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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(9): 093505, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782568

RESUMO

New complex-plasma facility, Plasmakristall-4 (PK-4), has been recently commissioned on board the International Space Station. In complex plasmas, the subsystem of µm-sized microparticles immersed in low-pressure weakly ionized gas-discharge plasmas becomes strongly coupled due to the high (103-104 e) electric charge on the microparticle surface. The microparticle subsystem of complex plasmas is available for the observation at the kinetic level, which makes complex plasmas appropriate for particle-resolved modeling of classical condensed matter phenomena. The main purpose of PK-4 is the investigation of flowing complex plasmas. To generate plasma, PK-4 makes use of a classical dc discharge in a glass tube, whose polarity can be switched with the frequency of the order of 100 Hz. This frequency is high enough not to be felt by the relatively heavy microparticles. The duty cycle of the polarity switching can be also varied allowing to vary the drift velocity of the microparticles and (when necessary) to trap them. The facility is equipped with two videocameras and illumination laser for the microparticle imaging, kaleidoscopic plasma glow observation system and minispectrometer for plasma diagnostics and various microparticle manipulation devices (e.g., powerful manipulation laser). Scientific experiments are programmed in the form of scripts written with the help of specially developed C scripting language libraries. PK-4 is mainly operated from the ground (control center CADMOS in Toulouse, France) with the support of the space station crew. Data recorded during the experiments are later on delivered to the ground on the removable hard disk drives and distributed to participating scientists for the detailed analysis.

3.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(6 Pt 2): 065401, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23367995

RESUMO

The observation of a well-developed treelike string structure supported by a gas flow in a three-dimensional dc complex plasma is presented. The dynamically stable strings, comprising 10-20 particles, were up to 5 mm long. The experiments were performed using neon gas at a pressure of 100 Pa and melamine-formaldehyde particles with a diameter of 3.43 µm. Inside the discharge glass tube a nozzle had been built in to supply the controllable gas (plasma) flux intensity distribution along the tube. The walls of the nozzle were transparent for the laser light illuminating the particles. That gave the opportunity to closely study the particle dynamics deep inside the nozzle.

4.
Circ Res ; 88(3): 291-7, 2001 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11179196

RESUMO

Compartmentalization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) targets PKA to distinct subcellular locations in many cell types. However, the question of whether AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring in the heart regulates cardiac contractile function has not been addressed. We disrupted AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring in cardiac myocytes by introducing, via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, Ht31, a peptide that binds the PKA regulatory subunit type II (RII) with high affinity. This peptide competes with endogenous AKAPs for RII binding. Ht31P (a proline-substituted derivative), which does not bind RII, was used as a negative control. We then investigated the effects of Ht31 expression on RII distribution, Ca(2+) cycling, cell shortening, and PKA-dependent substrate phosphorylation. By confocal microscopy, we showed redistribution of RII from the perinuclear region and from periodic transverse striations in Ht31P-expressing cells to a diffuse cytosolic localization in Ht31-expressing cells. In the presence of 10 nmol/L isoproterenol, Ht31-expressing myocytes displayed an increased rate and amplitude of cell shortening and relaxation compared with control cells (uninfected and Ht31P-expressing myocytes); with isoproterenol stimulation we observed decreased time to 90% decline in Ca(2+) but no significant difference between Ht31-expressing and control cells in the rate of Ca(2+) cycling or amplitude of the Ca(2+) transient. The increase in PKA-dependent phosphorylation of troponin I and myosin binding protein C on isoproterenol stimulation was significantly reduced in Ht31-expressing cells compared with controls. Our results demonstrate that, in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation, cardiomyocyte function and substrate phosphorylation by PKA is regulated by targeting of PKA by AKAPs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Função Ventricular , Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A , Adenoviridae/genética , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Quinase Tipo II Dependente de AMP Cíclico , DNA Recombinante , Ventrículos do Coração/citologia , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Plasmídeos/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade por Substrato , Transfecção
5.
J Biol Chem ; 275(52): 41389-95, 2000 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10993882

RESUMO

Downstream regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway is mediated by anchoring proteins (AKAPs) that sequester PKA to specific subcellular locations through binding to PKA regulatory subunits (RI or RII). The RII-binding domain of all AKAPs forms an amphipathic alpha-helix with similar secondary structure. However, the importance of sequence differences in the RII-binding domains of different AKAPs is unknown, and mechanisms that regulate AKAP-PKA affinity are not clearly defined. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, we measured real-time kinetics of RII interaction with various AKAPs. Base-line equilibrium binding constants (K(d)) for RII binding to Ht31, mAKAP, and AKAP15/18 were 10 nm, 119 nm, and 6.6 microm, respectively. PKA stimulation of intact Chinese hamster ovary cells increased RIIalpha binding to AKAP100/mAKAP and AKAP15/18 by approximately 7- and 82-fold, respectively. These results suggest that differences in primary sequence of the RII-binding domain may be responsible for the selective affinity of RII for different AKAPs. Furthermore, RII autophosphorylation may provide additional localized regulation of kinase anchoring. In cardiac myocytes, disruption of RII-AKAP interaction decreased PKA phosphorylation of the PKA substrate, myosin-binding protein C. Thus, these mechanisms may be involved in adding additional specificity in intracellular signaling in diverse cell types and under conditions of cAMP/PKA activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Proteína Quinase Tipo II Dependente de AMP Cíclico , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosforilação , Subunidades Proteicas , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/fisiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18238506

