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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992237

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate abnormal time-varying functional connectivity (FC) for thalamic sub-regions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and their clinical, cognitive and MRI correlates. Eighty-nine MS patients (49 relapsing-remitting [RR] MS; 40 progressive [P] MS) and 53 matched healthy controls underwent neurological, neuropsychological and resting state fMRI assessment. Time-varying connectivity (TVC) was quantified using sliding-window seed-voxel correlation analysis. Standard deviation of FC across windows was taken as measure of TVC, while mean connectivity across windows expressed static FC. MS patients showed reduced TVC vs controls between most of thalamic sub-regions and fronto-temporo-occipital regions. At the same time, they showed increased static FC between all thalamic sub-regions and structurally connected cortico-subcortical regions. TVC reduction was mainly driven by RRMS; while PMS exhibited a variable pattern of TVC abnormalities, characterized by reduced TVC between frontal/motor thalamic seeds and default-mode network areas and increased TVC vs controls/RRMS between posterior thalamic sub-regions and occipito-temporo-insular cortices, associated with severity of clinical disability. Compared with controls, both cognitively preserved and impaired patients showed reduced TVC between anterior thalamic sub-regions and frontal cortex. Cognitively impaired patients also showed increased TVC of the right postcentral thalamic sub-region with the cingulate cortex and postcentral gyrus vs both controls and cognitively preserved patients. Divergent patterns of TVC thalamic abnormalities were found between RRMS and PMS patients. TVC reduction in RRMS may represent the attempt of thalamic network to keep with stable connections. Conversely, increased TVC of posterior thalamic sub-regions characterized PMS and cognitively impaired MS, possibly reflecting maladaptive mechanisms.

2.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 8(1): 4, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013326

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify functional neuroimaging patterns anticipating the clinical indication for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A cohort of prospectively recruited patients with PD underwent neurological evaluations and resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) at baseline and annually for 4 years. Patients were divided into two groups: 19 patients eligible for DBS over the follow-up and 41 patients who did not meet the criteria to undergo DBS. Patients selected as candidates for DBS did not undergo surgery at this stage. Sixty age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed baseline evaluations. Graph analysis and connectomics assessed global and local topological network properties and regional functional connectivity at baseline and at each time point. At baseline, network analysis showed a higher mean nodal strength, local efficiency, and clustering coefficient of the occipital areas in candidates for DBS over time relative to controls and patients not eligible for DBS. The occipital hyperconnectivity pattern was confirmed by regional analysis. At baseline, a decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and sensorimotor/frontal networks was found in candidates for DBS compared to patients not eligible for surgery. In the longitudinal analysis, patient candidate for DBS showed a progressively decreased topological brain organization and functional connectivity, mainly in the posterior brain networks, and a progressively increased connectivity of basal ganglia network compared to non-candidates for DBS. RS-fMRI may support the clinical indication to DBS and could be useful in predicting which patients would be eligible for DBS in the earlier stages of PD.

3.
Eur J Neurol ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Q336H is a rare MAPT mutation, previously found in a single patient with behavioral variant of FTD and tau pathology (Pick bodies). Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of two members of a new family, carrying the Q336H MAPT mutation. METHODS: Clinical, genetic and neuroradiological assessment and follow-up of the proband. RESULTS: At age 37, the proband developed naming and objects recognition impairment, due to a lack of knowledge. After 3 years, he developed behavioral disorders. MRI and FDG-PET showed the involvement of the left temporal pole. A diagnosis of semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) was made. At follow-up after 6 and 12 months, a rapid worsening of cognitive deficits occurred. His parent presented, at age 65, slowly progressive memory deficits without behavioral impairment, and, on MRI, evidence of mesial temporal atrophy, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). DISCUSSION: and conclusion This is the second family carrying the MAPT Q336H mutation reported so far. We showed that svPPA and AD-like phenotype can be associated with this mutation. A wide clinical variability exists at intra-familial level for Q336H MAPT mutation, pointing to genetic and/or environmental influencing factors on disease expression. We also confirmed that svPPA can be associated with MAPT mutations, suggesting that this gene should be analyzed also in patients with svPPA, especially with early onset. In addition, an AD-like phenotype may be associated with this mutation, suggesting its different effects on protein misfolding and aggregation.

