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1.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(11): 2224-2235, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613543

RESUMO

While perceptions of the legitimacy of formal authority have been found to influence offending, little is known about the extent to which such perceptions influence the related outcome of victimization. This study addressed this gap by examining how changes in legitimacy affected victimization both within- and between-individuals. This study used 7 waves of the Pathways to Desistance data (n = 1310; 13.85% female; age range 14-22). Youth who have committed serious offenses were surveyed at 6-month intervals during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. In the full sample, the effects of legitimacy on both victimization and offending remained largely stable over time within individuals. Sensitivity analyses revealed that more positive perceptions of legitimacy significantly reduce offending for boys and reduce victimization for girls during the developmental period under study. Consistent with prior research, between-individual differences appear to be more important than within-individual change for explaining both offending and victimization. The implications of the results for theory, future research, and early intervention for high-risk youth are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257945, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559863

RESUMO

A crucial question in the governance of infectious disease outbreaks is how to ensure that people continue to adhere to mitigation measures for the longer duration. The present paper examines this question by means of a set of cross-sectional studies conducted in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, in May, June, and July of 2020. Using stratified samples that mimic the demographic characteristics of the U.S. population, it seeks to understand to what extent Americans continued to adhere to social distancing measures in the period after the first lockdown ended. Moreover, it seeks to uncover which variables sustained (or undermined) adherence across this period. For this purpose, we examined a broad range of factors, relating to people's (1) knowledge and understanding of the mitigation measures, (2) perceptions of their costs and benefits, (3) perceptions of legitimacy and procedural justice, (4) personal factors, (5) social environment, and (6) practical circumstances. Our findings reveal that adherence was chiefly shaped by three major factors: respondents adhered more when they (a) had greater practical capacity to adhere, (b) morally agreed more with the measures, and (c) perceived the virus as a more severe health threat. Adherence was shaped to a lesser extent by impulsivity, knowledge of social distancing measures, opportunities for violating, personal costs, and descriptive social norms. The results also reveal, however, that adherence declined across this period, which was partly explained by changes in people's moral alignment, threat perceptions, knowledge, and perceived social norms. These findings show that adherence originates from a broad range of factors that develop dynamically across time. Practically these insights help to improve pandemic governance, as well as contributing theoretically to the study of compliance and the way that rules come to shape behavior.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ethnic/racial minority children in the United States are more likely to experience father loss to incarceration than White children, and limited research has examined the health implications of these ethnic/racial disparities. Telomere length is a biomarker of chronic stress that is predictive of adverse health outcomes. This study examined whether paternal incarceration predicted telomere length shortening among offspring from childhood to adolescence, whether maternal depression mediated the link, and whether ethnicity/race moderated results. METHOD: Research participants included 2,395 families in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, a national and longitudinal cohort study of primarily low-income families from 20 large cities in the United States. Key constructs were measured when children were on average ages 9 (2007-2010) and 15 (2014-2017). RESULTS: Children who experienced paternal incarceration exhibited shorter telomere lengths between ages 9 and 15, and changes in maternal depression mediated this finding. Specifically, mothers who experienced a partner's incarceration were more likely to have depression between children's ages 9 and 15. In turn, increases in maternal depression between children's ages 9 and 15 predicted more accelerated telomere length shortening among children during this period. Paternal incarceration was more prevalent and frequent for ethnic/racial minority youth than for White youth. CONCLUSION: Paternal incarceration is associated with a biomarker of chronic stress among children in low-income families. Rates of paternal incarceration were more prevalent and frequent among Black American and multiethnic/multiracial families than among White Americans. As a result, the mass incarceration crisis of the criminal justice system is likely shaping intergenerational ethnic/racial health disparities.

