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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 965-973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087601

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is a central process in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but trials targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were largely unsuccessful. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important inflammatory mediator and might constitute a potential pharmacologic target in HF. However, little is known regarding the association between IL-6 and clinical characteristics, outcomes and other inflammatory biomarkers in HF. We thus aimed to identify and characterize these associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interleukin-6 was measured in 2329 patients [89.4% with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%] of the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization during 2 years, with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and non-CV death as secondary outcomes. Approximately half (56%) of all included patients had plasma IL-6 values greater than the previously determined 95th percentile of normal values at baseline. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, procalcitonin and hepcidin, younger age, TNF-α/IL-1-related biomarkers, or having iron deficiency, atrial fibrillation and LVEF > 40% independently predicted elevated IL-6 levels. IL-6 independently predicted the primary outcome [HR (95% confidence interval) per doubling: 1.16 (1.11-1.21), P < 0.001], all-cause mortality [1.22 (1.16-1.29), P < 0.001] and CV as well as non-CV mortality [1.16 (1.09-1.24), P < 0.001; 1.31 (1.18-1.45), P < 0.001], but did not improve discrimination in previously published risk models. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, heterogeneous cohort of HF patients, elevated IL-6 levels were found in more than 50% of patients and were associated with iron deficiency, reduced LVEF, atrial fibrillation and poorer clinical outcomes. These findings warrant further investigation of IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target in specific HF subpopulations.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 921-929, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended therapy is associated with short-term clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, its impact on longer-term outcomes is poorly documented. Here, we present results from the 18-month follow-up of the QUALIFY registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data at 18 months were available for 6118 ambulatory HFrEF patients from this international prospective observational survey. Adherence was measured as a continuous variable, ranging from 0 to 1, and was assessed for five classes of recommended HF medications and dosages. Most deaths were cardiovascular (CV) (228/394) and HF-related (191/394) and the same was true for unplanned hospitalizations (1175 CV and 861 HF-related hospitalizations, out of a total of 1541). According to univariable analysis, CV and HF deaths were significantly associated with physician adherence to guidelines. In multivariable analysis, HF death was associated with adherence level [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.034] as was composite of HF hospitalization or CV death (SHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.043), whereas unplanned all-cause, CV or HF hospitalizations were not (all-cause: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.9-1.02; CV: SHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01; and HF: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.02 per 0.1 unit change in adherence score; P = 0.52, P = 0.2, and P = 0.4, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended HF therapies is associated with improved outcomes in HFrEF. Practical strategies should be established to improve physicians' adherence to guidelines.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(7): 1081-1099, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710416

RESUMO

This paper provides a practical clinical application of guideline recommendations relating to the inpatient monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, through the evaluation of various clinical, biomarker, imaging, invasive and non-invasive approaches. Comprehensive inpatient monitoring is crucial to the optimal management of acute heart failure patients. The European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines provide recommendations for the inpatient monitoring of acute heart failure, but the level of evidence underpinning most recommendations is limited. Many tools are available for the in-hospital monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, and each plays a role at various points throughout the patient's treatment course, including the emergency department, intensive care or coronary care unit, and the general ward. Clinical judgment is the preeminent factor guiding application of inpatient monitoring tools, as the various techniques have different patient population targets. When applied appropriately, these techniques enable decision making. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating that implementation of these tools improves patient outcome. Research priorities are identified to address these gaps in evidence. Future research initiatives should aim to identify the optimal in-hospital monitoring strategies that decrease morbidity and prolong survival in patients with acute heart failure.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(5): 853-872, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520964

