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1.
Blood Press ; : 1-8, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036692

RESUMO

Purpose: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is considered the most common form of secondary hypertension, however, its prevalence, particularly in a general population, is still a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of PA in a randomly selected general population sample.Materials and methods: A total of 1940 individuals (1% population random sample) aged 25-64 years were screened for major cardiovascular risk factors in six districts of the Czech Republic. Hypertension was defined as a mean of two blood pressure readings ≥140/90 mmHg at one visit or taking antihypertensive medication. Within this population, 740 individuals were labelled as hypertensives and 650 of them sampled for the analysis of direct plasma renin and serum aldosterone. The diagnosis of PA was based on elevated serum aldosterone, low plasma renin and high aldosterone/renin (ARR) ratio and was also verified by a confirmatory test with saline infusion.Results: Positive ARR was found in 52 (8%) individuals (64% women, 36% men, however, due to substatntial proportion of reluctatnt participants to undergo a further work-up (27%), we could confirm the diagnosis of PA only in 13 of them (2%). Aldosterone-producing adenoma was found in one case only, seven patients had idiopathic type and five individuals refused potential surgical treatment therefore, adrenal venous sampling was not performed.Conclusion: Elevated serum aldosterone together with low renin and high ARR were found in 52 (8%) of hypertensives selected from a general population sample, however, the diagnosis of PA was confirmed only in 13 of them (2%). This study based on a general population survey highlighted the difficulty of conducting epidemiological studies on primary aldosteronism in a relatively healthy cohort part of whom did not provide the level of collaboration that is necessary to assess the true prevalence of this condition.

2.
Biomark Med ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057249

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to establish the association between sclerostin (a glycoprotein involved in bone metabolism) and development of pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the general population. Methods: A prospective cohort study with a total of 522 subjects. Aortic PWV was measured twice (at baseline and after approximately 8 years of follow-up) and intraindividual change in PWV per year (ΔPWV/year) was calculated. Results: ΔPWV/year increased across the sclerostin quintiles, but generally in a strong age-dependent manner. However, a significant independent positive association between sclerostin and ΔPWV/year was observed exclusively in C allele carriers of rs5186 polymorphism for the angiotensin II receptor 1 (n = 246). Conclusion: Sclerostin concentrations were associated with an accelerated natural course of arterial stiffening, but only in interaction with renin-angiotension system.

3.
Hypertens Res ; 43(2): 111-120, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636359

RESUMO

Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) have been suggested to have a protective role in neutralizing advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their pathological effects on vessel walls. We aimed to investigate the association between the circulating concentration of sRAGE and the dynamics of arterial wall stiffening as a manifestation of vascular aging in the general population. In a prospective cohort study, we longitudinally followed 530 general-population-based subjects (subsample of Czech post-MONICA study). Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured twice (at baseline and after ~8 years of follow-up) using a SphygmoCor device (AtCor Medical Ltd), and the intraindividual change in PWV per year (∆PWV/year) was calculated. Concentrations of sRAGE were assessed at baseline by ELISA (R&D Systems). The average ∆PWV/year significantly decreased across the sRAGE quintiles (p = 0.048), and a drop by one sRAGE quintile was associated with an ~21% increase in the relative risk of accelerated age-dependent stiffening (∆PWV/year ≥ 0.2 m/s). Subjects in the bottom quintile of sRAGE (<889.74 pg/mL) had a fully adjusted odds ratio of accelerated stiffening of 1.72 (95% CI: 1.06-2.79), p = 0.028, while those with high sRAGE concentrations (≥1695.2 pg/mL) showed the opposite effect [odds ratio 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33-0.90), p = 0.017]. In conclusion, the circulating status of sRAGE independently influenced the individual progression of arterial stiffness over time. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that high sRAGE has a protective role against vascular aging.