5.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 700-713, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955345

RESUMO

The current study advances past research by studying the impact of juvenile justice decision making with a geographically and ethnically diverse sample (N = 1,216) of adolescent boys (ages 13-17 years) for the 5 years following their first arrest. Importantly, all youth in the study were arrested for an eligible offense of moderate severity (e.g., assault, theft) to evaluate whether the initial decision to formally (i.e., sentenced before a judge) or informally (i.e., diverted to community service) process the youth led to differences in outcomes. The current study also advanced past research by using a statistical approach that controlled for a host of potential preexisting vulnerabilities that could influence both the processing decision and the youth's outcomes. Our findings indicated that youth who were formally processed during adolescence were more likely to be re-arrested, more likely to be incarcerated, engaged in more violence, reported a greater affiliation with delinquent peers, reported lower school enrollment, were less likely to graduate high school within 5 years, reported less ability to suppress aggression, and had lower perceptions of opportunities than informally processed youth. Importantly, these findings were not moderated by the age of the youth at his first arrest or his race and ethnicity. These results have important implications for juvenile justice policy by indicating that formally processing youth not only is costly, but it can reduce public safety and reduce the adolescent's later potential contributions to society.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Agressão , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Violência
6.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 50(3): 353-366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830838

RESUMO

Objective: To examine whether at-risk male youth experience increases in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and aggression during years when they are exposed to gun violence, adjusting for relevant covariates.Method: Participants were 1,216 male, justice-involved adolescents who were recently arrested for the first time for a moderate offense. They were interviewed 9 times over 5 years. Fixed effects (within-individual) regression models were used to estimate concurrent associations between exposure to gun violence and three outcomes: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and aggression (both overall and separately for proactive and reactive aggression). The reverse direction (anxiety, depressive symptoms, and aggression predicting gun violence exposure) was also modeled.Results: After controlling for covariates, exposure to gun violence was significantly associated with increases in reactive aggression and, to a lesser extent, increases in proactive aggression. In addition, gun violence exposure was associated with increased anxiety but not depressive symptoms. We found no support for the reverse direction.Conclusions: At-risk males experienced significant increases in anxiety and aggression (particularly reactive aggression) during years when they are exposed to gun violence, even after accounting for several potential confounding factors. The greater impact on reactive aggression suggests that exposure to gun violence may affect self-regulation and/or social information processing. The analyses shed light on the less-visible damage wrought by gun violence and underscore the importance of mental health screening and treatment for youth who have been exposed to violence - especially gun violence - both to assist individual youths and to disrupt cycles of violence.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 50(3): 311-325, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780590

RESUMO

Objective: This study examines the effects of dynamic risk factors on handgun carrying from adolescence into young adulthood.Method: A nationally representative sample of 8,679 individuals (ages 12-26; 51.1% male; 58% White, 26.8% African American; 21.2% Hispanic ethnicity) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 cohort) interviewed at least three times across nine annual waves is used to estimate effects on handgun carrying. Key predictors include gang membership, selling and using drugs, violent crime, and arrest. Using mixed effects models, we focus on within-individual effects across three timeframes from ages 12 to 26: 1) predictors and handgun carrying measured concurrently, 2) predictors measured across one year and handgun carrying measured in the final month of the same year, and 3) predictors measured in the wave before handgun carrying. We also contrast estimates by sex and age.Results: All theoretically relevant predictors statistically significantly predict handgun carrying across the first two timeframes. However, none are statistically significant predictors of handgun carrying in the following year. Few significant sex and age differences emerge.Conclusions: Handgun carrying is an ephemeral behavior particularly during adolescence. The predictors of handgun carrying, which are grounded in gangs, drug use/sale, and crime involvement, appear to have short-term impacts that are consistent across age as well as across sex. Consequently, future work should focus on shorter-term changes in models and there is no evidence that intervention efforts must take fundamentally different approaches to reduce handgun use among males versus females or adolescents versus adults.

