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1.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 58(6): 864-874, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prenatal neuroimaging spectrum of rhombencephalosynapsis (RES) and criteria for its classification according to the severity of vermian anomaly. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study of fetuses with RES between 2002 and 2020, the medical records and brain ultrasound and magnetic resonance images were evaluated comprehensively to determine the severity of the vermian anomaly and the presence of associated brain findings. RES was classified, according to the pattern of vermian agenesis and the extent of the fusion of the hemispheres, as complete RES (complete absence of the vermis) or partial RES (further classified according to the part of the vermis that was missing and, consequently, the region of hemispheric fusion, as anterior, posterior, severe or mixed RES). Findings were compared between cases with complete and those with partial RES. RESULTS: Included in the study were 62 fetuses with a gestational age ranging between 12 and 37 weeks. Most had complete absence of the vermis (complete RES, 77.4% of cases), a 'round-shaped' cerebellum on axial views (72.6%) and a transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) < 3rd centile (87.1%). Among the 22.6% of cases with partial RES, 6.5% were classified as severe partial, 6.5% as partial anterior, 8.1% as partial mixed and 1.6% as partial posterior. Half of these cases presented with normal or nearly normal cerebellar morphology and 28.5% had a TCD within the normal limits. Infratentorially, the fourth ventricle was abnormal in 88.7% of cases overall, and anomalies of the midbrain and pons were frequent (93.5% and 77.4%, respectively). Ventriculomegaly was observed in 80.6% of all cases, being more severe in cases with complete RES than in those with partial RES, with high rates of parenchymal and septal disruption. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides prenatal neuroimaging criteria for the diagnosis and classification of RES, and identification of related features, using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. According to our findings, a diagnosis of RES should be considered in fetuses with a small TCD (severe cerebellar hypoplasia) and/or a round-shaped cerebellum on axial views, during the second or third trimester, especially when associated with ventriculomegaly. Partial RES is more common than previously thought, but presents an extreme diagnostic challenge, especially in cases with normal or nearly-normal cerebellar morphobiometric features. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vermis Cerebelar/anormalidades , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Retina/anormalidades , Rombencéfalo/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/embriologia , Adulto , Vermis Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vermis Cerebelar/embriologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/embriologia , Anormalidades do Olho/embriologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/embriologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Gravidez , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/embriologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rombencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rombencéfalo/embriologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
2.
Schmerz ; 35(2): 103-113, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 31 December 2016, a total of 1206 physicians participated in the outpatient care of chronic pain patients according to the criteria of a special pain management program (QSV). Because of the largely existing shortage of treatment resources for chronic pain patients, there is a lack of data regarding the evaluation of outpatient pain management by highly specialized pain therapists. METHODS: In a hybrid Delphi procedure, a questionnaire concerning the content, structural and personal assessment of outpatient pain management in Germany was developed. With the help of this instrument, an internet-based cross-sectional survey of 281 QSV pain therapists from four German states (Berlin, Lower Saxony, Saxony, Baden-Württemberg) and of all the heads of university outpatient pain services (n = 36) in Germany was conducted. RESULTS: The adjusted response rate of the survey was 35.9%. The response rate of the heads of university outpatient pain services was 66.7%. In 91% of the respondents the proportion of chronic pain patients in the medical practices was more than 70%. Whereas 67.3% were satisfied with the situation in their medical practice, 63.4% were dissatisfied with the current organizational structure of the pain management in Germany. They expressed their dissatisfaction especially in terms of budgeting regulations (69.3%), the cooperation with psychotherapists (69.3%) and interdisciplinary networking (50.5%). The 1­year specialist training in pain management (87.1%) and the completion of a psychosomatic basic care course (90.1%) were assessed as a good preparation for the later profession. A multitude of free comments indicated that the pain specialist training is too short and insufficient. Most of the respondents considered the establishment of a specialist board certification for pain management more suitable from the perspective of physicians (61.4%) and the patients (54.5%). Of the heads of university outpatient pain services 70.8% expressed the wish for autonomous structures with separate budgets and 75.0% indicated that under the current conditions their outpatient pain services are not working profitably. Only 39.7% of the QSV pain therapists provided fellowship training for physicians and 57.6% were planning to retire during the next 10 years. CONCLUSION: Highly specialized pain therapists are dissatisfied because of the lack of independence of the organizational structure of pain management care and the insufficient interdisciplinary network in outpatient pain management. A possible solution for a better pain management care and the recruitment problems may be the establishment of a board certification for pain management.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Manejo da Dor , Berlim , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos , Internet , Especialização
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the microscopic over-under cartilage tympanoplasty technique, provide hearing results and detail clinically significant complications. METHOD: This was a retrospective case series chart review study of over-under cartilage tympanoplasty procedures performed by the senior author between January 2015 and January 2019 at three tertiary care centres. Cases were excluded for previous or intra-operative cholesteatoma, if a mastoidectomy was performed during the procedure or if ossiculoplasty was performed. Hearing results and complications were obtained. RESULTS: Sixty-eight tympanoplasty procedures met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 13 years (range, 3-71 years). The mean improvement in pure tone average was 6 dB (95 per cent confidence interval 4-9 dB; p < 0.0001). The overall perforation closure rate was 97 per cent (n = 66). Revision surgery was recommended for a total of 6 cases (9 per cent) including 2 post-operative perforations, 1 case of middle-ear cholesteatoma and 3 cases of external auditory canal scarring. CONCLUSION: Over-under cartilage tympanoplasty is effective at improving clinically meaningful hearing with a low rate of post-operative complications.