4.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is an ongoing controversy about the magnitude of the difference between unattended automated office blood pressure (AOBP) and conventional office blood pressure (BP). The aim of our study was to compare unattended AOBP with both auscultatory BP and oscillometric attended AOBP in an epidemiological setting. METHODS: In 2588 participants of the Czech post-MoNItoring of CArdiovascular Disease study (a randomly selected 1% representative population sample aged 25-64 years, mean age 48 ±â€Š11 years, 47.5% males), BP was measured using an AOBP device unattended, auscultatory mercury sphygmomanometer and an oscillometric attended AOBP device. RESULTS: On average, auscultatory BP was 10.6/5.6 mmHg higher than unattended AOBP. Similarly, oscillometric attended AOBP was 9.9/3.4 mmHg higher than unattended AOBP, while the mean difference between attended oscillometric AOBP and auscultatory BP was 0.8/2.1 mmHg. Unattended systolic AOBP of 127 mmHg corresponded to SBP of 140 mmHg measured by a conventional sphygmomanometer. The prevalence of hypertension varied depending on the measurement technique and ranged from 31.5 to 40.1%. Reasonable agreement in hypertension diagnosis was observed with unattended AOBP cut-off at least 130/85 mmHg when compared with both auscultatory (McNemar P = 0.07, kappa 0.819) and attended oscillometric AOBP (McNemar P = 0.46, kappa 0.852) thresholds of at least 140/90 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Unattended automated office SBP is on average 10 mmHg lower than the office auscultatory or attended AOBP values. In epidemiological settings, a threshold of unattended AOBP at least 130/85 mmHg should make comparison of hypertension prevalence possible with studies using auscultatory techniques and cut-off values of 140/90 mmHg.

5.
Blood Press ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691578

RESUMO

Purpose: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of highly oxidant compounds which can potentiate microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of irreversible cross-links between molecules in the basal membrane and also by engaging the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) is suggested to have a protective role neutralizing the toxic action of AGEs. We aimed to investigate differences in plasma levels of sRAGE alongside with classic cardiovascular risk factors between offspring of patients with early onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) and healthy controls.Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional design, we examined 114 adult offspring of patients with premature CHD and 194 controls. Concentrations of soluble RAGE were quantified by ELISA methods. Aortic PWV was measured using Sphygmocor device. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to compare differences between the offspring and controls.Results: In the offspring group there were more men (p = 0.023), both groups had similar age (28.5 vs. 28.9 years; p = 0.51). After adjustment for covariates, we observed significantly higher aPWV (6.17 vs. 5.82 m s-1; p = 0.001) and lower sRAGE (1308.11 vs. 1475.59; p = 0.009) in the offspring group compared to controls. The significant determinants of the intergroup difference were sRAGE (p = 0.0017), aPWV (p = 0.011) and current smoking (p = 0.0053).Conclusion: Offspring of patients with early onset of CHD compared to age-matched healthy controls had significantly lower sRAGE levels suggesting a shift in the oxidative balance between stressors and defence mechanisms that may influence a higher cardiovascular risk in the future. The measurement of sRAGE might be a valuable predictor for more precise stratification of cardiovascular risk.

6.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1333-1342, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630575

RESUMO

Participant-level meta-analyses assessed the age-specific relevance of office blood pressure to cardiovascular complications, but this information is lacking for out-of-office blood pressure. At baseline, daytime ambulatory (n=12 624) or home (n=5297) blood pressure were measured in 17 921 participants (51.3% women; mean age, 54.2 years) from 17 population cohorts. Subsequently, mortality and cardiovascular events were recorded. Using multivariable Cox regression, floating absolute risk was computed across 4 age bands (≤60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Over 236 491 person-years, 3855 people died and 2942 cardiovascular events occurred. From levels as low as 110/65 mm Hg, risk log-linearly increased with higher out-of-office systolic/diastolic blood pressure. From the youngest to the oldest age group, rates expressed per 1000 person-years increased (P<0.001) from 4.4 (95% CI, 4.0-4.7) to 86.3 (76.1-96.5) for all-cause mortality and from 4.1 (3.9-4.6) to 59.8 (51.0-68.7) for cardiovascular events, whereas hazard ratios per 20-mm Hg increment in systolic out-of-office blood pressure decreased (P≤0.0033) from 1.42 (1.19-1.69) to 1.09 (1.05-1.12) and from 1.70 (1.51-1.92) to 1.12 (1.07-1.17), respectively. These age-related trends were similar for out-of-office diastolic pressure and were generally consistent in both sexes and across ethnicities. In conclusion, adverse outcomes were directly associated with out-of-office blood pressure in adults. At young age, the absolute risk associated with out-of-office blood pressure was low, but relative risk high, whereas with advancing age relative risk decreased and absolute risk increased. These observations highlight the need of a lifecourse approach for the management of hypertension.

