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1.
Neurology ; 96(9): e1369-e1382, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the full phenotypic spectrum, discriminative features, piloting longitudinal progression data, and sample size calculations of replication factor complex subunit 1 (RFC1) repeat expansions, recently identified as causing cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). METHODS: Multimodal RFC1 repeat screening (PCR, Southern blot, whole-exome/genome sequencing-based approaches) combined with cross-sectional and longitudinal deep phenotyping in (1) cross-European cohort A (70 families) with ≥2 features of CANVAS or ataxia with chronic cough (ACC) and (2) Turkish cohort B (105 families) with unselected late-onset ataxia. RESULTS: Prevalence of RFC1 disease was 67% in cohort A, 14% in unselected cohort B, 68% in clinical CANVAS, and 100% in ACC. RFC1 disease was also identified in Western and Eastern Asian individuals and even by whole-exome sequencing. Visual compensation, sensory symptoms, and cough were strong positive discriminative predictors (>90%) against RFC1-negative patients. The phenotype across 70 RFC1-positive patients was mostly multisystemic (69%), including dysautonomia (62%) and bradykinesia (28%) (overlap with cerebellar-type multiple system atrophy [MSA-C]), postural instability (49%), slow vertical saccades (17%), and chorea or dystonia (11%). Ataxia progression was ≈1.3 Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia points per year (32 cross-sectional, 17 longitudinal assessments, follow-up ≤9 years [mean 3.1 years]) but also included early falls, variable nonlinear phases of MSA-C-like progression (SARA points 2.5-5.5 per year), and premature death. Treatment trials require 330 (1-year trial) and 132 (2-year trial) patients in total to detect 50% reduced progression. CONCLUSIONS: RFC1 disease is frequent and occurs across continents, with CANVAS and ACC as highly diagnostic phenotypes yet as variable, overlapping clusters along a continuous multisystemic disease spectrum, including MSA-C-overlap. Our natural history data help to inform future RFC1 treatment trials. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that RFC1 repeat expansions are associated with CANVAS and ACC.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(9): 738-747, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases. Our aim was to study the conversion to manifest ataxia among apparently healthy carriers of mutations associated with the most common SCAs (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6), and the sensitivity of clinical and functional measures to detect change in these individuals. METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study, based at 14 referral centres in seven European countries, we enrolled children or siblings of patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6. Eligible individuals were those without ataxia, defined by a score on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) of less than 3; participants had to be aged 18-50 years for children or siblings of patients with SCA1, SCA2, or SCA3, and 35-70 years for children or siblings of patients with SCA6. Study visits took place at recruitment and after 2, 4, and 6 years (plus or minus 3 months). We did genetic testing to identify mutation carriers, with results concealed to the participant and clinical investigator. We assessed patients with clinical scales, questionnaires of patient-reported outcome measures, a rating of the examiner's confidence of presence of ataxia, and performance-based coordination tests. Conversion to ataxia was defined by an SARA score of 3 or higher. We analysed the association of factors at baseline with conversion to ataxia and the evolution of outcome parameters on temporal scales (time from inclusion and time to predicted age at ataxia onset) in the context of mutation status and conversion status. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01037777. FINDINGS: Between Sept 13, 2008, and Oct 28, 2015, 302 participants were enrolled. We analysed data for 252 participants with at least one follow-up visit. 83 (33%) participants were from families affected by SCA1, 99 (39%) by SCA2, 46 (18%) by SCA3, and 24 (10%) by SCA6. In participants who carried SCA mutations, 26 (52%) of 50 SCA1 carriers, 22 (59%) of 37 SCA2 carriers, 11 (42%) of 26 SCA3 carriers, and two (13%) of 15 SCA6 carriers converted to ataxia. One (3%) of 33 SCA1 non-carriers and one (2%) of 62 SCA2 non-carriers converted to ataxia. Owing to the small number of people who met our criteria for ataxia, subsequent analyses could not be done in carriers of the SCA6 mutation. Baseline factors associated with conversion were age (hazard ratio 1·13 [95% CI 1·03-1·24]; p=0·011), CAG repeat length (1·25 [1·11-1·41]; p=0·0002), and ataxia confidence rating (1·72 [1·23-2·41]; p=0·0015) for SCA1; age (1·08 [1·02-1·14]; p=0·0077) and CAG repeat length (1·65 [1·27-2·13]; p=0·0001) for SCA2; and age (1·27 [1·09-1·50]; p=0·0031), confidence rating (2·60 [1·23-5·47]; p=0·012), and double vision (14·83 [2·15-102·44]; p=0·0063) for SCA3. From the time of inclusion, the SARA scores of SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 mutation carriers increased, whereas they remained stable in non-carriers. On a timescale defined by the predicted time of ataxia onset, SARA progression in SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 mutation carriers was non-linear, with marginal progression before ataxia and increasing progression after ataxia onset. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides quantitative data on the conversion of non-ataxic SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 mutation carriers to manifest ataxia. Our data could prove useful for the design of preventive trials aimed at delaying the onset of ataxia by aiding sample size calculations and stratification of study participants. FUNDING: European Research Area Network for Research Programmes on Rare Diseases, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Italian Ministry of Health, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Mutação/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(7): e11803, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510847