RESUMO

The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30-40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important causes of HF in T2DM are coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and a direct detrimental effect of T2DM on the myocardium. T2DM is often unrecognized in HF patients, and vice versa, which emphasizes the importance of an active search for both disorders in the clinical practice. There are no specific limitations to HF treatment in T2DM. Subanalyses of trials addressing HF treatment in the general population have shown that all HF therapies are similarly effective regardless of T2DM. Concerning T2DM treatment in HF patients, most guidelines currently recommend metformin as the first-line choice. Sulphonylureas and insulin have been the traditional second- and third-line therapies although their safety in HF is equivocal. Neither glucagon-like preptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, nor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors reduce the risk for HF hospitalization. Indeed, a DPP4 inhibitor, saxagliptin, has been associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization. Thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) are contraindicated in patients with (or at risk of) HF. In recent trials, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, empagliflozin and canagliflozin, have both shown a significant reduction in HF hospitalization in patients with established CV disease or at risk of CV disease. Several ongoing trials should provide an insight into the effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with HFrEF and HFpEF in the absence of T2DM.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(2): 359-369, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980368

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine associations of below-target and target dose of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, with outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Treatment trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two thousand five hundred and sixty-nine patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤35%) were randomized to below-target (5-10 mg/day) dose placebo (n = 1284) or enalapril (n = 1285). One month post-randomization, blind up-titration to target (20 mg/day) dose was attempted for both study drugs in 2458 patients. Among the 1444 patients who achieved dose up-titration (placebo, n = 748; enalapril, n = 696; mean dose for both groups, 20.0 mg/day), target dose enalapril (vs. target dose placebo) was associated with a 9% absolute lower risk of the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.81; P < 0.001] during 4 years of follow-up. Among the 1014 patients who could not achieve target dose (placebo, n = 486; enalapril, n = 528; mean dose for both groups, 8.8 mg/day), below-target dose enalapril (vs. below-target dose placebo) was associated with a 12% absolute lower risk of the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.001). Among the 1224 patients receiving enalapril, target (vs. below-target) dose had no association with the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.87-1.23; P = 0.695). CONCLUSION: In patients with HFrEF, the clinical benefits of ACE inhibitors appear to be similar at both below-target and target doses.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(11): 1361-1378, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949064

RESUMO

Despite improvements in medical therapy and device-based treatment, heart failure (HF) continues to impose enormous burdens on patients and health care systems worldwide. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity contribute to cardiac disease progression, and the recent development of invasive techniques and electrical stimulation devices has opened new avenues for specific targeting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS. The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology recently organized an expert workshop which brought together clinicians, trialists and basic scientists to discuss the ANS as a therapeutic target in HF. The questions addressed were: (i) What are the abnormalities of ANS in HF patients? (ii) What methods are available to measure autonomic dysfunction? (iii) What therapeutic interventions are available to target the ANS in patients with HF, and what are their specific strengths and weaknesses? (iv) What have we learned from previous ANS trials? (v) How should we proceed in the future?


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Cardiologia , Consenso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(7): 821-836, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28560717

RESUMO

Organ injury and impairment are commonly observed in patients with acute heart failure (AHF), and congestion is an essential pathophysiological mechanism of impaired organ function. Congestion is the predominant clinical profile in most patients with AHF; a smaller proportion presents with peripheral hypoperfusion or cardiogenic shock. Hypoperfusion further deteriorates organ function. The injury and dysfunction of target organs (i.e. heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, intestine, brain) in the setting of AHF are associated with increased risk for mortality. Improvement in organ function after decongestive therapies has been associated with a lower risk for post-discharge mortality. Thus, the prevention and correction of organ dysfunction represent a therapeutic target of interest in AHF and should be evaluated in clinical trials. Treatment strategies that specifically prevent, reduce or reverse organ dysfunction remain to be identified and evaluated to determine if such interventions impact mortality, morbidity and patient-centred outcomes. This paper reflects current understanding among experts of the presentation and management of organ impairment in AHF and suggests priorities for future research to advance the field.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Sociedades Médicas , Doença Aguda , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/terapia
9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(11): 1520-1529, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28560782