7.
J Comp Eff Res ; 8(11): 841-852, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475585

RESUMO

Aim: We analyzed to what extent measurement protocol influenced individual blood pressure (BP) and achievement of treatment target in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: In a subsample of Czech EUROASPIRE III-V survey participants (n = 913), we compared the per-protocol BP measurement (by automated oscillometric device OMRON at the beginning of survey procedure) with control auscultatory measurement (by physician during interview). Results: Per-protocol approach produced significantly (p < 0.0001) higher BP values (by 9/6 mmHg in median) than auscultatory measurements and led to markedly higher proportion of patients over target BP (less than 140/90 mmHg; 59.3 vs 34.9% [p < 0.0001], per-protocol vs auscultatory technique, respectively). Conclusion: Per-protocol oscillometric technique was not equivalent to conventional auscultatory measurement and seriously over-rated the real nonachievement of BP target in observational surveys.

8.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
9.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-9, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442189

RESUMO

Background: It was suggested that depression and anxiety might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention. In stable coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, we aimed to assess prevalence of depression and anxiety, its relations to conventional risk profile and mortality or morbidity and to quality of life (QoL). Methods: We examined 969 patients, at least 6 months after myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation. Depression or anxiety was assessed using a standard HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), while QoL by SF-36 (Short-Form-36 Questions) questionnaires. Follow-up was done to assess mortality in incidence of non-fatal cardiovascular event. Results: Both mood disorders were rather frequent; borderline depression or anxiety (HADS score 8-10) had 14.8 or 10.9% of patients, respectively; moderate-to-severe depression or anxiety (HADS score ≥11) had another 8.2 or 6.7% of patients. After adjustment for potential covariates impaired QoL (SF-36 score <40) was independently associated with depressive mood [odds ratio (OR) 6.08 (95%CI: 2.92-12.7) or anxiety [OR 8.66 (95%CI: 3.77-19.89)], as well as with combination of both disorders [OR 33.58 (95%CI: 15.5-72.6)]. Conventional risk characteristics remained virtually unrelated to mood disorders (with exception of angina pectoris). We found significantly higher incidence of major cardiovascular events in patients with anxious mood and marginally significant inferior survival in patients with depression, but any cardiovascular risk disappeared if adjusted for potential covariates (conventional risk factors, natriuretic peptides, angina pectoris.) Conclusions: Mood disorders severely affected QoL of stable CHD patients, but not their global cardiovascular risk.

10.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 776-783, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378104