4.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the introduction of several adjuncts to improve spinal perfusion, spinal cord ischemia (SCI) remains a devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair. Our aim was to assess the effects on clinical outcome of interventions triggered by motor evoked potentials (MEP) alerts. Furthermore, we want to assess whether a multimodal intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) protocol is helpful for stratifying patients according to the risk of SCI at the end of the vascular phase of surgery. METHODS: We prospectively studied one-hundred consecutive patients who underwent TAAA repair. We applied a multimodal IONM including MEP, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and peripheral nerve monitoring techniques. Signal deteriorations were classified as reversible/irreversible according to whether they recovered or not at the end of monitoring (EOM), set at the end of the vascular phase of surgery. Significant MEP changes drove a series of corrective measures aimed to improve spinal perfusion. RESULTS: The rate of immediate postoperative motor deficits consistent with SCI was significantly higher with irreversible MEP deteriorations compared to reversible ones. The interpretation of MEP findings at the EOM led to the development of risk categories for SCI, based on the association between MEP results and motor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data seem to justify interventions made to reverse MEP deterioration in order to improve the clinical outcome. A multimodal IONM protocol could improve MEP interpretation at the end of the vascular phase of surgery, supporting the surgeon in their decision-making, before concluding vascular maneuvers.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 305-317, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alterations occurring in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and to explore the predictive ability of MRI for initial surgical outcome and long-term pain relief/recurrence after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS). METHODS: Thirty patients with idiopathic or classic TN, who underwent GKS and were followed for at least 24 months, were retrospectively included. Pre-treatment structural MRI and pre- and serial, postoperative clinical features were investigated. Fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled. Cortical thickness and gray matter (GM) volumes were assessed in TN patients relative to controls, as well as between patient subgroups according to treatment outcomes (initial responders/non-responders, patients with pain recurrence/long-lasting pain relief at the last follow-up). Clinical and MRI predictors of treatment outcomes were explored. RESULTS: Cortical thinning of temporal, prefrontal, cingulate, somatosensory and occipital areas bilaterally was found in TN patients relative to controls. No cortical thickness and GM volume differences were observed when TN initial responders and non-responders were compared. Patients who experienced TN recurrence after initial pain relief were characterized by thicker parahippocampal and temporal cortices bilaterally and greater volume of right amygdala and hippocampus compared to patients with long-lasting pain relief. In TN patients, disease duration and baseline cortical thinning of right parahippocampal, left fusiform and middle temporal cortices were associated with poor outcome after GKS at the last follow-up (R2 =0.57, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The study provides novel insights into structural brain alterations of TN patients, which might contribute to disease development and pain maintenance.

8.
Neurology ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A significant overlap between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has been observed at clinical, genetic and pathological levels. Within this continuum of presentations, the presence of mild cognitive and/or behavioral symptoms in ALS patients has been consistently reported, although it is unclear whether this is to be considered a distinct phenotype or, rather, a natural evolution of ALS. Here, we used mathematical modeling of MRI connectomic data to decipher common and divergent neural correlates across the ALS-FTD spectrum. METHODS: We included 83 ALS patients, 35 bvFTD patients and 61 healthy controls, who underwent clinical, cognitive and MRI assessments. ALS patients were classified according to the revised Strong criteria into 54 ALS with only motor deficits (ALS-cn), 21 ALS with cognitive and/or behavioral involvement (ALS-ci/bi), and 8 ALS with bvFTD (ALS-FTD). First, we assessed the functional and structural connectivity patterns across the ALS-FTD spectrum. Second, we investigated whether and where MRI connectivity alterations of ALS patients with any degree of cognitive impairment (i.e., ALS-ci/bi and ALS-FTD) resembled more the pattern of damage of one (ALS-cn) or the other end (bvFTD) of the spectrum, moving from group-level to single-subject analysis. RESULTS: As compared with controls, extensive structural and functional disruption of the frontotemporal and parietal networks characterized bvFTD (bvFTD-like pattern), while a more focal structural damage within the sensorimotor-basal ganglia areas characterized ALS-cn (ALS-cn-like pattern). ALS-ci/bi patients demonstrated an "ALS-cn-like" pattern of structural damage, diverging from ALS-cn with similar motor impairment for the presence of enhanced functional connectivity within sensorimotor areas and decreased functional connectivity within the "bvFTD-like" pattern. On the other hand, ALS-FTD patients resembled both structurally and functionally the bvFTD-like pattern of damage with, in addition, the structural ALS-cn-like damage in the motor areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a maladaptive role of functional rearrangements in ALS-ci/bi concomitantly with similar structural alterations compared to ALS-cn, supporting the hypothesis that ALS-ci/bi might be considered as a phenotypic variant of ALS, rather than a consequence of disease worsening.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874217

