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2.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490340

RESUMO

: The term 'cardiorenal syndrome' (CRS) was introduced to describe problems related to the simultaneous existence of heart and renal insufficiency. The prevalence of anaemia in CRS is high and increases the risk of hospitalizations and death. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition is the cornerstone therapy in cardiovascular and renal medicine. As angiotensin II regulates both glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and erythropoiesis, RAS inhibition can further deteriorate renal function and lower hematocrit or cause anaemia in patients with heart failure. The aim of this review is to explore the relationship among CRS, anemia and administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and summarize the evidence suggesting that RAS inhibition may be considered an iatrogenic cause of deterioration of CRS with anemia. It should be emphasized however, that RAS inhibition reduces mortality in both groups with and without worsening of renal function, and therefore, no patient with CRS should be denied an ACEi or ARB trial without careful evaluation.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504452

RESUMO

Making a firm diagnosis of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains a challenge. We recommend a new stepwise diagnostic process, the 'HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithm'. Step 1 (P=Pre-test assessment) is typically performed in the ambulatory setting and includes assessment for HF symptoms and signs, typical clinical demographics (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elderly, atrial fibrillation), and diagnostic laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography. In the absence of overt non-cardiac causes of breathlessness, HFpEF can be suspected if there is a normal left ventricular ejection fraction, no significant heart valve disease or cardiac ischaemia, and at least one typical risk factor. Elevated natriuretic peptides support, but normal levels do not exclude a diagnosis of HFpEF. The second step (E: Echocardiography and Natriuretic Peptide Score) requires comprehensive echocardiography and is typically performed by a cardiologist. Measures include mitral annular early diastolic velocity (e'), left ventricular (LV) filling pressure estimated using E/e', left atrial volume index, LV mass index, LV relative wall thickness, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, LV global longitudinal systolic strain, and serum natriuretic peptide levels. Major (2 points) and Minor (1 point) criteria were defined from these measures. A score ≥5 points implies definite HFpEF; ≤1 point makes HFpEF unlikely. An intermediate score (2-4 points) implies diagnostic uncertainty, in which case Step 3 (F1: Functional testing) is recommended with echocardiographic or invasive haemodynamic exercise stress tests. Step 4 (F2: Final aetiology) is recommended to establish a possible specific cause of HFpEF or alternative explanations. Further research is needed for a better classification of HFpEF.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423712

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients admitted for acute heart failure (HF) are at high risk of readmission and death, especially in the 90 days following discharge. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of early optimization of oral HF therapy with beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) on 90-day clinical outcomes in patients admitted for acute HF. METHODS: In a multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, a total of 900 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either 'usual care' or 'high-intensity care'. Patients enrolled in the usual care arm will be discharged and managed according to usual clinical practice at the site. In the high-intensity care arm, doses of oral HF medications - including a BB, ACEi or ARB, and MRA - will be up-titrated to 50% of recommended doses before discharge and to 100% of recommended doses within 2 weeks of discharge. Up-titration will be delayed if the patients develop worsening symptoms and signs of congestion, hyperkalaemia, hypotension, bradycardia, worsening of renal function or significant increase in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide between visits. The primary endpoint is 90-day all-cause mortality or HF readmission. CONCLUSIONS: STRONG-HF is the first study to assess whether rapid up-titration of evidence-based guideline-recommended therapies with close follow-up in a large cohort of patients discharged from an acute HF admission is safe and can affect adverse outcomes during the first 90 days after discharge. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03412201.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 621-628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148411