4.
Vet J ; 263: 105520, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928489

RESUMO

There is limited information regarding the value of constitutive components of the ACTH stimulation test (ACTHST) and low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) including serum baseline cortisol (BC), difference between post-ACTH stimulation cortisol (PC) and BC (ΔACTHC), cortisol concentration 4h after dexamethasone administration (4HC), difference between 4HC and BC (Δ4C), and the difference between cortisol concentration 8h after dexamethasone administration and 4HC (Δ8C). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if these components can predict hyperadrenocorticism, pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), or functional adrenocortical tumor (FAT) in dogs. Cortisol concentrations were normalized, as fold change (FC), to the PC reference interval upper limit. A total of 1267 dogs were included, with hyperadrenocorticism diagnosed in 537 (PDH, n=356; FAT, n=28; undetermined, n=153) and excluded in 730. The area under the receiver operating curves for BC, ΔACTHC, 4HC, Δ4C, and Δ8C to predict hyperadrenocorticism were 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.79), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89-0.93), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.87), 0.55 (95% CI, 0.50-0.60), and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.62-0.72), respectively. A diagnostic limit of ≥0.78 FC for ΔACTHC had excellent sensitivity (1.00; 95% CI, 0.74-1.00), but poor specificity (0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71), to predict FAT in dogs with a positive ACTHST. A diagnostic limit of ≥-0.26 FC for Δ4C had excellent sensitivity (1.00; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00), but poor specificity (0.21; 95% CI, 0.18-0.26), to predict FAT in dogs with a positive LDDST. In hyperadrenocorticoid dogs that have positive ACTHST or LDDST results, ΔACTHC or Δ4C, respectively, could be used to exclude FAT.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiopatologia , Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/veterinária , Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Trials ; 20(1): 623, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a complex health intervention, based on the combination of conventional Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in an outpatient department of a university hospital for patients with frequent episodic or chronic tension-type headaches. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective randomized controlled pilot study with four balanced treatment arms (usual care, acupuncture, training, and training plus acupuncture). Each arm will have 24 patients. After the initial screening examination and randomization, a 6-week treatment period follows, with treatment frequencies decreasing at 2-week intervals. After completion of the intervention, two follow-up evaluations will be performed 3 and 6 months after the start of treatment. At predefined times, the various outcomes (pain intensity, health-related quality of life, pain duration, autonomic regulation, and heart rate variability) as well as the participants' acceptance of the complex treatment will be evaluated with valid assessment instruments (Migraine Disability Assessment, PHQ-D, GAD-7, and SF-12) and a headache diary. The acupuncture treatment will be based on the rules of TCM, comprising a standardized combination of acupuncture points and additional points selected according to individual pain localization. The training therapy comprises a combination of strength training, endurance training, and training to improve flexibility and coordination. Besides descriptive analyses of the samples, their comparability will be assessed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-squared tests. Analyses will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Potential interaction effects will be calculated using a repeated-measures ANOVA to test the primary and secondary hypotheses. In supplementary analyses, the proportion of treatment responders (those with a 50% reduction in the frequency of pain episodes) will be determined for each treatment arm. DISCUSSION: This trial may provide evidence for the additive effects of acupuncture and medical training therapy as a combination treatment and may scientifically support the implementation of this complex health intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on 11 Feburary 2019. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00016723.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Treino Aeróbico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Treinamento de Força , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/psicologia
6.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 161(11): 29, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183703
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2368, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787310

