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Vet Rec ; 185(13): 405, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427411


Despite common use of oral group medication in pig rearing, the homogeneity, stability and carry-over of frequently used medicinal products in feed and drinking water are largely unknown. Therefore, a field study was performed on 52 Belgian pig farms, characterising preparation and administration of medicinal products via these systems, and farmers' user experiences with medicated feed and medicated drinking water. The study showed that medicated drinking water is more commonly used than medicated feed, since 90.4 per cent of the farms sometimes use medicated drinking water and 69.2 per cent of the farms sometimes use medicated feed. The drinking water quality is evaluated at least once a year on only 30.7 per cent of the farms. Separate pipelines for medicated and non-medicated circuits were not present in any of the farms using medicated feed and in 27.7 per cent of the farms using medicated drinking water. With drinking water medication, 63.5 per cent of the farmers reported encountering practical problems, often related to solubility issues and precipitation of the active compounds. In contrast, medicated feed is bought ready-to-use from the feed manufacturer in 68.2 per cent of the cases, thus reducing the number of practical problems experienced by the farmer. This study shows room for improvement of oral group treatment, developing appropriate pharmaceutical formulations for drinking water medication, quality control of drinking water, using separate pipeline circuits, and cleaning and disinfecting protocols.

Avian Pathol ; 47(5): 443-454, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874925


The effect of a competitive exclusion product (Aviguard®) on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry was assessed in vivo in the absence or presence of fluoroquinolone treatment. Two experiments using a controlled seeder-sentinel animal model (2 seeders: 4 sentinels per group) with one-day-old chicks were used. For both experiments, as soon as the chicks were hatched, the birds of two groups were administered Aviguard® and two groups were left untreated. Three days later, all groups were inoculated with an enrofloxacin-susceptible commensal E. coli strain. Five days after hatching, two birds per group were inoculated with either a bacteriologically fit or a bacteriologically non-fit enrofloxacin-resistant commensal E. coli strain. In experiment 2, all groups were orally treated for three consecutive days (days 8-10) with enrofloxacin. Throughout the experiments, faecal excretion of all inoculated E. coli strains was determined on days 2, 5, 8, 11, 18 and 23 by selective plating (via spiral plater). Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of Aviguard® on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance. The use of Aviguard® (P < 0.01) reduced the excretion of enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli when no enrofloxacin treatment was administered. However, this beneficial effect disappeared (P = 0.37) when the birds were treated with enrofloxacin. Similarly, bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli strain used for inoculation had an effect (P < 0.01) on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance when no treatment was administered, whereas this effect was no longer present when enrofloxacin was administered (P = 0.70). Thus, enrofloxacin treatment cancelled the beneficial effects from administrating Aviguard® in one-day-old broiler chicks and resulted in an enrofloxacin-resistant flora. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS The effect of Aviguard® on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance was assessed in vivo. Without enrofloxacin, Aviguard® reduced the selection of enrofloxacin resistance. When enrofloxacin was administered, it cancelled the beneficial effect of Aviguard®.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620436


The cross-contamination of non-medicated feed with residues of anti-microbials (AM) causes a public and animal health concern associated with the potential for selection and dissemination of resistance. To analyse the associated risks, a probabilistic model was built using @Risk® (Palisade Corporation®) to show the potential extent of the effect of cross-contaminated pig feed on resistance selection. The results of the model include estimations of the proportion of pigs per production stage with residues of doxycycline, chlortetracycline, sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in their intestinal contents, as a result of exposure to cross-contaminated feed with different carry-over levels, in Belgium. By using a semi-quantitative approach, these estimations were combined with experimental data on AM concentrations associated with potential for resistance-selection pressure. Based on this model, it is estimated that 7.76% (min = 1.67; max = 36.94) of sows, 4.23% (min = 1.01%; max = 18.78%) of piglets and 2.8% (min = 0.51%; max = 14.9%) of fatteners in Belgium have residues of doxycycline in their intestinal tract due to consumption of feed with at least 1% carry-over. These values were estimated to be almost triple for sulfadiazine, but substantially lower for chlortetracycline and trimethoprim. Doxycycline concentrations as low as 1 mg/L (corresponding to consumed feed with at least 1% carry-over) can select for resistant porcine commensal Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions on this risk could not be drawn for other AM at this stage, due to the lack of data on concentrations associated with resistance development. However, since the possibility of resistance mechanisms (e.g. co-selection) occurring cannot be excluded, the results of this model highlight that the use of AM medicated feed should be minimised where possible. In case of medicated feed production, good practice should be followed thoroughly at all levels of production, distribution, storage and administration, with a special focus on the feed distributed to piglets and sows.

Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Clortetraciclina/análise , Clortetraciclina/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/análise , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Risco , Sulfadiazina/análise , Sulfadiazina/farmacologia , Trimetoprima/análise , Trimetoprima/farmacologia
Ecohealth ; 15(1): 209-227, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330676


Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost-benefit or cost-utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.

Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Saúde Única , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa/normas
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26934334


The cross-contamination of non-medicated feed with residues of antimicrobials causes an animal and public health concern associated with the potential for the selection and dissemination of resistance in commensal bacteria and potentially zoonotic bacteria. To identify the extent of this situation, we built a risk model that provides a way to estimate the percentage of cross-contaminated feed in total and at the different levels at which cross-contamination may occur (i.e. the feed mill, the transport truck, the farm), for different levels of antimicrobial medicated feed produced in a country per year. The model, estimated that when antimicrobial medicated feed represents a hypothetical xi = 2% of the total feed produced in a country per year, then 5.5% (95% CI = 3.4%; 11.4%) of the total feed produced in a year could be cross-contaminated with different levels of antimicrobials due to practices related to medicated feed. In detail, 1.80% (95% CI = 0.2%; 7.7%) of the total feed produced in such a country would be cross-contaminated due to antimicrobial carryover occurring at the feed mill level, 1.83% (95% CI = 1.3%; 2.0%) at the transport truck level and 1.84% (95% CI = 1.2%; 2.0%) at the farm level. The model also demonstrated that even in cases where antimicrobial medicated feed would be produced in end-of-line mixers or a fine dosing system on trucks, the risk of cross-contamination would not be negligible; the percentage of cross-contaminated feed produced in a country (where xi = 2%) per year would be 3.7% (95% CI = 2.9%; 4.0%) and 2.4% (95% CI = 1.6%; 2.7%), respectively. It is hard to reduce the risk to zero as it is the result of factors occurring at different levels. Thus, the use of antimicrobial medicated feed should be avoided as much as possible to reduce selection pressure.

Ração Animal , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Modelos Teóricos