RESUMO

AIMS: Iron deficiency worsens symptoms, quality of life, and exercise capacity in chronic heart failure (CHF) and might do so by promoting fluid retention. We assessed whether iron repletion improved congestion in CHF and appraised the prognostic utility of calculated plasma volume status (PVS), a novel index of congestion, in the FAIR-HF data set. METHODS AND RESULTS: In FAIR-HF, 459 iron deficient CHF patients were randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) or saline and assessed at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Using weight and haematocrit, we calculated PVS in 436 patients. At baseline, PVS and weight were -5.5 ± 7.7% and 76.9 ± 14.3 kg, with peripheral oedema evident in 35% of subjects. Higher PVS values correlated to other congestion surrogates such as lower serum albumin. At 4 weeks, FCM was associated with greater reductions in weight (0.02) and PVS (P < 0.0001), and a trend for improved peripheral oedema at 24 weeks (0.07). Irrespective of treatment allocation, patients with a decrease in PVS from baseline to week 24 had higher increments in 6 min walking distance (61.4 m vs. 43.5 m, 0.02) and were more likely to improve their NYHA class (33.3% vs. 15.5%, 0.001). A PVS > -4% at baseline predicted worse outcomes even after adjustment for treatment assignment (hazard ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.51, 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous iron therapy with FCM is associated with early reductions in PVS and weight, implying that decongestion might be one mechanism via which iron repletion aids CHF patients. Calculated PVS is of prognostic utility in this cohort.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127678

RESUMO

AIMS: Classification of acute heart failure (AHF) patients into four clinical profiles defined by evidence of congestion and perfusion is advocated by the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)guidelines. Based on the ESC-EORP-HFA Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, we compared differences in baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes among congestion/perfusion profiles using this classification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 7865 AHF patients classified at admission as: 'dry-warm' (9.9%), 'wet-warm' (69.9%), 'wet-cold' (19.8%) and 'dry-cold' (0.4%). These groups differed significantly in terms of baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes. In-hospital mortality was 2.0% in 'dry-warm', 3.8% in 'wet-warm', 9.1% in 'dry-cold' and 12.1% in 'wet-cold' patients. Based on clinical classification at admission, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.78 (1.43-2.21) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 1.33 (1.19-1.48). For profiles resulting from discharge classification, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.46 (1.31-1.63) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 2.20 (1.89-2.56). Among patients discharged alive, 30.9% had residual congestion, and these patients had higher 1-year mortality compared to patients discharged without congestion (28.0 vs. 18.5%). Tricuspid regurgitation, diabetes, anaemia and high New York Heart Association class were independently associated with higher risk of congestion at discharge, while beta-blockers at admission, de novo heart failure, or any cardiovascular procedure during hospitalization were associated with lower risk of residual congestion. CONCLUSION: Classification based on congestion/perfusion status provides clinically relevant information at hospital admission and discharge. A better understanding of the clinical course of the two entities could play an important role towards the implementation of targeted strategies that may improve outcomes.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132222

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the proportion of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who are eligible for sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) based on the European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration (EMA/FDA) label, the PARADIGM-HF trial and the 2016 ESC guidelines, and the association between eligibility and outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA Long-Term Heart Failure (HF-LT) Registry between March 2011 and November 2013 were considered. Criteria for LCZ696 based on EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and ESC guidelines were applied. Of 5443 patients, 2197 and 2373 had complete information for trial and guideline eligibility assessment, and 84%, 12% and 12% met EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria, respectively. Absent PARADIGM-HF criteria were low natriuretic peptides (21%), hyperkalemia (4%), hypotension (7%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (74%); absent Guidelines criteria were LVEF>35% (23%), insufficient NP levels (30%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (82%); absent label criteria were absence of symptoms (New York Heart Association class I). When a daily requirement of ACEi/ARB ≥ 10 mg enalapril (instead of ≥ 20 mg) was used, eligibility rose from 12% to 28% based on both PARADIGM-HF and guidelines. One-year heart failure hospitalization was higher (12% and 17% vs. 12%) and all-cause mortality lower (5.3% and 6.5% vs. 7.7%) in registry eligible patients compared to the enalapril arm of PARADIGM-HF. CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA HF-LT Registry, 84% met label criteria, while only 12% and 28% met PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria for LCZ696 if requiring ≥ 20 mg and ≥ 10 mg enalapril, respectively. Registry patients eligible for LCZ696 had greater heart failure hospitalization but lower mortality rates than the PARADIGM-HF enalapril group.