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) reverse remodelling is an important marker of improved outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). We examined the impact of the intramyocardial administration of bone-marrow-derived, lineage-directed, autologous cardiopoietic mesenchymal stem cells (C3BS-CQR-1) on LV remodelling in patients with advanced HF enrolled in the CHART-1 study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=351) with symptomatic advanced HF secondary to ischaemic heart disease, and reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF <35%) were randomized to receive C3BS-CQR-1 or a sham procedure. In a post hoc analysis we examined the effect of C3BS-CQR-1 on LV reverse remodelling within 1 year of the procedure and the influence of C3BS-CQR-1 dosing in the 271 patients treated as randomized. Delivery of C3BS-CQR-1 was associated with a progressive decrease in both LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and end-systolic volume (LVESV) within 52 weeks after treatment. At 1 year, the LVEDV and LVESV of treated patients decreased by 17.0 mL and 12.8 mL greater than controls (P=0.006 and P=0.017, respectively). The effect on LVEDV was maintained after multivariable adjustment for baseline age, systolic blood pressure, LVEDV, LVEF and history of myocardial infarction. The largest reverse remodelling was evident in the patients receiving a moderate number of injections (<20). CONCLUSION: In CHART-1, intramyocardial administration of cardiopoietic stem cells led to reverse remodelling as evidenced by significant progressive decreases in LVEDV and LVESV through the 52 weeks of follow-up. Further studies are needed to explore the dose response with regard to cell number and injected volume, and reverse remodelling.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(11): 1414-1423, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463464

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the impact of physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended medications for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), including ≥50% prescription of recommended doses, on clinical outcomes at 6-month follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: In QUALIFY, an international, prospective, observational, longitudinal survey, 6669 outpatients with HFrEF were recruited 1-15 months after heart failure (HF) hospitalization from September 2013 to December 2014 in 36 countries and followed up at 6 months. A global adherence to guidelines score was developed for prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers (BBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) and ivabradine and their dosages. Baseline global adherence score was good in 23% of patients, moderate in 55%, and poor in 22%. At 6-month follow-up, poor adherence was associated with significantly higher overall mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-3.44, P=0.001], cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.36-3.77, P=0.003), HF mortality (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.21-4.2, P=0.032), combined HF hospitalization or HF death (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.71, P=0.024) and cardiovascular hospitalization or cardiovascular death (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.69, P=0.013). There was a strong trend between poor adherence and HF hospitalization (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.68, P=0.069). CONCLUSION: Good adherence to pharmacologic treatment guidelines for ACEIs, ARBs, BBs, MRAs and ivabradine, with prescription of at least 50% of recommended dosages, was associated with better clinical outcomes during 6-month follow-up. Continuing global educational initiatives are needed to emphasise the importance of guideline recommendations for optimising drug therapy and prescribing evidence-based doses in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Médicos/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(6): 718-727, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345190

RESUMO

Despite the availability of a number of different classes of therapeutic agents with proven efficacy in heart failure, the clinical course of heart failure patients is characterized by a reduction in life expectancy, a progressive decline in health-related quality of life and functional status, as well as a high risk of hospitalization. New approaches are needed to address the unmet medical needs of this patient population. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is undertaking a revision of its Guideline on Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure. The draft version of the Guideline was released for public consultation in January 2016. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), in partnership with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, convened a dedicated two-day workshop to discuss three main topic areas of major interest in the field and addressed in this draft EMA guideline: (i) assessment of efficacy (i.e. endpoint selection and statistical analysis); (ii) clinical trial design (i.e. issues pertaining to patient population, optimal medical therapy, run-in period); and (iii) research approaches for testing novel therapeutic principles (i.e. cell therapy). This paper summarizes the key outputs from the workshop, reviews areas of expert consensus, and identifies gaps that require further research or discussion. Collaboration between regulators, industry, clinical trialists, cardiologists, health technology assessment bodies, payers, and patient organizations is critical to address the ongoing challenge of heart failure and to ensure the development and market access of new therapeutics in a scientifically robust, practical and safe way.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Consenso , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos
15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(4): 449-456, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28271595