8.
Child Dev ; 91(2): 661-678, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927372

RESUMO

This daily diary study examined how adolescents' institutional and teacher-specific trust predicted classroom behavioral engagement the day after being disciplined by that teacher. Within mathematics classrooms, adolescents (N = 190; Mage  = 14 years) reported institutional and teacher-specific trust and then completed a 15-day diary assessing teacher discipline and behavioral engagement. The results indicated that, among adolescents with low teacher trust, discipline was unrelated to next-day behavior. Contrastingly, adolescents with high teacher but low institutional trust became less engaged following discipline, whereas those with high teacher and institutional trust became more engaged. These findings suggest that adolescents interpret discipline within the social context of trust, and adolescents' trust in the institution and teacher are important for discipline to improve behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Professores Escolares , Meio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Confiança , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Punição , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Child Dev ; 91(1): e120-e133, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368784

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are a risk factor for severe and persistent patterns of juvenile delinquency. Given the influence of CU trait assessments in justice-system settings, it is important to determine whether the predictive utility of CU traits is conditional on the absence of protective psychosocial factors. Employing a sample of justice-involved male youth (N = 1,216, Mage  = 15.29), this study examined whether psychosocial maturity (PSM) outweighs or attenuates the effect of CU traits on delinquency. Results indicated that youth with high CU traits or low PSM offended more during the year following their first arrest. Additionally, PSM moderated the relation between CU traits and offending, such that higher PSM was associated with less offending but only among low CU youth.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Regulação Emocional , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
Law Hum Behav ; 44(6): 461-473, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on guiding principles such as parens patriae, juvenile probation officers (JPOs) not only supervise youth, but in certain jurisdictions they also decide how control-oriented their conditions will be. JPOs' perceptions of parenting could be related to their decision making. This study examined: (a) whether JPOs' perceptions of the home were associated with the conditions they placed on youth; (b) if JPOs' perceptions of the home aligned with the youths' perceptions; and (c) if JPOs' control-oriented conditions were associated with changes in parenting practices. HYPOTHESES: (H1) JPOs' perceptions of the home should be positively related to youths' perceptions of parenting practices. (H2) JPOs' perceptions of the home should be positively associated with the conditions imposed. (H3) JPOs' control-oriented conditions may be positively associated with increased parental supervision, yet they may also be associated with lessened parental supervision. METHOD: The sample consisted of 265 male youth (mean age = 15.41; 76.6% Latino, 19.25% White, 0.75% Black) who were arrested for the first time and placed on supervised diversion. RESULTS: Latent class analyses indicated that there were three supervision conditions classes: standard, moderate, and high control. JPOs' perceptions of the home did not align with youths' perceptions of parenting practices (e.g., rule setting, curfew setting, and monitoring) yet they were the strongest predictor of receiving the most control-oriented conditions. Surprisingly, parental rule setting, curfew setting, and monitoring declined once youth were placed under supervision, and declines did not differ based on how control-oriented their official conditions were. CONCLUSIONS: Parents are thought to be vital in justice-involved youths' success. Yet within this sample, officers' perceptions of the family did not align with youths' perceptions. Further, parental supervision declined equally regardless of how control-oriented youths' supervision conditions were. Parents must be better integrated into the process to enhance the success of youth on community supervision. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Polícia/psicologia , Adolescente , California , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Papel (figurativo) , Autorrelato
11.
Psychol Public Policy Law ; 25(1): 38-45, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749600

RESUMO

Juvenile justice facilities can be dangerous places for adolescents and may promote violent behavior among incarcerated youth. With high rates of violence among detained juveniles, youth who do not feel safe may resort to violent behavior to protect themselves. However, this "cycle of violence" may be interrupted if youth can turn to correctional staff for support. Using a 3-wave, longitudinal sample of 373 male incarcerated adolescents, the results indicated that as compared to violence exposure prior to incarceration, exposure to institutional violence more strongly predicts violent behavior. Further, the findings indicated that perceptions of staff serve as a buffer to violence exposure and may interrupt the cycle of violence. Policy implications are discussed.