RESUMO

The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline reclassified office blood pressure and proposed thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). We derived outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding with the new office blood pressure categories. We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 11 152 participants (48.9% women; mean age, 53.0 years) representative of 13 populations. We determined ABP thresholds resulting in multivariable-adjusted 10-year risks similar to those associated with elevated office blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg) and stages 1 and 2 of office hypertension (130/80 and 140/90 mm Hg). Over 13.9 years (median), 2728 (rate per 1000 person-years, 17.9) people died, 1033 (6.8) from cardiovascular disease; furthermore, 1988 (13.8), 893 (6.0), and 795 (5.4) cardiovascular and coronary events and strokes occurred. Using a composite cardiovascular end point, systolic/diastolic outcome-driven thresholds indicating elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 117.9/75.2, 121.4/79.6, and 105.3/66.2 mm Hg. For stages 1 and 2 ambulatory hypertension, thresholds were 123.3/75.2 and 128.7/80.7 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, 128.5/79.6 and 135.6/87.1 mm Hg for daytime ABP, and 111.7/66.2 and 118.1/72.5 mm Hg for nighttime ABP. ABP thresholds derived from other end points were similar. After rounding, approximate thresholds for elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 120/75, 120/80, and 105/65 mm Hg, and for stages 1 and 2, ambulatory hypertension 125/75 and 130/80 mm Hg, 130/80 and 135/85 mm Hg, and 110/65 and 120/70 mm Hg. Outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding to elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 of hypertension are similar to those proposed by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 289: 101-106, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention of atherosclerotic vascular diseases represents a cascade of procedures to reduce the risk of future fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. We sought to determine whether the expression of selected microRNAs influenced mortality of stable chronic cardiovascular patients. METHODS: The plasma concentrations of five selected microRNAs (miR-1, miR-19, miR-126, miR-133 and miR-223) were quantified in 826 patients (mean age 65.2 years) with stable vascular disease (6-36 months after acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization or first-ever ischemic stroke). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were followed during our prospective study. RESULTS: Low expression (bottom quartile) of all five miRNAs was associated with a significant increase in five-year all-cause death, even when adjusted for conventional risk factors, treatment, raised troponin I and brain natriuretic protein levels [hazard risk ratios (HRRs) were as follows: miR-1, 1.65 (95% CI: 1.16-2.35); miR-19a, 2.27 (95% CI: 1.59-3.23); miR-126, 1.64 (95% CI: 1.15-2.33); miR-133a, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.01-2.12) and miR-223, 2.05 (95% CI: 1.45-2.91)]. Nearly similar results were found if using five-year cardiovascular mortality as the outcome. However, if entering all five miRNAs (along with other covariates) into a single regression model, only low miR-19a remained a significant mortality predictor; and only in patients with coronary artery disease [3.00 (95% CI: 1.77-5.08)], but not in post-stroke patients [1.63 (95% CI: 0.94-2.86)]. CONCLUSIONS: In stable chronic coronary artery disease patients, low miR-19a expression was associated with a substantial increase in mortality risk independently of other conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

12.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-8, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In stable coronary heart disease (CHD) patients we aimed to assess the predictive potential of only mild increase of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in subjects free from symptoms or diagnostic criteria of heart failure (HF). METHODS: We examined 967 patients, at least 6 months after myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization and divided them into three categories: 'overt HF' (NYHA II-IV, objective signs of HF, chronic treatment with furosemide and/or spironolactone or history of hospitalisation for HF), 'subclinical HF (BNP over 150 ng/mL, but no criterion of overt HF)' and 'no HF' (no above mentioned criterion present). Follow-up was done to assess 5-years all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Overt and subclinical HF (by definition) had 38.8% and 9.6% of patients, respectively. In analyses adjusted for classical risk factors and other possible covariates, both overt and subclinical HF were independently associated with increased mortality compared to no HF subjects [hazard risk ratio 1.99 (95%CI:1.02-3.91) and 3.01 (95%CI:1.90-4.78), respectively. The risk of total mortality was similar in overt and subclinical HF patients [HRR 1.30 (95%CI: 0.72-2.36)]. Within overt HF group, those with BNP >150 ng/mL had also higher mortality risk than those with low BNP levels [HRR 2.79 (95%CI: 1.67-4.68)]. The addition of left ventricle ejection fraction into definition of HF groups did not affect main results. CONCLUSIONS: Mild increase of BNP in generally stable and asymptomatic CHD patients identifies high individual mortality risk in the same extend that presence of clinically manifest HF.