RESUMO

Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) play a crucial role in the conducting of clinical trials to ensure the safety of study participants and to maintain a trial's scientific integrity. Generally accepted standards exist for DMC composition and operational conduct. However, some relevant issues are not specifically addressed in current guidance documents, resulting in uncertainties regarding optimal approaches for communication between the DMC, steering committee, and sponsors, release of information, and liability protection for DMC members. The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), in collaboration with the Clinical Trials Unit of the European Heart Agency (EHA) of the ESC convened a meeting of international experts in DMCs for cardiovascular and cardiometabolic clinical trials to identify specific issues and develop steps to resolve challenges faced by DMCs.The main recommendations from the meeting relate to methodological consistency, independence, managing conflicts of interest, liability protection, and training of future DMC members. This paper summarizes the key outcomes from this expert meeting, and describes the core set of activities that might be further developed and ultimately implemented by the ESC, HFA, and other interested ESC constituent bodies. The HFA will continue to work with stakeholders in cardiovascular and cardiometabolic clinical research to promote these goals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Doenças Metabólicas , Pesquisa Biomédica , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
16.
Eur Heart J ; 38(9): 648-660, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28025189

RESUMO

Aims: Cardiopoietic cells, produced through cardiogenic conditioning of patients' mesenchymal stem cells, have shown preliminary efficacy. The Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) trial aimed to validate cardiopoiesis-based biotherapy in a larger heart failure cohort. Methods and results: This multinational, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study was conducted in 39 hospitals. Patients with symptomatic ischaemic heart failure on guideline-directed therapy (n = 484) were screened; n = 348 underwent bone marrow harvest and mesenchymal stem cell expansion. Those achieving > 24 million mesenchymal stem cells (n = 315) were randomized to cardiopoietic cells delivered endomyocardially with a retention-enhanced catheter (n = 157) or sham procedure (n = 158). Procedures were performed as randomized in 271 patients (n = 120 cardiopoietic cells, n = 151 sham). The primary efficacy endpoint was a Finkelstein-Schoenfeld hierarchical composite (all-cause mortality, worsening heart failure, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score, 6-min walk distance, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction) at 39 weeks. The primary outcome was neutral (Mann-Whitney estimator 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.61 [value > 0.5 favours cell treatment], P = 0.27). Exploratory analyses suggested a benefit of cell treatment on the primary composite in patients with baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volume 200-370 mL (60% of patients) (Mann-Whitney estimator 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.70, P = 0.015). No difference was observed in serious adverse events. One (0.9%) cardiopoietic cell patient and 9 (5.4%) sham patients experienced aborted or sudden cardiac death. Conclusion: The primary endpoint was neutral, with safety demonstrated across the cohort. Further evaluation of cardiopoietic cell therapy in patients with elevated end-diastolic volume is warranted.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 219: 84-91, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27288971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides play an important role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute and chronic heart failure. Multiple studies have shown that these peptides are liable to the influence of individual factors. For N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) some of these confounding factors have been evaluated over the years such as age, gender, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to establish confounding factors of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) assessment. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 684 patients (94% male, age 61.2±11.2, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]<35%-45%, NYHA class (I/II/III/IV: 8.4/45.8/39.5/6.3%), ischaemic aetiology 71%, body mass index [BMI] 26.5±4.3kg/m(2), mean MR-proANP 296.0±281.0pmol/L, mean NT-proBNP 2792.0±5328.6pg/mL, mean creatinine level 110.2±38.0µmol/L and mean haemoglobin 13.9±1.5g/dL) with clinically stable chronic heart failure. MR-proANP levels increased with increasing NYHA class (p<0.0001) and an increasing BMI category was associated with decreasing values of MR-proANP (p<0.0001). We found MR-proANP to be independently associated with BMI, creatinine, ischaemic aetiology, LVEF and NYHA class. Meanwhile, NT-proBNP was independently associated with BMI, creatinine, haemoglobin, LVEF and NYHA class. CONCLUSION: MR-proANP is subject to the almost identical influencing factors like NT-proBNP. The effects of anaemia warrant further study.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 18(5): 514-22, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095461