RESUMO

With molecular treatments coming into reach for spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), easily accessible, cross-species validated biomarkers for human and preclinical trials are warranted, particularly for the preataxic disease stage. We assessed serum levels of neurofilament light (NfL) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy (pNfH) in ataxic and preataxic subjects of two independent multicentric SCA3 cohorts and in a SCA3 knock-in mouse model. Ataxic SCA3 subjects showed increased levels of both NfL and pNfH. In preataxic subjects, NfL levels increased with proximity to the individual expected onset of ataxia, with significant NfL elevations already 7.5 years before onset. Cross-sectional NfL levels correlated with both disease severity and longitudinal disease progression. Blood NfL and pNfH increases in human SCA3 were each paralleled by similar changes in SCA3 knock-in mice, here also starting already at the presymptomatic stage, closely following ataxin-3 aggregation and preceding Purkinje cell loss in the brain. Blood neurofilaments, particularly NfL, might thus provide easily accessible, cross-species validated biomarkers in both ataxic and preataxic SCA3, associated with earliest neuropathological changes, and serve as progression, proximity-to-onset and, potentially, treatment-response markers in both human and preclinical SCA3 trials.

5.
Seizure ; 80: 145-152, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, for which the diagnostic rate of genetic testing in a clinical setting remains to be clarified. In this study we aimed to assess the diagnostic rate of germline and pathogenic variants using a custom panel in a heterogeneous group of subjects with MCD and explore genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: A total of 84 subjects with different MCD were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. Fifty-nine tartget genes were assessed using a custom next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. RESULTS: Genetic causes were identified in one-fourth of our cohort (21.4 %). Overall, we identified 19 pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 11 genes among 18 subjects, including PAFAH1B1 (LIS1) (n = 3), TUBA1A (n = 3), DYNC1H1 (n = 3), ACTG1 (n = 2), TUBB2B (n = 1), TUBB3 (n = 1), DCX (n = 1), FLNA (n = 1), LAMA2 (n = 1), POMGNT2 (n = 1) and VLDLR (n = 1). The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with lissencephaly/pachygyria (60 %) (p = 0.001), cobblestone malformation (50 %), and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) (40 %). Furthermore, five out of six subjects with suspect tubulinopathies on imaging harboured pathogenic variants in tubulin genes. Overall, germline pathogenic variants were more likely to be identified if MCD were diffuse (p = 0.002) and associated with other central nervous system malformations (p = 0.029). Moderate to severe intellectual disability was also more commonly associated with pathogenic variants (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Customized gene panels may support the diagnostic work-up for some specific MCD, especially when these are diffuse, bilateral and associated with other brain malformations.