RESUMO

We present an efficient concept based on time varying and non reciprocal metamaterials to achieve an active control of the spoof plasmon (SP) propagation at sub-wavelength scale. An experimental demonstration of non-reciprocal guiding device based on split ring resonator is proposed as an application of this concept in the microwave regime. We show that this device is able to blue-shift the propagated SP waves and to achieve an active steering of these SPs at sub-wavelength scale by controlling the modulation frequency of the time varying metamaterial. This approach could be extended plainly to infrared and optical regimes by considering suitable technologies.

9.
Hernia ; 22(5): 759-765, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Umbilical hernia is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis. Early studies have reported a high morbidity and mortality associated with hernia repair. The traditional approach has been to non-operatively manage umbilical hernias in patients with cirrhosis. There are emerging data suggesting that an elective repair is a preferable approach. This study examined the outcomes of umbilical hernia repair in patients with advanced liver disease and compared this with a control group of non-cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Prospective data were collected regarding the outcome of umbilical hernia repairs performed between 2004 and 2013 at the Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Outcomes at 90 days were compared between patients with and without cirrhosis. RESULTS: 79 patients with cirrhosis and 249 controls were analysed. Of the patients with cirrhosis, 9% were classified as Child-Pugh A, 61% were Child-Pugh B and 30% were Child-Pugh C. Emergency repairs for complicated hernias was undertaken in 18% of the cirrhosis population and 10% in controls (P = 0.10). Post-operative complications occurred more commonly in patients with cirrhosis (26%) compared with controls (11%) (P < 0.01). Emergency hernia repairs were associated with a higher complication rate in both patients with cirrhosis (62%) and controls (20%) (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the rate of hernia recurrence as assessed by clinical examination between patients with cirrhosis (2.7%) and controls (6.8%) (P = 0.17) nor in 90-day mortality between patients with cirrhosis (n = 1, 1.3%) and the controls (n = 0) (P = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of a small study cohort and therefore an underpowered study, elective surgical repair of umbilical hernias in patients with cirrhosis, including decompensated cirrhosis, may not be associated with a significant increase in mortality when compared to a control cohort. Whilst complications are higher in cirrhotic patients, there is no difference in the rate of hernia recurrence. Emergency repairs of umbilical hernias are associated with a high complication rate in cirrhotic patients.