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended medications for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: QUALIFY is an international prospective observational longitudinal survey of 7092 CHF outpatients recruited 1-15 months after hospitalization for heart failure from September 2013 to December 2014 in 547 centres in 36 countries. We constructed a five-class guideline adherence score for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), beta-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and ivabradine. The adherence score was good in 67%, moderate in 25%, and poor in 8% of patients. Adherence was lower in women than men but there were differences in age (65.7 ± 12.5 years women vs. 62.2 ± 12.4 years men, P < 0.001) and the proportion of women at ≥50% target dose of beta-blockers was lower in those >67 years (median) (11% vs. 16.2%, P = 0.005). Geographic variations were observed with lower adherence scores in Central/Eastern European countries. The proportion of patients at target dose and ≥50% of target dose was low (27.9% and 63.3% for ACEIs, 14.8% and 51.8% for beta-blockers, 6.9% and 39.5% for ARBs, and 6.9% and 39.5% for ivabradine, respectively). It was also lower in patients most recently hospitalized (<6 vs. ≥6 months) except for beta-blockers. CONCLUSION: This international survey shows that adherence to guideline-recommended medications is relatively satisfactory but the dosage of recommended CHF medications is usually suboptimal. Action plans aimed at improving adherence to guidelines are required.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Idoso , Ásia , Austrália , Canadá , Doença Crônica , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ivabradina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 67(12): 1444-1455, 2016 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27012405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a selective cardiac myosin activator that increases myocardial function in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability, safety, and efficacy of OM in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: Patients admitted for AHF with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, dyspnea, and elevated plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides were randomized to receive a double-blind, 48-h intravenous infusion of placebo or OM in 3 sequential, escalating-dose cohorts. RESULTS: In 606 patients, OM did not improve the primary endpoint of dyspnea relief (3 OM dose groups and pooled placebo: placebo, 41%; OM cohort 1, 42%; cohort 2, 47%; cohort 3, 51%; p = 0.33) or any of the secondary outcomes studied. In supplemental, pre-specified analyses, OM resulted in greater dyspnea relief at 48 h (placebo, 37% vs. OM, 51%; p = 0.034) and through 5 days (p = 0.038) in the high-dose cohort. OM exerted plasma concentration-related increases in left ventricular systolic ejection time (p < 0.0001) and decreases in end-systolic dimension (p < 0.05). The adverse event profile and tolerability of OM were similar to those of placebo, without increases in ventricular or supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Plasma troponin concentrations were higher in OM-treated patients compared with placebo (median difference at 48 h, 0.004 ng/ml), but with no obvious relationship with OM concentration (p = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF, intravenous OM did not meet the primary endpoint of dyspnea improvement, but it was generally well tolerated, it increased systolic ejection time, and it may have improved dyspnea in the high-dose group. (Acute Treatment with Omecamtiv Mecarbil to Increase Contractility in Acute Heart Failure [ATOMIC-AHF]; NCT01300013).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/sangue , Ureia/administração & dosagem , Ureia/farmacocinética , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 8(4): 694-701, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26038535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2004 Surgeon General's Report on Health Consequences of Smoking, after >15 years of abstinence, the cardiovascular risk of former smokers becomes similar to that of never-smokers. Whether this health benefit of smoking cessation varies by amount and duration of prior smoking remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 4482 adults ≥65 years without prevalent heart failure (HF) in the Cardiovascular Health Study, 2556 were never-smokers, 629 current smokers, and 1297 former smokers with >15 years of cessation, of whom 312 were heavy smokers (highest quartile; ≥32 pack-years). Age-sex-race-adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for centrally adjudicated incident HF and mortality during 13 years of follow-up were estimated using Cox regression models. Compared with never-smokers, former smokers as a group had similar risk for incident HF (aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16) and all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.96-1.20), but former heavy smokers had higher risk for both HF (aHR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.15-1.83) and mortality (aHR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17-1.64). However, when compared with current smokers, former heavy smokers had lower risk of death (aHR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.53-0.77), but not of HF (aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.74-1.28). CONCLUSIONS: After >15 years of smoking cessation, the risk of HF and death for most former smokers becomes similar to that of never-smokers. Although this benefit of smoking cessation is not extended to those with ≥32 pack-years of prior smoking, they have lower risk of death relative to current smokers.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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