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the present metanalysis is to evaluate blood and CSF Neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations in ALS patients, compared to healthy controls, ALS mimic disorders (ALSmd) and other neurological diseases (OND), and to evaluate their diagnostic yield against ALSmd. Methods: Search engines were systematically investigated for relevant studies. A random effect model was applied to estimate the pooled standard mean difference in NfL levels between ALS and controls and a bivariate mixed-effects model was applied to estimate their diagnostic accuracy on blood and CSF. Results and conclusions: NfL CSF levels were higher in ALS compared with all other control groups. On blood, NfL levels were significantly higher in ALS patients compared with healthy controls and ALSmd. In a subgroup analysis, the use of SIMOA yielded to a better differentiation between ALS and controls on blood, compared with ELISA. Studies performed on CSF (AUC = 0.90) yielded to better diagnostic performances compared with those conducted on blood (AUC = 0.78). Further prospective investigations are needed to determine a diagnostic cutoff, exploitable in clinical practice.

11.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 154, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide (mAbs anti-CGRP) pathway are effective and safe on migraine prevention. However, some drug agencies limited these treatments to one year due to their high costs. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of discontinuing mAbs anti-CGRP on monthly migraine days (MMDs) and disability in high-frequency episodic (HFEM) and chronic migraine (CM) patients. METHODS: This observational longitudinal cohort study was conducted at 10 Italian headache centres. Consecutive adult patients were followed-up for three months (F-UP1-3) after discontinuation of a one-year erenumab/galcanezumab treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in F-UP MMDs. Secondary endpoints included variation in pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale, NRS), monthly acute medication intake (MAMI), and HIT-6 scores. We also assessed from F-UP1 to 3 the ≥50% response rate, relapse rate to CM, and recurrence of Medication Overuse (MO). RESULTS: We enrolled 154 patients (72.1% female, 48.2 ± 11.1 years, 107 CM, 47 HFEM); 91 were treated with erenumab, 63 with galcanezumab. From F-UP1 to F-UP3, MMDs, MAMI, NRS, and HIT-6 progressively increased but were still lower at F-UP3 than baseline (Friedman's analysis of rank, p < .001). In the F-UP1-3 visits, ≥50% response rate frequency did not differ significantly between CM and HFEM patients. However, the median reduction in response rate at F-UP3 was higher in HFEM (- 47.7% [25th, - 79.5; 75th,-17.0]) than in CM patients (- 25.5% [25th, - 47.1; 75th, - 3.3]; Mann-Whitney U test; p = .032). Of the 84 baseline CM patients who had reverted to episodic migraine, 28 (33.3%) relapsed to CM at F-UP1, 35 (41.7%) at F-UP2, 39 (46.4%) at F-UP3. Of the 64 baseline patients suffering of medication overuse headache ceasing MO, 15 (18.3%) relapsed to MO at F-UP1, 26 (31.6%) at F-UP2, and 30 (42.3%, 11 missing data) at F-UP3. Lower MMDs, MAMI, NRS, and HIT-6 and higher response rate in the last month of therapy characterized patients with ≥50% response rate at F-UP1 and F-UP3 (Mann-Whitney U test; consistently p < .01). CONCLUSION: Migraine frequency and disability gradually increased after mAbs anti-CGRP interruption. Most patients did not relapse to MO or CM despite the increase in MMDs. Our data suggest to reconsider mAbs anti-CGRP discontinuation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Brain ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919648