13.
Blood Press ; 28(1): 34-39, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474412

RESUMO

AIMS: Unattended automated office blood pressure (uAutoOBP) has attracted more attention since SPRINT trial had been published. However, its long-term relationship to attended office blood pressure (AuscOBP) is not known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stable treated hypertensive subjects were examined in four Czech academic hypertension centers. All subjects attended four clinical visits three months apart. uAutoOBP was measured with the BP Tru device; AuscOBP was measured three times with auscultatory method by the physician. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed within one week from the second clinical visit. RESULTS: Data on 112 subjects aged 65.6 ± 10.8 years with mean AuscOBP 128.2 ± 12.2/78.5 ± 10.3 mm Hg are reported. Across the four clinical visits, the uAutoOBP was by 10.1/3.7 mm Hg lower than AuscOBP and the mean difference was similar during all four visits (P≥.061). Both uAutoOBP and AuscOBP had similar intra-individual variability during study follow-up as demonstrated by similar intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, for systolic ICC = 0.50, for diastolic ICC = 0.72). However, the intra-individual variability of the systolic AuscOBP and uAutoOBP difference was high as demonstrated by low ICCs for absolute (ICC = 0.17 [95%CI, 0.09 - 0.25]) and low κ coefficients for categorized differences (κ ≤ 0.16). The main determinant of AuscOBP-uAutoOBP difference was AuscOBP level. The AuscOBP-uAutoOBP difference was poor tool to identify hypertension control categories defined on the basis of AuscOBP and ABPM. CONCLUSIONS: Although mean AuscOBP-uAutoOBP differences were relatively similar across the four clinical visits, intra-individual variability of this difference was high. The AuscOBP-uAutoOBP difference was poor tool to identify hypertension control categories defined on the basis of AuscOBP and ABPM. Therefore, uAutoOBP cannot be used as a replacement for ABPM.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Idoso , Automação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Impaired glucose metabolism represents one the most important cardiovascular risk factors, with steeply raising prevalence in overall population. We aimed to compare mortality risk of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). STUDY DESIGN: prospective cohort study METHODS: A total of 1685 patients, 6-24 months after myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization at baseline, were followed in a prospective cohort study. Overt DM was defined as fasting glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L and/or use of antidiabetic treatment, while IFG as fasting glucose 5.6-6.99 mmol/L, but no antidiabetic medication. The main outcomes were total and cardiovascular mortality during 5 years of follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up of 1826 days, 172 patients (10.2%) deceased, and of them 122 (7.2%) from a cardiovascular cause. Both exposures, overt DM (n=623, 37.0% of the whole sample) and IFG (n=436, 25.9%) were associated with an independent increase of 5-year total mortality, compared to normoglycemic subjects [fully adjusted hazard risk ratio (HRR) 1.63 (95%CI: 1.01-2.61)]; p=0.043 and 2.25 (95%CI: 1.45-3.50); p<0.0001, respectively]. In contrast, comparing both glucose disorders one with each other, no significant differences were found for total mortality [HRR 0.82 (0.53-1.28); p=0.33]. Taking 5-years cardiovascular mortality as outcome, similar pattern was observed [HRR 1.96 (95%CI: 1.06-3.63) and 3.84 (95%CI: 2.19-6.73) for overt DM and IFG, respectively, with HRR 0.63 (95%CI: 0.37-1.07) for comparison of both disorders]. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired fasting glycaemia adversely increases mortality of CHD patients in the same extent as overt DM.