7.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3633-3641, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Timed neuropsychological tests do not take into account physical impairment during scoring procedures. Dysarthria and upper limb impairment can be easily measured with the PATA rate test (PRT) and the nine-hole pegboard test (9HPT). We recently validated a normalization method for timed neuropsychological tests using the PRT and 9HPT (p9NORM). We now validate the p9NORM in Parkinson's disease (Yarnall et al. Neurology 82(4):308-316; 2014) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). METHODS: We enrolled twenty-six patients with PD, eighteen patients with MSA, and fifteen healthy controls (HC). p9NORM was applied to patients with abnormal PRT and/or 9HPT. All subjects were tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. RESULTS: No differences emerged in demographics across groups: (PD: mean age ± SD 66 ± 8; education 9 ± 4 years; MSA: age 60 ± 8; education 10 ± 4 years; HC: age 61 ± 12; education 9 ± 4 years). In MSA patients, the scores on the trail making test (TMT-A p = 0.003; TMT-B p = 0.018), attentional matrices (AM; p = 0.042), and symbol digit modalities test (SDMT p = 0.027) significantly differed following application of p9NORM. In PD patients, the TMT-A (p < 0.001), TMT-B (p = 0.001), and AM (p = 0.001) differed after correction. PD and MSA showed cognitive impairment relative to HC performance. When comparing MSA with PD, the SDMT, AM, and fluencies were similar. TMT-A and -B raw scores were different between groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.034), but these differences lost significance after p9NORM corrections (p = 0.100; p = 0.186). CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that the p9NORM can be successfully used in both PD and MSA patients, as it mitigates the impact of disability on timed tests, resulting in a more accurate analysis of cognitive domains.

8.
Neurol Sci ; 41(9): 2423-2432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biallelic mutations in STUB1, which encodes the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP, were originally described in association with SCAR16, a rare autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia, so far reported in 16 kindreds. In the last 2 years, a new form of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA48), associated with heterozygous mutations in the same gene, has been described in 12 kindreds with autosomal dominant inheritance. METHODS: We reviewed molecular and clinical findings of both SCAR16 and SCA48 described patients. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: SCAR16 is characterized by early onset spastic ataxia and a wide disease spectrum, including cognitive dysfunction, hyperkinetic disorders, epilepsy, peripheral neuropathy, and hypogonadism. SCA48 is an adult-onset syndrome characterized by ataxia and cognitive-psychiatric features, variably associated with chorea, parkinsonism, dystonia, and urinary symptoms. SCA48, the last dominant ataxia to be described, could emerge as the most frequent among the SCAs due to conventional mutations. The overlap of several clinical signs between SCAR16 and SCA48 indicates the presence of a continuous clinical spectrum among recessively and dominantly inherited mutations of STUB1. Different kinds of mutations, scattered over the three gene domains, have been found in both disorders. Their pathogenesis and the relationship between SCA48 and SCAR16 remain to be clarified.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 41(7): 1232-1237, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333447

RESUMO

Mutations in histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS1), an enzyme that charges transfer RNA with the amino acid histidine in the cytoplasm, have only been associated to date with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type III and autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2W. Using massive parallel sequencing, we identified bi-allelic HARS1 variants in a child (c.616G>T, p.Asp206Tyr and c.730delG, p.Val244Cysfs*6) and in two sisters (c.1393A>C, p.Ile465Leu and c.910_912dupTTG, p.Leu305dup), all characterized by a multisystem ataxic syndrome. All mutations are rare, segregate with the disease, and are predicted to have a significant effect on protein function. Functional studies helped to substantiate their disease-related roles. Indeed, yeast complementation assays showing that one out of two mutations in each patient is loss-of-function, and the reduction of messenger RNA and protein levels and enzymatic activity in patient's skin-derived fibroblasts, together support the pathogenicity of the identified HARS1 variants in the patient phenotypes. Thus, our efforts expand the allelic and clinical spectrum of HARS1-related disease.