Assuntos
Hérnia Umbilical/cirurgia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Emergências , Feminino , Hérnia Umbilical/complicações , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Telas Cirúrgicas
10.
Biomed Opt Express ; 9(9): 4113-4129, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615709

RESUMO

The eye offers a unique opportunity for the non-invasive exploration of cardiovascular diseases. Optical angiography in the retina requires sensitive measurements, which hinders conventional full-field laser Doppler imaging schemes. To overcome this limitation, we used digital holography to perform laser Doppler perfusion imaging of human retina with near-infrared light. Two imaging channels with a slow and a fast CMOS camera were used simultaneously for real-time narrowband measurements, and offline wideband measurements, respectively. The beat frequency spectrum of optical interferograms recorded with the fast (up to 75 kHz) CMOS camera was analyzed by short-time Fourier transformation. Power Doppler images drawn from the Doppler power spectrum density qualitatively revealed blood flow in retinal vessels over 512 × 512 pixels covering 2.4 × 2.4 mm2 on the retina with a temporal resolution down to 1.6 ms. The sensitivity to lateral motion as well as the requirements in terms of sampling frequency are discussed.

11.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 136(5): 441-444, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychological substrate of catatonia. METHOD: Reviewing the historical descriptions and explanations of catatonic behaviours by clinicians from its delineation in the 19th century to the present. RESULTS: Patients with catatonia are often haunted by fears and terrors; this has not been widely appreciated, and certainly was lost from view in the days when catatonia was considered a subtype of schizophrenia. The report contributes to resolving a major question in catatonia: is the mind in stupor inactive, as the blank state that we picture in anesthetized patients, or is the mind active, so preoccupied as to exclude all other influences. THE MAIN FINDING: Persistent fear occupies the mind of catatonic patients. CONCLUSION: The signs of catatonia are adaptations to persistent fear, akin to tonic immobilization. The relief afforded by sedation supports this interpretation.


Assuntos
Catatonia/fisiopatologia , Medo/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
Oral Dis ; 23(8): 1127-1133, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and quantify polyomaviruses (BKPyV and JCPyV) in the saliva, mouthwash, blood and urine of liver pretransplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed using a convenience sample of 21 end-stage liver disease patients (EG = experimental group) and 20 normoreactive controls (CG = control group). In total, 162 samples were collected. Detection and quantification of polyomaviruses were performed using real-time PCR method. RESULTS: In the EG, 21 samples (25%) were positive for BKPyV and 10 (11.90%) for JCPyV, while in the CG, 27 samples (34.61%) were positive for BKPyV and six (7.69%) for JCPyV. With regard to the number of samples positive for BKPyV and JCPyV, there was no statistically significant difference between EG and CG (p = .52 and p = .25). In the EG, we observed a panorama similar to that of the CG regarding the presence of polyomaviruses in mouthwash, blood and urine. The greatest difference between the samples was that regarding the identification of BKPyV in saliva. CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic patients on the liver transplant waiting list did not show higher prevalence of BKPyV and JCPyV compared to normoreactive controls.


Assuntos
Vírus BK/isolamento & purificação , Vírus JC/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Saliva/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Adulto , Sangue/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Urina/virologia , Carga Viral
13.
J Viral Hepat ; 24(11): 982-989, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414893

RESUMO

While HBV and HCV are risk factors for HCC, uncertainty exists as to whether these viral infections have prognostic significance in HCC. Thus, we compared the overall survival of patients with HBV, HCV and nonviral HCC, and evaluated whether the presence of HBV and HCV predicts patient outcomes. We conducted a multicentre study of HCC cases diagnosed at six Melbourne tertiary hospitals between Jan 2000-Dec 2014. Patient demographics, liver disease and tumour characteristics and patient outcomes were obtained from hospital databases, computer records and the Victorian Death Registry. Survival outcomes were compared between HBV, HCV and nonviral hepatitis cases and predictors of survival determined using Cox proportional hazards regression. There were 1436 new HCC cases identified including 776 due to viral hepatitis (HBV 235, HCV 511, HBV-HCV 30) and 660 from nonviral causes. The median survival of HBV, HCV and nonviral HCC patients was 59.1, 28.4 and 20.9 months, respectively (P<.0001). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for survival included HCC aetiology, gender, BCLC stage, serum AFP, total number and size of lesions, and serum creatinine and albumin. After adjusting for these and method of detection, HBV remained an independent predictor of improved overall survival when compared to both nonviral (HR 0.60%, 95% CI 0.35-0.98; P=.03) and HCV-related HCC (HR 0.51%, 95% CI 0.30-0.85; P=.01). In this large multicentre study, HBV is independently associated with improved overall survival compared with HCV and nonviral-related HCC. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying factor(s) responsible.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Hepadnaviridae , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26865392