12.
Law Hum Behav ; 43(4): 342-357, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282708

RESUMO

This study examined the extent to which being arrested during adolescence was associated with subsequent self-reported offending and court-recorded arrests. We also examined whether the way in which the justice system processed adolescents was related to the nature of these associations. The sample included 532 boys who had been arrested ("justice-system-involved") and 99 boys who had never been arrested despite engaging in similar illegal behaviors ("no-justice-system-contact"). Data included official arrest records and youths' self-reported illegal behavior at a baseline interview and a follow-up 6 months later. To reduce group differences at baseline, we calculated matching weights with 2 dozen variables and used these weights in all analyses. Results demonstrated that the groups differed in their rate of change in self-reported offending between the 2 interviews and in their likelihood of being arrested during the study period. The no-justice-system-contact group self-reported the same amount of offending at baseline and the follow up, whereas the justice-system-involved youth who received the most lenient disposition (i.e., sanction and dismiss) decreased their self-reported violent, theft or property, and total offending, and the justice-system-involved youth who received the most punitive disposition (i.e., adjudication) increased their self-reported violent offending. All justice-system-involved youth were more likely to be arrested during the study period than the no-justice-system-contact youth, even after accounting for self-reported offending. Thus, even though some justice system interventions were associated with less subsequent offending, involvement with the juvenile justice system during adolescence, in and of itself, is a significant risk factor for repeated contact with the system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicação da Lei , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , California , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1758-1767, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219268

RESUMO

It is widely believed that there is a crisis of confidence in law enforcement in the United States. What remains to be seen, however, is whether adolescents actually differentiate between legal authorities and other types of authorities. Leveraging cross-sectional, nationally representative data of 12th graders from every year from 2006 to 2017 from Monitoring the Future (N = 10,941), the results indicate that adolescents distinguish between legal authorities (e.g., law enforcement, justice system) and social authorities (e.g., schools, religious institutions). Youth report more confidence in social authorities than in legal authorities. Furthermore, whereas confidence in social authorities remained largely stable between the cohorts over the last decade, confidence in legal authorities, and in law enforcement in particular, has declined markedly. Although there may be an era of mistrust in legal authorities, it cannot be attributed to a ubiquitous anti-authority attitude among modern adolescents in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude , Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
14.
Child Dev ; 89(6): e468-e479, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034963

RESUMO

Adolescents who view the justice system negatively are prone to commit crime. Simultaneously, youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior are likely to commit crime. Using a longitudinal sample of 1,216 male adolescents (ages 13-17) who had been arrested for the first time, were racially/ethnically diverse, and were drawn from three U.S. states, this study incorporated a developmental perspective into the procedural justice framework to examine whether psychosocial immaturity moderated the effect of justice system attitudes on youth crime. Attitudes toward the justice system were associated with reoffending among psychosocially mature youth, but not among psychosocially immature youth. This developmental perspective indicates that psychosocially immature youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior may be at risk of engaging in crime regardless of how they perceive the justice system.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude , Crime/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Estados Unidos
15.
Child Dev ; 89(6): e535-e551, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023672

RESUMO

Adolescent first-time offenders demonstrate greater risk of continued offending, justice system contact, and high school dropout. The current study evaluates if optimistic expectations protect youth by reducing offending and improving school grades for 3 years following a first arrest (N = 1,165, Mage  = 15.29). This article also considers whether improved behavior raises expectations about the future and uses autoregressive latent trajectory modeling with structured residuals to examine the within-person cross-lagged associations between expectations and behavior. The results indicated that positive expectations reduce offending and improve grades, which are in turn associated with higher expectations. Although raising expectations may improve outcomes following an arrest, ensuring adolescents have the tools to meet their goals may be an effective way to raise expectations.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criminosos/psicologia , Motivação , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
J Res Adolesc ; 28(2): 427-437, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940957

