerosis progression after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with implantation of everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) (ABSORB BVS 1.0, Abbott Vascular) are limited. The mechanisms underlying very late scaffold failure remain to be further elucidated. This study sought to assess healing pattern and presence of neoatherosclerosis. This was a single-center, prospective, longitudinal study with serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) assessment at baseline, 12, 24 and 60 months after PCI performed in 12 patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The median follow-up was 59 months. The diameter stenosis increased from 7.11 ± 4.99% at 1-year to 21.00 ± 11.31% at 5 years, (p = 0.03), whereas minimum lumen diameter remained stable throughout the follow-up period, as assessed by angiography. Minimum and mean lumen area declined over the 5-year follow-up by 1.00 ± 1.57 mm2 and 1.75 ± 0.87 mm2, respectively; a significant decrease in minimum and mean lumen area in the first two years, was followed by stable luminal dimensions between 2 and 5 years of follow-up. The lumen eccentricity (0.85 ± 0.03) and asymmetry (0.43 ± 0.10) indexes showed no change over 60-month follow-up. The incidence of atherosclerosis was high both in the in-scaffold (IS) and out-scaffold (OS) regions consisting of calcifications (IS = 100%, OS = 92%, p = 0.99), macrophages (IS = 92% and OS = 67%, p = 0.31), neovascularization (IS = 75%, OS = 50%, p = 0.40). In conclusion, serial OCT imaging up to 5 years after implantation of BVS in STEMI indicated complete scaffold resorption, stable lumen area following period of neointima growth in the first two years after PCI and high incidence of neoatherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Tecidos Suporte , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cardiol J ; 28(5): 647-654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease primarily affecting the respiratory tract, however due to the nature of the pathogenesis it is able to affect the whole body. So far, no causative treatment has been found and the main strategy when dealing with COVID-19 relies on widespread vaccination programs and symptomatic treatment. Vitamin D due to its ability to modulate the immunological system has been proposed as a factor playing role in the organism response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, we decided to perform this meta-analysis which aimed to establish a connection between vitamin D status and COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Study was designed as a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Collaboration Databases and Scopus electronic databases were searched for relevant studies from database inception to May 10th, 2021. Mean differences (MDs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Thirteen studies providing data for 14,485 participants met the inclusion criteria. Mean vitamin D levels in SARS-CoV-2 negative patients was 17.7 ± 6.9 ng/mL compared to SARS-CoV-2 positive patients 14.1 ± 8.2 ng/mL (MD = 3.93; 95% CI 2.84-5.02; I2 = 99%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low serum vitamin D levels are statistically significantly associated with the risk of COVID-19 infection. Supplementation of vitamin D especially in the deficiency risk groups is indicated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vitamina D , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitaminas
13.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(7-8): 820-826, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have gradually expanded since its introduction. AIMS: The aim was to analyze temporal trends in TAVI characteristics based on the experience of a high-volume academic center over the period of 10 years. METHODS: Five hundred and six consecutive (n = 506) patients with 1-year follow-up were divided into early (G1, years 2010-2013, n = 130), intermediate (G2, 2014-2016, n = 164) and recent (G3, 2017-2019, n = 212) experience groups. RESULTS: Patient's age remained constant over time (mean [SD]; G1 = 79.1 [7.1] years vs G2 = 79.1 [7.1] years vs G3 = 79.7 [6.6] years, P = 0.73) but surgical risk in G3 was lower (log Euroscore, median [IQR]: G1 = 14.0 [8.4-20.2] vs G2 = 12.0 [7.0-22.2] vs G3 = 5.1 [3.5-8.5]; P <0.001). Major/life-threatening bleeding (G1 = 26.9% vs G2 = 12.8% vs G3 = 9.4%; P <0.001), major vascular complications (G1 = 15.4% vs G2 = 8.5% vs G3 = 5.7%; P = 0.02) and moderate/severe paravalvular leak (G1 = 16.2% vs G2 = 11% vs G3 = 7.5%; P = 0.046) were decreasing with time. There was a significant drop in all-cause 1-year mortality in G3 (G1 = 20% vs G2 = 17.7% vs G3 = 9.1%; log rank = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The age of TAVI recipients remained unchanged over the last decade. Decreasing surgical risk coupled with improvements in procedural technique and care resulted in fewer periprocedural complications and better 1-year survival.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Criança , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(7-8): 833-840, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse left-ventricular remodelling (LVR) is defined as an increase in end-diastolic left-ventricular volume by 20% 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). LVR is associated with cardiac dysfunction, therefore deteriorating the prognosis. AIMS: We aimed to compare the concentrations of messenger RNA transcripts in the peripheral blood of patients with and without LVR at 6 months. METHODS: The study included 75 patients with first ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Whole blood concentrations of 6 transcripts were determined 24 hours after AMI using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction. The correlations between mRNA transcript expression and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and N-terminal-pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 75 patients, 4 were lost to follow-up and 71 were included in the analysis. Seventeen (24%) patients developed LVR at 6 months. Versican (VCAN) mRNA expression was lower in patients who developed LVR, compared to those who did not (P = 0.02), and discriminated between these patients (area under the ROC curve 67%; P = 0.04). Expression of VCAN transcript < 75.3 normalized units predicted LVR with 71% sensitivity and 67% specificity. In a multivariable regression analysis, VCAN expression remained the only independent predictor of LVR (OR 3.475; 95% CI, 1.000-12.075; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulation of VCAN expression in the acute phase of AMI may contribute to LVR at 6 months. Whether decreased expression of VCAN might be a useful tool to predict LVR in clinical practice remains to be established.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Versicanas/genética
15.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(9): 802-807, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preliminary retrospective reports showed that zinc supplementation may decrease mortality in COVID-19 patients, postulating the potential therapeutic efficacy of zinc in the management of the disease. OBJECTIVES: We sought to summarize the studies published to date regarding the antiviral activity of zinc in COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed to compare the outcomes of hospitalized patients receiving zinc supplementation and those treated with standard care. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and length of stay in hospital or intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Data relating to 1474 patients included in four studies were analyzed. Survival to hospital discharge was 56.8% in the zinc group, compared to 75.9% in the non-zinc group (P=0.88). In-hospital mortality was 22.3% in the zinc group, compared to 13.6% for the standard care group (P=0.16). Length of hospital stay was 7.7(3.7) days in the zinc group and 7.2(3.9) days in the standard treatment group (P<0.001). Length of ICU stay was 4.9(1.7) days in the zinc group and 5.8(1.9) days in the standard care group (P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation did not have any beneficial impact on the course of COVID-19 evaluated as survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital mortality. The zinc-supplemented group had longer hospital ICU lengths of stay. There is at present no evidence-based data to support routine zinc supplementation in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinco
16.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(7): 478-484, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169498