RESUMO

Skeletal-related events (SREs) including spinal cord compression, pathologic fracture, and radiation or surgery to bone, occur frequently due to bone metastases in advanced cancer. This analysis of a multicentre, observational study was designed to describe cross-regional differences in health resource utilisation (HRU) of SREs in Western Europe and the US. Patients with bone metastases due to breast, lung or prostate cancer, or multiple myeloma who had experienced a SRE within the past 97 days were enrolled. Investigators recorded HRU associated with SREs, including hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS), outpatient visits, procedures and bisphosphonate use. This subanalysis includes 668 patients with solid tumours (US, n = 190 with 354 SREs; EU, n = 478 with 893 SREs). The rate of SREs associated with hospitalisation(s) was higher in the EU vs. the US (30% vs. 15%, P < 0.001) and LOS was longer in the EU [mean (SD) days/SRE: 19.87 (17.31) vs. 10.61 (9.39)]. However, the US was associated with higher rate of SREs with outpatient visits than the EU (88% vs. 74%, P < 0.0001) and more procedures [mean (SD)/SRE: 11.26 (7.94) vs. 6.91 (6.48)]. Bisphosphonates were less often used in the EU (65% vs. 76% of US, P = 0.0033). In patients experiencing SREs due to bone metastases, HRU patterns reflect regional diversity with a substantial burden in both regions.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Espontâneas/etiologia , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Compressão da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 64(3): 782-792, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518998

RESUMO

Alpine Mycobacterium caprae isolates found in cattle and red deer display at least three genetic variations in the region of difference four (RD4) that can be used for further differentiation of the isolates into the subtypes 'Allgäu', 'Karwendel' and 'Lechtal'. Each genomic subtype is thereby characterized by a specific nucleotide deletion pattern in the 12.7-kb RD4 region. Even though M. caprae infections are frequently documented in cattle and red deer, little is known about the transmission routes. Hence, robust markers for M. caprae subtyping are needed to gain insight into the molecular epidemiology. For this reason, a rapid and robust multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of three M. caprae RD4 subtypes and was used to subtype a total number of 241 M. caprae isolates from animals (145 cattle, 95 red deer and one fox) from Bavaria and Austria. All three subtypes occur spatially distributed and are found in cattle and in red deer suggesting transmission between the two species. As subtypes are genetically stable in both species it is hypothesized that the described genetic variations developed within the host due to 'within-host replication'. The results of this study recommend the genomic RD4 region as a reliable diagnostic marker for M. caprae subtype differentiation.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Raposas/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium/classificação , Mycobacterium/genética , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia
16.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(9): 093505, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782568

RESUMO

New complex-plasma facility, Plasmakristall-4 (PK-4), has been recently commissioned on board the International Space Station. In complex plasmas, the subsystem of µm-sized microparticles immersed in low-pressure weakly ionized gas-discharge plasmas becomes strongly coupled due to the high (103-104 e) electric charge on the microparticle surface. The microparticle subsystem of complex plasmas is available for the observation at the kinetic level, which makes complex plasmas appropriate for particle-resolved modeling of classical condensed matter phenomena. The main purpose of PK-4 is the investigation of flowing complex plasmas. To generate plasma, PK-4 makes use of a classical dc discharge in a glass tube, whose polarity can be switched with the frequency of the order of 100 Hz. This frequency is high enough not to be felt by the relatively heavy microparticles. The duty cycle of the polarity switching can be also varied allowing to vary the drift velocity of the microparticles and (when necessary) to trap them. The facility is equipped with two videocameras and illumination laser for the microparticle imaging, kaleidoscopic plasma glow observation system and minispectrometer for plasma diagnostics and various microparticle manipulation devices (e.g., powerful manipulation laser). Scientific experiments are programmed in the form of scripts written with the help of specially developed C scripting language libraries. PK-4 is mainly operated from the ground (control center CADMOS in Toulouse, France) with the support of the space station crew. Data recorded during the experiments are later on delivered to the ground on the removable hard disk drives and distributed to participating scientists for the detailed analysis.