RESUMO

This study examines whether (1) mothers vary in the way they express hostility toward their delinquent adolescent offspring, (2) different types of maternal hostility differentially affect adolescents' depression and recidivism, and (3) adolescent depression serves as a mechanism through which maternal hostility predicts later reoffending. The sample consists of 1,216 male first-time offenders, aged 13-17 years (M = 15.80, SD = 1.29). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the premise that maternal hostility could be distinguished into two subtypes: emotional and physical hostility. Adolescent offenders who experienced emotional or physical hostility by their mothers reported greater depressive symptoms and reoffending 6 months later. Further, the relation between maternal hostility (of each type) and adolescent reoffending was partially explained by depressive symptomology.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/reabilitação , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Law Hum Behav ; 41(4): 354-360, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383983

RESUMO

Deterrence threats are essential mechanisms for affecting behavior, yet they are often ineffective. The literature is beginning to consider individual differences underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The present study sampled 223 adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used an experimental cheating paradigm to examine the role of 3 individual differences, including morality, self-control, and rule orientation, underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The results indicate that deterrence threats may be more influential for people who have low moral disengagement, who possess more self-control, or who are more rule oriented. These findings indicate that important individual differences underlie susceptibility to deterrence. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Individualidade , Princípios Morais , Punição/psicologia , Autocontrole , Adulto , Comportamento , Psicologia Criminal , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Controle Social Formal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
Law Hum Behav ; 41(2): 146-158, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150977

RESUMO

Youth who hold negative attitudes toward the justice system are more likely to engage in crime. It is particularly important to study attitudes early in someone's criminal career when they may still be open to change. To date, however, there has been no empirical test assessing whether the relation between attitudes and behavior changes after a first arrest. Using a sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the Crossroads Study, the present study explored: (a) racial/ethnic differences in the longitudinal patterns of youths' attitudes; and (b) reciprocal associations between youths' attitudes and both their offending behavior and rearrests in the 2.5 years after their first arrest. The results indicated that White youths' attitudes remained largely stable, Black youths' attitudes became more negative, and Latino youths' attitudes became more negative but only among Latino youth who reoffended. Although the results indicated that youths' attitudes were related to both offending and rearrest, the bidirectional relation between attitudes and offending weakened across time. After 2.5 years after their first arrest, attitudes no longer predicted offending or rearrests. These novel findings suggest that a youth's first contact is likely the most impactful. When it comes to young offenders' interactions with the justice system, first impressions matter. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Atitude , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Reincidência , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato
19.
Child Dev ; 88(1): 41-54, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28042903

RESUMO

Both the psychological and criminological fields have long hypothesized the mechanisms that influence desistance from violent offending, but few studies have focused on violent females. This study identifies patterns of violent behavior across 7 years among 172 females and 172 matched males ages 15-24, testing if heterogeneity in violent offending is linked to (a) developmental change in impulse control and (b) attainment of adult milestones. Fewer females persist in violence (25%) than males (46%); 19% of males increase in violent behavior. Females who develop impulse control and are employed are more likely to desist from violence. Violent offending is unrelated to other adult milestones. Developmental increases in impulse control may trigger desistance, while employment may maintain desistance from violence.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Assess ; 29(6): 754-761, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27684211

RESUMO

Judgments about a youth's level of remorse are frequently used to make important decisions in the juvenile justice system that can have serious consequences to the person. Unfortunately, little is known about these ratings and what factors may influence them. In a sample of 325 1st-time youth offenders who were arrested for offenses of moderate severity, we tested whether probation officers' ratings of an adolescent's remorse soon after arrest were associated with the youth's self-report of showing a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, being arrested for a violent offense, and several demographic and background characteristics (e.g., age, race, socioeconomic status [SES], and intelligence). Our analyses indicated that both arrest for a violent offense and the adolescent's self-reported level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits were associated with probation officers' ratings of remorse. Further, youth age, SES, and intelligence neither were associated with these judgments nor moderated the association between CU traits and probation officers' ratings of remorse. However, youth race or ethnicity did moderate the association between CU traits and judgments of remorse, such that Latino youth who were high on CU traits showed a very low probability of being rated as remorseful. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Criminosos/psicologia , Culpa , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
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