11.
J Neurol ; 267(2): 350-358, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested the presence of a significant atrophy affecting the cerebellar cortex in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients, an area of the brain long considered to be relatively spared by neurodegenerative phenomena. Cognitive deficits, which occur in FRDA patients, have been associated with cerebellar volume loss in other conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between cerebellar volume and cognition in FRDA. METHODS: Nineteen FRDA patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study and evaluated via a neuropsychological examination. Cerebellar global and lobular volumes were computed using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT). Furthermore, a cerebellar voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was also carried out. Correlations between MRI metrics and clinical data were tested via partial correlation analysis. RESULTS: FRDA patients showed a significant reduction of the total cerebellar volume (p = 0.004), significantly affecting the Lobule IX (p = 0.001). At the VBM analysis, we found a cluster of significant reduced GM density encompassing the entire lobule IX (p = 0.003). When correlations were probed, we found a direct correlation between Lobule IX volume and impaired visuo-spatial functions (r = 0.58, p = 0.02), with a similar correlation that was found between the same altered function and results obtained at the VBM (r = 0.52; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: With two different image analysis techniques, we confirmed the presence of cerebellar volume loss in FRDA, mainly affecting the posterior lobe. In particular, Lobule IX atrophy correlated with worse visuo-spatial abilities, further expanding our knowledge about the physiopathology of cognitive impairment in FRDA.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Ataxia de Friedreich/patologia , Ataxia de Friedreich/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Ataxia de Friedreich/complicações , Ataxia de Friedreich/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624001

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the feasibility of upper limbs cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients and to compare the results with sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) matched cohort of healthy controls (HC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed using an upper limbs cycle ergometer on fasting subjects. Peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) was recorded as the mean value of VO2 during a 20 s period at the maximal effort of the test at an appropriate respiratory exchange rate. The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (AT) was detected by the use of the V-slope method. We performed echocardiography with an ultrasound system equipped with a 2.5 MHz multifrequency transducer for complete M-mode, two-dimensional, Doppler, and Tissue Doppler Imaging analyses. We studied 55 FRDA and 54 healthy matched controls (HC). Peak VO2 showed a significant 31% reduction in FRDA patients compared to HC (15.2 ± 5.7 vs. 22.0 ± 6.1 mL/kg/min; P < 0.001). Peak workload was reduced by 41% in FRDA (42.9 ± 12.5 vs. 73.1 ± 21.2 W; P < 0.001). In FRDA patients, peak VO2 is inversely correlated with the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score, disease duration, and 9HPT performance, and directly correlated with activities of daily living. The AT occurred at 48% of peak workload time in FRDA patients and at 85% in HC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Upper limb CPET is useful in the assessment of exercise tolerance and a possible tool to determine the functional severity of the mitochondrial oxidative defect in patients with FRDA. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is an ideal functional endpoint for Phases II and III trials through a simple, non-invasive, and safe exercise test.

14.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 68: 8-16, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621627

RESUMO

Cerebellar ataxia is a hallmark of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency associated with COQ8A mutations. We present four patients, one with novel COQ8A pathogenic variants all with early, prominent handwriting impairment, dystonia and only mild ataxia. To better define the phenotypic spectrum and course of COQ8A disease, we review the clinical presentation and evolution in 47 reported cases. Individuals with COQ8A mutation display great clinical variability and unpredictable responses to CoQ10 supplementation. Onset is typically during infancy or childhood with ataxic features associated with developmental delay or regression. When disease onset is later in life, first symptoms can include: incoordination, epilepsy, tremor, and deterioration of writing. The natural history is characterized by a progression to a multisystem brain disease dominated by ataxia, with disease severity inversely correlated with age at onset. Six previously reported cases share with ours, a clinical phenotype characterized by slowly progressive or static writing difficulties, focal dystonia, and speech disorder, with only minimal ataxia. The combination of writing difficulty, dystonia and ataxia is a distinctive constellation that is reminiscent of a previously described clinical entity called Dystonia Ataxia Syndrome (DYTCA) and is an important clinical indicator of COQ8A mutations, even when ataxia is mild or absent.