15.
Blood Press ; 27(5): 256-261, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566565

RESUMO

AIMS: Several papers reported that unattended automated office blood pressure (uAutoOBP) is closely related to daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). In the present study, we aim to study uAutoOBP and its relation to 24-hour ABPM and ABPM variability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stable treated hypertensive subjects were examined in two Czech academic hypertension centres. uAutoOBP was measured with the BP Tru device; attended BP three times with auscultatory method (AuscOBP) by the physician. ABPM was performed within one week from the clinical visit. RESULTS: Data on 98 subjects aged 67.7 ± 9.3 years with 24-hour ABPM 120.3 ± 10.6/72.7 ± 7.9 mm Hg are reported. uAutoOBP was lower than 24-hour (by -5.2 ± 11.3/-0.5 ± 6.9 mm Hg) and daytime (by -6.7 ± 12.82.4 ± 8.0 mm Hg) ABPM and the individual variability of the difference was very large (up to 30 mm Hg). The correlation coefficients between ABPM and uAutoOBP were similar compared to AuscOBP (p ≥ .17). Variability of uAutoOBP, but not AuscOBP, readings during one clinical visit was related to short-term blood pressure variability of ABPM. The difference between AuscOBP and uAutoOBP was larger in patients with white-coat effect compared to other blood pressure control groups (25.1 ± 7.0 vs. 2.2 ± 10.3 mm Hg; p = .0036). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that uAutoOBP is not good predictor of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, not even of the daytime values. It might, however, indicate short-term blood pressure variability and, when compared with AuscOBP, also detect patients with white-coat effect.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Tchecoslováquia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/fisiopatologia
16.
Heart ; 104(15): 1263-1270, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data on the contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) components to the risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) are limited. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that ABP may represent a potentially modifiable risk factor for the development of AF in a European population study. METHODS: We recorded daytime blood pressure (BP) in 3956 subjects randomly recruited from the general population in five European countries. Of these participants, 2776 (70.2%) underwent complete 24-hour ABP monitoring. Median follow-up was 14 years. We defined daytime systolic BP load as the percentage BP readings above 135 mm Hg. The incidence of AF was assessed from ECGs obtained at baseline and follow-up and from records held by general practitioners and/or hospitals. RESULTS: Overall, during 58 810 person-years of follow-up, 143 participants experienced new-onset AF. In adjusted Cox models, each SD increase in baseline 24 hours, daytime and night-time systolic BP was associated with a 27% (P=0.0056), 22% (P=0.023) and 20% (P=0.029) increase in the risk for incident AF, respectively. Conventional systolic BP was borderline associated with the risk of AF (18%; P=0.06). As compared with the average population risk, participants in the lower quartile of daytime systolic BP load (<3%) had a 51% (P=0.0038) lower hazard for incident AF, whereas in the upper quartile (>38%), the risk was 46% higher (P=0.0094). CONCLUSIONS: Systolic ABP is a significant predictor of incident AF in a population-based cohort. We also observed that participants with a daytime systolic BP load >38% had significantly increased risk of incident AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
17.
Blood Press ; 27(4): 188-193, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334262

RESUMO

AIMS: Unattended automated office blood pressure (uAutoOBP) may eliminate white-coat effect. In the present study, we studied its relationships to attended office blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stable treated hypertensive subjects were examined in four Czech academic hypertension centres. uAutoOBP was measured with the BP Tru device; attended BP was measured six times: three times with auscultatory method (AuscOBP) by the physician followed optionally by three oscillometric measurements (OscOBP). ABPM was performed within one week from the clinical visit. RESULTS: Data on 172 subjects aged 63.7 ± 12.4 years with AuscOBP 127.6 ± 12.1/77.6 ± 10.0 mm Hg are reported. uAutoOBP was by 8.5 ± 9.0/3.0 ± 6.1 mm Hg lower than AuscOBP. The AuscOBP-uAutoOBP difference increased with the AuscOBP level and it did not depend on any other factor. OscOBP differed by 8.6 ± 8.6/1.9 ± 5.7 mm Hg from uAutoOBP. 24-hour mean BP was by 4.2 ± 12.1/3.5 ± 7.8 mm Hg lower than AuscOBP and by 4.3 ± 11.0/0.5 ± 6.9 mm Hg higher than uAutoOBP; the correlation coefficients of 24-hour mean BP with AuscOBP and with uAutoOBP did not differ (p for difference ≥.13). In the lowest BP group (systolic AuscOBP <120 mm Hg or diastolic AuscOBP <70 mm Hg), both AuscOBP and uAutoOBP were lower than 24-hour mean BP, while in the highest BP group (systolic AuscOBP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic AuscOBP ≥90 mm Hg), they were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to uAutoOBP, attended BP measurement gives higher values, both when measured with auscultatory or oscillometric method. Inter-individual variability of AutoOBP - uAuscOBP difference, as well of uAutoOBP - ABPM difference, is large. We did not prove that uAutoOBP would be associated to 24-hour ambulatory BP more closely than attended BP.