RESUMO

Recent evidences showed the existence of a central nervous system 'waste clearance' system, defined as glymphatic system. Glymphatic abnormalities have been described in several neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Glymphatic function has not been thoroughly explored in multiple sclerosis, where neurodegenerative processes are intermingled with inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate glymphatic system function in multiple sclerosis and to evaluate its association with clinical disability, disease course, demyelination and neurodegeneration, quantified using different MRI techniques. In this retrospective study, we enrolled 71 multiple sclerosis patients (49 relapsing-remitting and 22 progressive multiple sclerosis) and 32 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent neurological and MRI assessment including high-resolution T1, T2 and double inversion recovery sequences, diffusion- and susceptibility weighted imaging. We calculated the diffusion along perivascular space index, a proxy for glymphatic function, cortical and deep gray matter volume, white and cortical gray matter lesion volume and normal appearing white matter microstructural damage. Multiple sclerosis patients showed an overall lower diffusion along perivascular space index vs healthy controls (estimated mean difference: -0.09, P = 0.01). Both relapsing-remitting and progressive multiple sclerosis patients had lower diffusion along perivascular space index vs healthy controls (estimated mean difference: -0.06, P = 0.04 for relapsing-remitting and -0.19, P = 0.001 for progressive multiple sclerosis patients). Progressive multiple sclerosis patients showed lower diffusion along perivascular space index vs relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients (estimated mean difference: -0.09, P = 0.03). In multiple sclerosis patients, lower diffusion along perivascular space index was associated with more severe clinical disability (r = -0.45, P = 0.001) and longer disease duration (r = -0.37, P = 0.002). Interestingly, we detected a negative association between diffusion along perivascular space index and disease duration in the first 4.13 years of the disease course (r = -0.38, P = 0.04) without any association thereafter (up to 34 years of disease duration). Lower diffusion along perivascular space index was associated with higher white (r = -0.36, P = 0.003) and cortical (r = -0.41, P = 0.001) lesion volume, more severe cortical (r = 0.30, P = 0.007) and deep (r = 0.42, P = 0.001) gray matter atrophy, reduced fractional anisotropy (r = 0.42, P = 0.001) and increased mean diffusivity (r = -0.45, P = 0.001) in the normal-appearing white matter. Our results suggest that the glymphatic system is impaired in multiple sclerosis, especially in progressive stages. Impaired glymphatic function was associated with measures of both demyelination and neurodegeneration and reflects a more severe clinical disability. These findings suggest that glymphatic impairment may be a pathological mechanism underpinning multiple sclerosis. The dynamic interplay with other pathological substrates of the disease deserves further investigation.