17.
Opt Lett ; 41(15): 3503-6, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472604

RESUMO

We performed noninvasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (∼30 microns diameter) over 400×400 pixels with a spatial resolution of ∼8 microns and a temporal resolution of ∼6.5 ms.

18.
Opt Express ; 24(8): 7987-8012, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27137240

RESUMO

Template matching algorithms represent a viable tool to locate particles in optical images. A crucial factor of the performance of these methods is the choice of the similarity measure. Recently, it was shown in [Gao and Helgeson, Opt. Express 22 (2014)] that the correlation coefficient (CC) leads to good results. Here, we introduce the mutual information (MI) as a nonlinear similarity measure and compare the performance of the MI and the CC for different noise scenarios. It turns out that the mutual information leads to superior results in the case of signal dependent noise. We propose a novel approach to estimate the velocity of particles which is applicable in imaging scenarios where the particles appear elongated due to their movement. By designing a bank of anisotropic templates supposed to fit the elongation of the particles we are able to reliably estimate their velocity and direction of motion out of a single image.

19.
Clin Transplant ; 30(7): 796-801, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27101526

RESUMO

BK virus-(BKV) associated nephropathy (BKVN) is a major cause of allograft injury in kidney transplant recipients. In such patients, subclinical reactivation of latent BKV infection can occur in the pre-transplant period. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary BKV shedding in the immediate pre-transplant period is associated with a higher incidence of viruria and viremia during the first year after kidney transplantation. We examined urine samples from 34 kidney transplant recipients, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect BKV. Urine samples were obtained in the immediate pre-transplant period and during the first year after transplant on a monthly basis. If BKV viruria was detected, blood samples were collected and screened for BKV viremia. In the immediate pre-transplant period, we detected BKV viruria in 11 (32.3%) of the 34 recipients. During the first year after transplantation, we detected BKV viruria in all 34 patients and viremia in eight (23.5%). We found no correlation between pre-transplant viruria and post-transplant viruria or viremia (p = 0.2). Although reactivation of latent BKV infection in the pre-transplant period is fairly common among kidney transplant recipients, it is not a risk factor for post-transplant BKV viruria or viremia.


Assuntos
Vírus BK/genética , DNA Viral/biossíntese , DNA Viral/urina , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/metabolismo , Viremia/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Urinálise , Viremia/epidemiologia , Viremia/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Oncogenesis ; 5: e193, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878387

RESUMO

As more and more links between cancer and metabolism are discovered, new approaches to treat cancer using these mechanisms are considered. Dietary restriction of either calories or macronutrients has shown great potential in animal studies to both reduce the incidence and growth of cancer, and to act synergistically with other treatment strategies. These studies have also shown that dietary restriction simultaneously targets many of the molecular pathways that are targeted individually by anticancer drugs. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system has thereby emerged as a key regulator of cancer growth pathways. Although lowering of insulin levels with diet or drugs such as metformin and diazoxide seems generally beneficial, some practitioners also utilize strategic elevations of insulin levels in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. This indicates a broad spectrum of possibilities for modulating the insulin/IGF-1 system in cancer treatment. With a specific focus on dietary restriction, insulin administration and the insulin-lowering drug diazoxide, such modifications of the insulin/IGF-1 system are the topic of this review. Although preclinical data are promising, we point out that insulin regulation and the metabolic response to a certain diet often differ between mice and humans. Thus, the need for collecting more human data has to be emphasized.

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