Assuntos
Ataxia , Progressão da Doença , Distúrbios Distônicos , Escrita Manual , Heterozigoto , Doenças Mitocondriais , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Debilidade Muscular , Ubiquinona/deficiência , Adulto , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/epidemiologia , Ataxia/etiologia , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Distúrbios Distônicos/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Distônicos/etiologia , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Distúrbios Distônicos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais/complicações , Doenças Mitocondriais/epidemiologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/complicações , Debilidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Ubiquinona/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217776, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158268

RESUMO

Friedreich's Ataxia (FA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder resulting from decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin, for which there is no approved therapy. High throughput screening of clinically used drugs identified Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) as protective in FA patient cells. Here we demonstrate that DMF significantly increases frataxin gene (FXN) expression in FA cell model, FA mouse model and in DMF treated humans. DMF also rescues mitochondrial biogenesis deficiency in FA-patient derived cell model. We further examined the mechanism of DMF's frataxin induction in FA patient cells. It has been shown that transcription-inhibitory R-loops form at GAA expansion mutations, thus decreasing FXN expression. In FA patient cells, we demonstrate that DMF significantly increases transcription initiation. As a potential consequence, we observe significant reduction in both R-loop formation and transcriptional pausing thereby significantly increasing FXN expression. Lastly, DMF dosed Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients showed significant increase in FXN expression by ~85%. Since inherited deficiency in FXN is the primary cause of FA, and DMF is demonstrated to increase FXN expression in humans, DMF could be considered for Friedreich's therapy.


Assuntos
Fumarato de Dimetilo/uso terapêutico , Ataxia de Friedreich/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ataxia de Friedreich/sangue , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/genética , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Biogênese de Organelas , Iniciação da Transcrição Genética
16.
Mov Disord ; 34(8): 1220-1227, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are rare dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases that lead to severe disability and premature death. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the impact of disease progression measured by the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia on survival, and to identify different profiles of disease progression and survival. METHODS: Four hundred sixty-two spinocerebellar ataxia patients from the EUROSCA prospective cohort study, suffering from spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, and who had at least two measurements of Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score, were analyzed. Outcomes were change over time in Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score and time to death. Joint model was used to analyze disease progression and survival. RESULTS: Disease progression was the strongest predictor for death in all genotypes: An increase of 1 standard deviation in total Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score increased the risk of death by 1.28 times (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.38) for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1; 1.19 times (1.12-1.26) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2; 1.30 times (1.19-1.42) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 3; and 1.26 times (1.11-1.43) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. Three subgroups of disease progression and survival were identified for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1: "severe" (n = 13; 12%), "intermediate" (n = 31; 29%), and "moderate" (n = 62; 58%). Patients in the severe group were more severely affected at baseline with higher Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia scores and frequency of nonataxia signs compared to those in the other groups. CONCLUSION: Rapid ataxia progression is associated with poor survival of the most common spinocerebellar ataxia. Theses current results have implications for the design of future interventional studies of spinocerebellar ataxia. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Ataxias Espinocerebelares/mortalidade , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Distonia/etiologia , Distonia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Doença de Machado-Joseph/complicações , Doença de Machado-Joseph/mortalidade , Doença de Machado-Joseph/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/complicações , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(3): 271-278, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Use of peripheral nerve ultrasound alongside standard electrodiagnostic tests may help to gain insight into the pathophysiology of peripheral nerve involvement in type 2 spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA2). METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with SCA2 underwent ultrasound cross-sectional area (CSA) measurement of median, ulnar, sural and tibial nerves, and motor (median, ulnar, tibial) and sensory (median, ulnar, radial, sural) nerve conduction studies. RESULTS: Twenty patients had pathologically small-nerve CSAs, suggestive of sensory neuronopathy. In these patients, electrophysiology showed non-length-dependent sensory neuropathy (14 of 20), "possible sensory neuropathy" (1 of 20), or normal findings (5 of 20). Four different patients had length-dependent sensory neuropathy on electrophysiology, and 1 had enlarged nerve CSAs. Regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between ataxia scores and upper limb nerve CSA (P < 0.03). DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that a majority of patients with SCA2 (74%) have a sensory neuronopathy and this correlates with disability. A minority of patients have findings consistent with axonal neuropathy (18%). Muscle Nerve, 2019.