14.
Radiology ; : 210922, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846201

RESUMO

Background Altered callosal integrity has been associated with motor deficits in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but its contribution to disability has, to the knowledge of the authors, not been investigated by using multiparametric MRI approaches. Purpose To investigate structural and functional interhemispheric MRI substrates of global disability at different milestones and upper limb motor impairment in MS. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, healthy control patients and patients with MS (between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2016) were retrospectively selected from our hospital database. Clinical assessment included Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), nine-hole peg test, and digital finger tapping test. By using structural and resting-state functional MRI sequences, probabilistic tractography of hand corticospinal tract fibers, and transcallosal fibers between hand-motor cortices (hereafter, referred to as hand-M1), supplementary motor areas (SMAs), premotor cortices (PMCs), and voxel-mirror homotopic connectivity (VMHC) were analyzed. Random forest analyses identified the MRI predictors of clinical disability at different milestones (EDSS scores of 3.0, 4.0, 6.0) and upper limb motor impairment (nine-hole peg test and finger tapping test z scores < healthy control patients 5th percentile). Results One-hundred thirty healthy control patients (median age, 39 years; interquartile range, 31-50 years; 70 women) and 340 patients with MS (median age, 43 years; interquartile range, 33-51 years; 213 women) were studied. EDSS 3.0 predictors (n = 159) were global measures of atrophy and lesions together with damage measures of corticospinal tracts and transcallosal fibers between PMCs and SMAs (accuracy, 86%; P = .001-.01). For EDSS 4.0 (n = 131), similar predictors were found in addition to damage in transcallosal fibers between hand-M1 (accuracy, 89%; P = .001-.049). No MRI predictors were found for EDSS 6.0 (n = 70). Nine-hole peg test (right, n = 161; left, n = 166) and finger tapping test (right, n = 117; left, n = 111) impairments were predicted by damage in transcallosal fibers between SMAs and PMCs (accuracy range, 69%-77%; P = .001-.049). VMHC abnormalities did not explain clinical outcomes. Conclusion Structural, not functional, abnormalities at MRI in transcallosal premotor and motor white matter fibers predicted severity of global disability and upper limb motor impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. The informative role of such predictors appeared less evident at higher disability levels. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Barkhof and Pontillo in this issue.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise in vivo the microstructural abnormalities of multiple sclerosis (MS) normal-appearing (NA) cortex and cortical lesions (CLs) and their relations with clinical phenotypes and disability using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI). METHODS: One hundred and seventy-two patients with MS (101 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 71 progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS)) and 62 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a brain 3T MRI. Brain cortex and CLs were segmented from three-dimensional T1-weighted and double inversion recovery sequences. Using NODDI on diffusion-weighted sequence, intracellular volume fraction (ICV_f) and Orientation Dispersion Index (ODI) were assessed in NA cortex and CLs with default or optimised parallel diffusivity for the cortex (D//=1.7 or 1.2 µm2/ms, respectively). RESULTS: The NA cortex of patients with MS had significantly lower ICV_f versus HCs' cortex with both D// values (false discovery rate (FDR)-p <0.001). CLs showed significantly decreased ICV_f and ODI versus NA cortex of both HCs and patients with MS with both D// values (FDR-p ≤0.008). Patients with PMS versus RRMS had significantly decreased NA cortex ICV_f and ODI (FDR-p=0.050 and FDR-p=0.032) with only D//=1.7 µm2/ms. No CL microstructural differences were found between MS clinical phenotypes. MS NA cortex ICV_f and ODI were significantly correlated with disease duration, clinical disability, lesion burden and global and regional brain atrophy (r from -0.51 to 0.71, FDR-p from <0.001 to 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: A significant neurite loss occurs in MS NA cortex. CLs show a further neurite density reduction and a reduced ODI suggesting a simplification of neurite complexity. NODDI is relevant to investigate in vivo the heterogeneous pathology affecting the MS cortex.

16.
J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741240

RESUMO

Pandemic restrictions have led to changes in therapy plans and disrupted rehabilitation services for people with multiple sclerosis. CogEx is an international, multicentre MS dual-intervention (cognitive rehabilitation, aerobic exercise) randomized, controlled rehabilitation trial confined to people with progressive disease. The primary outcome is cognition (processing speed).There are 11 treatment sites in six countries with participants required to make 27 site visits over 12 weeks. Collectively, the large, in-person demands of the trial, and the varying international policies for the containment of COVID-19, might disproportionately impact the administration of CogEx. During the first lockdown, all centres closed on average for 82.9 (SD = 24.3) days. One site was required to lockdown on two further occasions. One site remained closed for 16 months. Ten staff (19.2%) were required to quarantine and eight staff (15.4%) tested positive for COVID. 10 of 264 (3.8%) participants acquired COVID-19. All survived. The mean duration of enrollment delay has been [236.7 (SD = 214.5) days]. Restarting participants whose interventions were interrupted by the pandemic meant recalculating the intervention prescriptions for these individuals. While the impact of the pandemic on CogEx has been considerable, all study sites are again open. Participants and staff have shown considerable flexibility and resilience in keeping a complex, international endeavour running. The future in general remains uncertain in the midst of a pandemic, but there is cautious optimism the study will be completed with sufficient sample size to robustly evaluate our hypothesis and provide meaningful results to the MS community on the impact of these interventions on people with progressive MS.Trial registration: The trial was registered on September 20th 2018 at www.clinicaltrials.gov having identifier NCT03679468. Registration was performed before recruitment was initiated.