10.
J Card Fail ; 25(8): 654-665, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worsening renal function (WRF) during acute heart failure (AHF) occurs frequently and has been associated with adverse outcomes, though this association has been questioned. WRF is now evaluated by function and injury. We evaluated whether urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is superior to creatinine for prediction and prognosis of WRF in patients with AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a multicenter, international, prospective cohort of patients with AHF requiring IV diuretics. The primary outcome was whether uNGAL predicted development of WRF, defined as a sustained increase in creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL or ≥50% above first value or initiation of renal replacement therapy, within the first 5 days. The main secondary outcome was a composite of in-hospital adverse events. We enrolled 927 patients (mean 68.5 years of age, 62% men). The primary outcome occurred in 72 patients (7.8%). The first, peak and the ratio of uNGAL to urine creatinine (area under curves (AUC) ≤ 0.613) did not have diagnostic utility over the first creatinine (AUC 0.662). There were 235 adverse events in 144 patients. uNGAL did not predict (AUCs ≤ 0.647) adverse clinical events better than creatinine (AUC 0.695). CONCLUSIONS: uNGAL was not superior to creatinine for predicting WRF or adverse in-hospital outcomes and cannot be recommended for WRF in AHF.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 965-973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087601

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is a central process in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but trials targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were largely unsuccessful. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important inflammatory mediator and might constitute a potential pharmacologic target in HF. However, little is known regarding the association between IL-6 and clinical characteristics, outcomes and other inflammatory biomarkers in HF. We thus aimed to identify and characterize these associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interleukin-6 was measured in 2329 patients [89.4% with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%] of the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization during 2 years, with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and non-CV death as secondary outcomes. Approximately half (56%) of all included patients had plasma IL-6 values greater than the previously determined 95th percentile of normal values at baseline. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, procalcitonin and hepcidin, younger age, TNF-α/IL-1-related biomarkers, or having iron deficiency, atrial fibrillation and LVEF > 40% independently predicted elevated IL-6 levels. IL-6 independently predicted the primary outcome [HR (95% confidence interval) per doubling: 1.16 (1.11-1.21), P < 0.001], all-cause mortality [1.22 (1.16-1.29), P < 0.001] and CV as well as non-CV mortality [1.16 (1.09-1.24), P < 0.001; 1.31 (1.18-1.45), P < 0.001], but did not improve discrimination in previously published risk models. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, heterogeneous cohort of HF patients, elevated IL-6 levels were found in more than 50% of patients and were associated with iron deficiency, reduced LVEF, atrial fibrillation and poorer clinical outcomes. These findings warrant further investigation of IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target in specific HF subpopulations.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 921-929, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended therapy is associated with short-term clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, its impact on longer-term outcomes is poorly documented. Here, we present results from the 18-month follow-up of the QUALIFY registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data at 18 months were available for 6118 ambulatory HFrEF patients from this international prospective observational survey. Adherence was measured as a continuous variable, ranging from 0 to 1, and was assessed for five classes of recommended HF medications and dosages. Most deaths were cardiovascular (CV) (228/394) and HF-related (191/394) and the same was true for unplanned hospitalizations (1175 CV and 861 HF-related hospitalizations, out of a total of 1541). According to univariable analysis, CV and HF deaths were significantly associated with physician adherence to guidelines. In multivariable analysis, HF death was associated with adherence level [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.034] as was composite of HF hospitalization or CV death (SHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.043), whereas unplanned all-cause, CV or HF hospitalizations were not (all-cause: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.9-1.02; CV: SHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01; and HF: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.02 per 0.1 unit change in adherence score; P = 0.52, P = 0.2, and P = 0.4, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended HF therapies is associated with improved outcomes in HFrEF. Practical strategies should be established to improve physicians' adherence to guidelines.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