Assuntos
Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ataxia Cerebelar/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Transtornos das Sensações/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
18.
Neurol Sci ; 40(10): 2105-2109, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152261

RESUMO

Sixty-six patients with possible or probable MSA (multiple system atrophy) cerebellar type, personally observed between 2006 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The time point of data collection was January 1, 2019. Forty-nine patients lost independent walking after a median time of 5 years (95% C. I. 4-6). Thirty-two patients were confined to wheelchair after a median time of 7 years (95% C. I. 7-8). Twenty-seven patients were deceased after a median time of 9 years (95% C. I. 8-10). A later onset predicted an earlier loss of independent walking (HR 1.07; 95% C.I. 1.03-1.11; p = 0.001). Higher UMSARS score predicted shorter time to loss of independent walking (HR 1.04; 95% C.I. 1.02-1.06; p = 0.001) and to wheelchair (HR 1.03; 95% C.I. 1.01-1.06; p = 0.021). No predictor of time to death was found.


Assuntos
Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/complicações , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 65: 91-96, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126790

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spinocerebellar ataxia 48 has recently been described as an adult onset ataxia associated with a cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, caused by a heterozygous mutation in the STUB1 gene. METHODS: We characterized the clinical and neuroimaging phenotype of eight patients from two autosomal dominant ataxia multigenerational Italian families, in whom we conducted whole exome sequencing, targeted multigene sequencing, and Sanger sequencing studies. RESULTS: We describe a complex syndrome characterized by ataxia and cognitive-psychiatric disorder in all cases, variably associated with chorea, parkinsonism, dystonia, urinary symptoms, and epilepsy. MRI showed a significant cerebellar atrophy, coupled to a T2-weighted hyperintensity affecting the dentate nuclei and extending to the middle cerebellar peduncles, whereas FDG-PET studies revealed glucose hypometabolism in cerebellum, striatum, and cerebral cortex. We identified two different novel STUB1 mutations segregating in the two families. One of the two mutations, p.(Gly33Ser), occurs in the TRP domain, whereas p.(Pro228Ser) is located in the ubiquitin ligase region. DISCUSSION: We emphasize the similarity of the described clinical picture with that of SCAR16, an autosomal recessive ataxia caused by biallelic mutations in the same gene, and of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17, which is considered the main Huntington's disease-like syndrome. The pathogenesis of the disease and the relationship between SCA48 and SCAR16 remain to be clarified.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/complicações , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/complicações , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
20.
Neurol Sci ; 40(7): 1335-1342, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927137

RESUMO

The diagnosis of sporadic adult onset ataxia is a challenging task since a large collection of hereditary and non-hereditary disorders should be taken into consideration. Sporadic adult onset ataxias include degenerative non-hereditary, hereditary, and acquired ataxias. Multiple system atrophy and idiopathic late cerebellar ataxia are degenerative non-hereditary ataxias. Late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 and 2, and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome account for most sporadic hereditary ataxias. Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic and other autoimmune cerebellar degeneration, vitamin deficiencies, and toxic-induced and infectious cerebellar syndrome are the main causes of acquired cerebellar degeneration. The diagnostic approach should include a history taking, disease progression, general and neurological examination, brain MRI, and laboratory and genetic tests. Novel opportunities in massive gene sequencing will increase the likelihood to define true etiologies.


Assuntos
Ataxia/diagnóstico , Ataxia/etiologia , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Humanos
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