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1.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(11): 2224-2235, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613543

RESUMO

While perceptions of the legitimacy of formal authority have been found to influence offending, little is known about the extent to which such perceptions influence the related outcome of victimization. This study addressed this gap by examining how changes in legitimacy affected victimization both within- and between-individuals. This study used 7 waves of the Pathways to Desistance data (n = 1310; 13.85% female; age range 14-22). Youth who have committed serious offenses were surveyed at 6-month intervals during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. In the full sample, the effects of legitimacy on both victimization and offending remained largely stable over time within individuals. Sensitivity analyses revealed that more positive perceptions of legitimacy significantly reduce offending for boys and reduce victimization for girls during the developmental period under study. Consistent with prior research, between-individual differences appear to be more important than within-individual change for explaining both offending and victimization. The implications of the results for theory, future research, and early intervention for high-risk youth are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257945, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559863

RESUMO

A crucial question in the governance of infectious disease outbreaks is how to ensure that people continue to adhere to mitigation measures for the longer duration. The present paper examines this question by means of a set of cross-sectional studies conducted in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, in May, June, and July of 2020. Using stratified samples that mimic the demographic characteristics of the U.S. population, it seeks to understand to what extent Americans continued to adhere to social distancing measures in the period after the first lockdown ended. Moreover, it seeks to uncover which variables sustained (or undermined) adherence across this period. For this purpose, we examined a broad range of factors, relating to people's (1) knowledge and understanding of the mitigation measures, (2) perceptions of their costs and benefits, (3) perceptions of legitimacy and procedural justice, (4) personal factors, (5) social environment, and (6) practical circumstances. Our findings reveal that adherence was chiefly shaped by three major factors: respondents adhered more when they (a) had greater practical capacity to adhere, (b) morally agreed more with the measures, and (c) perceived the virus as a more severe health threat. Adherence was shaped to a lesser extent by impulsivity, knowledge of social distancing measures, opportunities for violating, personal costs, and descriptive social norms. The results also reveal, however, that adherence declined across this period, which was partly explained by changes in people's moral alignment, threat perceptions, knowledge, and perceived social norms. These findings show that adherence originates from a broad range of factors that develop dynamically across time. Practically these insights help to improve pandemic governance, as well as contributing theoretically to the study of compliance and the way that rules come to shape behavior.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 50(3): 311-325, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780590

RESUMO

Objective: This study examines the effects of dynamic risk factors on handgun carrying from adolescence into young adulthood.Method: A nationally representative sample of 8,679 individuals (ages 12-26; 51.1% male; 58% White, 26.8% African American; 21.2% Hispanic ethnicity) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 cohort) interviewed at least three times across nine annual waves is used to estimate effects on handgun carrying. Key predictors include gang membership, selling and using drugs, violent crime, and arrest. Using mixed effects models, we focus on within-individual effects across three timeframes from ages 12 to 26: 1) predictors and handgun carrying measured concurrently, 2) predictors measured across one year and handgun carrying measured in the final month of the same year, and 3) predictors measured in the wave before handgun carrying. We also contrast estimates by sex and age.Results: All theoretically relevant predictors statistically significantly predict handgun carrying across the first two timeframes. However, none are statistically significant predictors of handgun carrying in the following year. Few significant sex and age differences emerge.Conclusions: Handgun carrying is an ephemeral behavior particularly during adolescence. The predictors of handgun carrying, which are grounded in gangs, drug use/sale, and crime involvement, appear to have short-term impacts that are consistent across age as well as across sex. Consequently, future work should focus on shorter-term changes in models and there is no evidence that intervention efforts must take fundamentally different approaches to reduce handgun use among males versus females or adolescents versus adults.

5.
Law Hum Behav ; 44(6): 461-473, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on guiding principles such as parens patriae, juvenile probation officers (JPOs) not only supervise youth, but in certain jurisdictions they also decide how control-oriented their conditions will be. JPOs' perceptions of parenting could be related to their decision making. This study examined: (a) whether JPOs' perceptions of the home were associated with the conditions they placed on youth; (b) if JPOs' perceptions of the home aligned with the youths' perceptions; and (c) if JPOs' control-oriented conditions were associated with changes in parenting practices. HYPOTHESES: (H1) JPOs' perceptions of the home should be positively related to youths' perceptions of parenting practices. (H2) JPOs' perceptions of the home should be positively associated with the conditions imposed. (H3) JPOs' control-oriented conditions may be positively associated with increased parental supervision, yet they may also be associated with lessened parental supervision. METHOD: The sample consisted of 265 male youth (mean age = 15.41; 76.6% Latino, 19.25% White, 0.75% Black) who were arrested for the first time and placed on supervised diversion. RESULTS: Latent class analyses indicated that there were three supervision conditions classes: standard, moderate, and high control. JPOs' perceptions of the home did not align with youths' perceptions of parenting practices (e.g., rule setting, curfew setting, and monitoring) yet they were the strongest predictor of receiving the most control-oriented conditions. Surprisingly, parental rule setting, curfew setting, and monitoring declined once youth were placed under supervision, and declines did not differ based on how control-oriented their official conditions were. CONCLUSIONS: Parents are thought to be vital in justice-involved youths' success. Yet within this sample, officers' perceptions of the family did not align with youths' perceptions. Further, parental supervision declined equally regardless of how control-oriented youths' supervision conditions were. Parents must be better integrated into the process to enhance the success of youth on community supervision. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Polícia/psicologia , Adolescente , California , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Papel (figurativo) , Autorrelato
6.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1758-1767, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219268

RESUMO

It is widely believed that there is a crisis of confidence in law enforcement in the United States. What remains to be seen, however, is whether adolescents actually differentiate between legal authorities and other types of authorities. Leveraging cross-sectional, nationally representative data of 12th graders from every year from 2006 to 2017 from Monitoring the Future (N = 10,941), the results indicate that adolescents distinguish between legal authorities (e.g., law enforcement, justice system) and social authorities (e.g., schools, religious institutions). Youth report more confidence in social authorities than in legal authorities. Furthermore, whereas confidence in social authorities remained largely stable between the cohorts over the last decade, confidence in legal authorities, and in law enforcement in particular, has declined markedly. Although there may be an era of mistrust in legal authorities, it cannot be attributed to a ubiquitous anti-authority attitude among modern adolescents in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude , Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
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