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the association of adipokines (resistin, leptin and adiponectin) with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 284 patients with T2DM were included. Concentrations of resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] were measured and homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. Resistin correlated negatively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and positively with hsCRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and white blood cell count (WBC). Leptin correlated positively with HOMA-IR, whereas adiponectin correlated negatively. Leptin also correlated positively with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, IL-6, WBC and negatively with eGFR. Adiponectin correlated negatively with waist circumference, WBC, and eGFR. Multivariate logistic regression indicated lower eGFR and higher WBC and IL-6 as independent predictive factors of resistin concentration above the upper quartile (CAQ3), whereas female sex and higher BMI and HOMA-IR of leptin CAQ3, and lower HOMA-IR and older age of adiponectin CAQ3. In conclusion, in contrast to leptin and adiponectin, in T2DM patients, resistin is not associated with BMI and IR, but with inflammation and worse kidney function.

18.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 23(5): 27, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961166

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In the world, about 45% of people suffer from arterial hypertension, while good blood pressure control is achieved by only approximately 50% of all hypertensive patients treated. The reason for the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its poor control is low knowledge of hypertensinogenic factors. One such factor is periodontitis, which is a disease of social importance. RECENT FINDINGS: It has been shown that the occurrence of periodontitis leads to an increase in blood pressure, increasing the risk of arterial hypertension. Periodontitis can also lead to ineffectiveness of antihypertensive treatment. Some interventional studies have shown that treatment of periodontitis reduced blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. The pathogenesis of arterial hypertension in periodontitis is complex and concerns mainly the impairment of the vasodilatation properties of the endothelium. Hygiene and periodontitis treatment should be a method of preventing arterial hypertension and a method of increasing the effectiveness of antihypertensive treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Periodontite , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802254

RESUMO

In trauma patients, bleeding can lead to coagulopathy, hemorrhagic shock, and multiorgan failure, and therefore is of fundamental significance in regard to early morbidity. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in civil and military settings and its impact on in-hospital mortality (survival to hospital discharge or 30-day survival), intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, incidence of adverse events (myocardial infarct and neurological complications), and volume of blood product transfusion. The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic review of the literature using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register and Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) database was conducted from inception to 10 January 2021. In-hospital mortality was reported in 14 studies and was 15.5% for the TXA group as compared with 16.4% for the non-TXA group (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.62-1.06, I2 = 83%, p = 0.12). In a civilian TXA application, in-hospital mortality in the TXA and non-TXA groups amounted to 15.0% and 17.1%, respectively (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.93, p = 0.02, I2 = 78%). A subgroup analysis of the randomized control trial (RCT) studies showed a statistically significant reduction in in-hospital mortality in the TXA group (14.3%) as compared with the non-TXA group (15.7%, OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.96, p = 0.003, I2 = 0%). To summarize, TXA used in civilian application reduces in-hospital mortality. Application of TXA is beneficial for severely injured patients who undergoing shock and require massive blood transfusions. Patients who undergo treatment with TXA should be monitored for clinical signs of thromboembolism, since TXA is a standalone risk factor of a thromboembolic event and the D-dimers in traumatic patients are almost always elevated.

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