RESUMO

For the last 10 years, interest has grown in low frequency shear waves that propagate in the human body. However, the generation of shear waves by acoustic vibrators is a relatively complex problem, and the directivity patterns of shear waves produced by the usual vibrators are more complicated than those obtained for longitudinal ultrasonic transducers. To extract shear modulus parameters from the shear wave propagation in soft tissues, it is important to understand and to optimize the directivity pattern of shear wave vibrators. This paper is devoted to a careful study of the theoretical and the experimental directivity pattern produced by a point source in soft tissues. Both theoretical and experimental measurements show that the directivity pattern of a point source vibrator presents two very strong lobes for an angle around 35 degrees . This paper also points out the impact of the near field in the problem of shear wave generation.

7.
Pathology ; 26(4): 490-2, 1994 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7892056

RESUMO

Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of infectious gastritis characterized by intramural gas production by gas forming organisms. We report a fatal case of this disorder with involvement of both stomach and esophagus in a 76 yr old man who had a past history of alcohol abuse, and whose recent therapy included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Enfisema/patologia , Esofagite/patologia , Gastrite/patologia , Idoso , Esofagite/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Gastrite/complicações , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18263238

RESUMO

New contactless techniques using laser-generated ultrasound have been applied to the inspection of composite materials. Transient elastic waves were launched thermoelastically in half cylindrical composite samples using a long pulse dye laser or a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser. The waves were detected with piezoelectric transducers or with an optical heterodyne interferometer. The measurements have been carried out on two different lay up design composites: carbon/epoxy: undirectional and cross-ply 0 degrees /45 degrees /90 degrees /-45 degrees . Quasi-longitudinal, quasi-shear, and shear bulk waves and head waves are clearly discerned in the stacking of a large number of waveforms. Velocities of the different types of waves simultaneously generated are compared to the phase and group velocities computed using Christoffel equations and an hexagonal model. It is shown with this point-source measurement technique that the wavefront arrival times agree with the energy velocities rather than with the phase velocities. A pronounced anisotropy is observed in the amplitudes of the wave arrivals. Angular directivity patterns of quasi-longitudinal, quasi-shear, and transverse bulk waves are plotted.

10.
J Exp Med ; 164(5): 1516-30, 1986 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3490532

RESUMO

Tumor-specific transplantation antigens are antigens that can lead to complete immunological destruction of a transplanted cancer by the syngeneic host. When such antigens are expressed on cancers induced by chemical or physical carcinogens, then they are usually unique, i.e., antigenically different for each independently induced tumor. In this study, we show that the product of a gene encoding a novel MHC class I molecule and isolated from the murine UV light-induced regressor tumor 1591 represents one such unique tumor-specific transplantation antigen that causes tumor rejection. The major evidence comes from our finding that 1591 progressor variants regularly lost the gene encoding this antigen that is expressed in the parental tumor that regresses in normal mice; furthermore, reintroduction of this gene into a 1591 progressor variant by DNA transfection caused the progressor variant to regress in normal immunocompetent mice. Thus, the progressor tumor reverted to the parental regressor phenotype following transfection. Consistent with the conclusion that the expression of the novel MHC class I gene following transfection was responsible for the regressor phenotype is also our finding that a variant of the transfected tumor that had lost expression of the transfected gene resumed its progressive growth behavior. Finally, we show that the molecule encoded by the novel class I gene is specifically recognized by a syngeneic tumor-specific cytolytic T cell clone that we have previously shown to select in vitro for progressor variants from the parental regressor tumor cell line. It remains to be determined to what extent unique tumor-specific rejection antigens of other highly immunogenic regressor tumors are encoded by novel MHC class I genes and whether these genes represent germline mutations or somatic mutations caused by the carcinogen treatment.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Transfecção , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/análise , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Imunização , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Camundongos , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
17.
Science ; 167(3916): 309-11, 1970 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17734451
20.
Science ; 164(3875): 76-8, 1969 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-4304360

RESUMO

A rapid, sensitive immuno-assay for mammary tumor virus antigen based on inhibition of passive hemagglutination has been developed. The method permits measurement of this antigen in mouse milk from which the fat has been removed.


Assuntos
Antígenos/análise , Imunoensaio , Vírus do Tumor Mamário do Camundongo/imunologia , Animais , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Haplorrinos , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Métodos , Camundongos , Leite/imunologia , Ovinos
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