Assuntos
Automação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Horm Metab Res ; 50(1): 56-64, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183090

RESUMO

Low vitamin D status has been frequently associated with impaired glucose metabolism. We examined associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and several parameters of glucose homeostasis in virtually healthy subjects, and explored possible interaction with vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism. Nondiabetic subjects without chronic medication or any known significant manifest disease were selected from large general-population based population survey. Insulin sensitivity and ß cell secretion were calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and soluble isoform of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) using commercial ELISA. Subjects were also genotyped for rs2228570 polymorphism of VDR. After adjustment for potential confounders, we observed a significant relationship between 25-OH-D and fasting glycemia (ß coefficient=-5.904; p=0.002) or insulin sensitivity (ß=0.042; p=0.001), but not with ß cell secretion or sRAGE. We found also an interaction with VDR polymorphism. Subjects with low 25-OH-D and AA genotype had significantly lower insulin sensitivity than those with GG genotype plus highest 25-OH-D concentrations (107.3% vs. 183.9%, p=0.021). In conclusion, low vitamin D status was in virtually healthy subjects associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, namely in those with GG genotype of rs2228570 VDR polymorphism.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 47: 55-61, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to clarify the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as assessed by different definitions on the cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: A total of 1692 patients, 6-24months after myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization at baseline, were followed in a prospective cohort study. MetS was identified using four different definitions: standard National Cholesterol Education Program definition (NCEP-ATPIII) based on the presence of ≥3 of the following factors: increased waist circumference, raised blood pressure, hypetriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased fasting glycemia; modified NCEP-ATPIII definition (similar, but omitting antihypertensive treatment as an alternative criterion); presence of "atherogenic dyslipidemia"; or "hypertriglyceridemic waist". The primary outcome was a fatal cardiovascular event at 5years. RESULTS: During 5-year follow-up, 117 patients (6.9%) died from a cardiovascular cause. Patients with MetS by modified NCEP-ATPIII (n=1066, 63.0% of the whole sample) had significantly higher 5-year cardiovascular mortality [adjusted hazard risk ratio (HRR) 2.01 [95%CI:1.26-3.22]; p=0.003] than subjects without MetS. However, when testing single MetS component factors, the majority of attributable mortality risk was driven by increased fasting glycemia (≥5.6mmol/L) [HRR 2.69 (95%CI:1.29-5.62), p=0.009] and the significance of MetS disappeared. None of the other MetS definitions, i.e., standard NCEP-ATPIII (n=1210; 71.5%), "hypertriglyceridemic waist" (n=455; 26.9%) or "atherogenic dyslipidemia" (n=223; 13.2%) were associated with any significant mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: The co-incidence of MetS has a limited mortality impact in CHD patients, while an increase in fasting glycemia seems to be more a specific marker of mortality risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Cintura Hipertrigliceridêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Vnitr Lek ; 64(11): 987-992, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606014

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the most common problems at higher age and belongs to the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects aged 65 years and more have typically isolated systolic hypertension with increased pulse pressure as a consequence of decreased elasticity of central arteries. With increasing age, the prevalence of cardiovascular/ renal diseases and diabetes is higher. Therefore, we use drugs that have cardiprotective effect and do not affect negatively concomitant diseases. Diuretics have the largest data from prospective studies, calcium channels blockers are suitable especially in isolated systolic hypertension, and ACE inhibitors tested in high-risk hypertensive patients, especially after stroke. The HYVET study showed that the risk of cardiovascular events and of heart failure is decreased with antihypertensive troroeatment also in subjects aged 80 years and more. Key words: hypertension in the elderly - isolated systolic hypertension - pulse pressure - treatment of hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipertensão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
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