17.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(7): 797-805, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) on sub-optimal doses of beta-blockers, it is conceivable that changes in heart rate following treatment intensification might be important regardless of underlying heart rhythm. We aimed to compare the prognostic significance of both achieved heart rate and change in heart rate following beta-blocker uptitration in patients with HFrEF either in sinus rhythm (SR) or atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the BIOSTAT-CHF study. We evaluated 1548 patients with HFrEF (mean age 67 years, 35% AF). Median follow-up was 21 months. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 9 months. The combined primary outcome was all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalisation stratified by heart rhythm and heart rate at baseline. RESULTS: Despite similar changes in heart rate and beta-blocker dose, a decrease in heart rate at 9 months was associated with reduced incidence of the primary outcome in both SR and AF patients [HR per 10 bpm decrease-SR: 0.83 (0.75-0.91), p < 0.001; AF: 0.89 (0.81-0.98), p = 0.018], whereas the relationship was less strong for achieved heart rate in AF [HR per 10 bpm higher-SR: 1.26 (1.10-1.46), p = 0.001; AF: 1.08 (0.94-1.23), p = 0.18]. Achieved heart rate at 9 months was only prognostically significant in AF patients with high baseline heart rates (p for interaction 0.017 vs. low). CONCLUSIONS: Following beta-blocker uptitration, both achieved and change in heart rate were prognostically significant regardless of starting heart rate in SR, however, they were only significant in AF patients with high baseline heart rate.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(2): 137-155, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600580

RESUMO

The vast majority of acute heart failure episodes are characterized by increasing symptoms and signs of congestion with volume overload. The goal of therapy in those patients is the relief of congestion through achieving a state of euvolaemia, mainly through the use of diuretic therapy. The appropriate use of diuretics however remains challenging, especially when worsening renal function, diuretic resistance and electrolyte disturbances occur. This position paper focuses on the use of diuretics in heart failure with congestion. The manuscript addresses frequently encountered challenges, such as (i) evaluation of congestion and clinical euvolaemia, (ii) assessment of diuretic response/resistance in the treatment of acute heart failure, (iii) an approach towards stepped pharmacologic diuretic strategies, based upon diuretic response, and (iv) management of common electrolyte disturbances. Recommendations are made in line with available guidelines, evidence and expert opinion.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Consenso , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos
19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 286-296, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537163

RESUMO

Multiple drug classes have shown incremental benefits in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Most of these trials were designed to achieve specific doses of the investigational agent. Clinical practice guidelines recommend using the same target dosing of therapies, as tolerated. However, with the increasing number of available therapies, clinicians face the challenge of simultaneously using several drugs, achieving target doses, and managing side effects that are often overlapping. Blood pressure, renal function, hyperkalaemia, and other factors may impede achieving target doses of all medications, leaving clinicians with dilemmas as to how to sequence and dose these various classes of drugs. The guideline-directed eligibility for certain drugs and devices requires stability on maximally tolerated doses of background therapies. However, significant variability exists in dosing achieved in clinical practice. We discuss the existing background data regarding the doses of heart failure medications in clinical trials and in practice, and provide recommendations on how to navigate this complex therapeutic decision-making.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 271: 132-139, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities play a major role in heart failure. Whether prevalence and prognostic importance of comorbidities differ between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), mid-range (HFmrEF) or reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is unknown. METHODS: Patients from index (n = 2516) and validation cohort (n = 1738) of The BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF) were pooled. Eight non-cardiac comorbidities were assessed; diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, obesity, anaemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), COPD, stroke and peripheral arterial disease. Patients were classified based on ejection fraction. The association of each comorbidity with quality of life (QoL), all-cause mortality and hospitalisation was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients with complete comorbidity data were included (n = 3499). Most prevalent comorbidity was CKD (50%). All comorbidities showed the highest prevalence in HFpEF, except for stroke. Prevalences of HFmrEF were in between the other entities. COPD was the comorbidity associated with the greatest reduction in QoL. In HFrEF, almost all were associated with a significant reduction in QoL, while in HFpEF only CKD and obesity were associated with a reduction. Most comorbidities in HFrEF were associated with an increased mortality risk, while in HFpEF only CKD, anaemia and COPD were associated with higher mortality risks. CONCLUSIONS: The highest prevalence of comorbidities was seen in patients with HFpEF. Overall, comorbidities were associated with a lower QoL, but this was more pronounced in patients with HFrEF. Most comorbidities were associated with higher mortality risks, although the associations with diabetes were only present in patients with HFrEF.

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