17.
Mov Disord ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have a role in cognitive impairment in normal brain aging, while the effect on Parkinson's disease (PD) progression is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal evolution of micro- and macrostructural damage of cerebral white matter (WM) and its relationship with the clinical picture in PD. METHODS: A total of 154 PD patients underwent clinical, cognitive, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment once a year for up to 4 years. Sixty healthy controls underwent the same protocol at baseline. WMHs were identified and total WMH volume was measured. WMHs were also used as exclusion masks to define normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Using tract-based spatial statistics, diffusion tensor (DT) MRI metrics of whole-brain WM and NAWM were obtained. Linear mixed-effects models defined the longitudinal evolution and association between variables. WM alterations were tested as risk factors of disease progression using linear regression and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: At baseline, PD patients showed alterations of all DT MRI measures compared to controls. Longitudinally, DT MRI measures did not vary significantly and no association with clinical variables was found. WMH volume changed over time and was associated with impairment in global cognition, executive functions, and language. Baseline WMH volume was a moderate risk factor for progression to mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests an association between WMHs and cognitive deterioration in PD, whereas WM microstructural damage is a negligible contributor to clinical deterioration. WMHs assessed by MRI can provide an important tool for monitoring the development of cognitive impairment in PD patients. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

18.
J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797433

RESUMO

Alterations in social cognition, a broad term indicating our ability to understand others and adapt our behavior accordingly, have been the focus of growing attention in the past years. Some neurological conditions, such as those belonging to the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum, are associated to varying degrees with social cognition deficits, encompassing problems with theory of mind (ToM), empathy, perception of social stimuli, and social behavior. In this review, we outline a clinical framework for the evaluation of social cognition and discuss its role in the assessment of patients affected by a range of FTLD conditions.

19.
J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797434

RESUMO

Over the past few years, there has been great interest in social cognition, a wide term referring to the human ability of understanding others' emotions, thoughts, and intentions, to empathize with them and to behave accordingly. While there is no agreement on the classification of social cognitive processes, they can broadly be categorized as consisting of theory of mind, empathy, social perception, and social behavior. The study of social cognition and its relative deficits is increasingly assuming clinical relevance. However, the clinical and neuroanatomical correlates of social cognitive alterations in neurodegenerative conditions, such as those belonging to the frontotemporal lobar (FTLD) spectrum, are not fully established. In this review, we describe the current understanding of social cognition impairments in different FTLD conditions with respect to MRI.

20.
J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional movement disorders include a wide spectrum of clinically documented movement disorders without an apparent organic substrate. OBJECTIVE: To explore the functional connectivity (FC) of the primary motor (M1) cortex in functional dystonia (FD) patients relative to healthy controls, with a focus on different clinical phenotypes. METHODS: Forty FD patients (12 fixed [FixFD]; 28 mobile [MobFD]) and 43 healthy controls (14 young FixFD-age-matched [yHC]; 29 old MobFD-age-matched [oHC]) underwent resting state fMRI. A seed-based FC analysis was performed using bilateral M1 as regions of interest. RESULTS: Compared to controls, FD patients showed reduced FC between left M1 and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and between right M1 and left M1, premotor/supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and bilateral precuneus. Relative to yHC, FixFD patients showed reduced FC between M1 and precuneus bilaterally. Compared to oHC, MobFD patients revealed reduced FC between right M1 and left M1, premotor/SMA, dorsal-PCC, bilateral primary sensory cortices and parieto-occipital areas, and increased FC of right M1 with right associative visual cortex and bilateral ventral-PCC. FixFD patients, relative to MobFD, showed lower FC between the right M1 and right associative visual area, and bilateral precuneus and ventral-PCC. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an altered brain FC of the motor circuit with areas involved in emotional processes and sense of agency in FD. FixFD patients showed FC abnormalities mainly in areas related to sense of agency, while MobFD in regions involved in sensorimotor functions (reduced FC) and emotional processing (increased FC).

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