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2.
J Immunol ; 207(7): 1812-1823, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462312

RESUMO

Radiation is associated with tissue damage and increased risk of atherosclerosis, but there are currently no treatments and a very limited mechanistic understanding of how radiation impacts tissue repair mechanisms. We uncovered that radiation significantly delayed temporal resolution programs that were associated with decreased efferocytosis in vivo. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a known proresolving ligand, promoted swift resolution and restored efferocytosis in sublethally irradiated mice. Irradiated macrophages exhibited several features of senescence, including increased expression of p16INK4A and p21, heightened levels of SA-ß-gal, COX-2, several proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and oxidative stress (OS) in vitro, and when transferred to mice, they exacerbated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, heightened OS in senescent macrophages led to impairment in their ability to carry out efficient efferocytosis, and treatment with RvD1 reduced OS and improved efferocytosis. Sublethally irradiated Ldlr -/- mice exhibited increased plaque necrosis, p16INK4A cells, and decreased lesional collagen compared with nonirradiated controls, and treatment with RvD1 significantly reduced necrosis and increased lesional collagen. Removal of p16INK4A hematopoietic cells during advanced atherosclerosis with p16-3MR mice reduced plaque necrosis and increased production of key intraplaque-resolving mediators. Our results demonstrate that sublethal radiation drives macrophage senescence and efferocytosis defects and suggest that RvD1 may be a new therapeutic strategy to limit radiation-induced tissue damage.

3.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298211020867, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this pilot clinical study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Selution Sustained Limus Release (SLR)™ sirolimus-coated balloon (M.A. MedAlliance SA, Nyon, Switzerland) for improving the patency of failing arterio-venous fistulas (AVF) in hemodialysis patients. We also present herein a pre-clinical pharmacokinetic and safety evaluation of Selution™ to justify its first use in hemodialysis patients for endovascular access salvage. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is an investigator-initiated prospective single-center, non-blinded single-arm trial. Forty patients with clinically significant de novo or recurrent stenoses in a mature AVF circuit will be recruited. All stenotic lesions will be prepared with high pressure non-compliant conventional balloon angioplasty (CBA) prior to deployment of the Sustained-Release Selution™ sirolimus drug-eluting balloon. The primary efficacy endpoint is 6-month target lesion primary patency and the primary safety endpoint is freedom from localized or systemic serious adverse events through 30 days. Secondary endpoints of interest include technical and clinical success rates and circuit access patency at 3 and 6 months. Follow-up will occur for 2 years for those patients whose AVFs remain patent. Pharmacokinetic and histological animal safety studies performed with the Selution™ coating formulation showed prolonged arterial tissue retention of sirolimus with therapeutic levels up to 60 days and non-toxic and rapidly declining blood levels. Histological results in animal models demonstrated safety, freedom from intraluminal thrombus, reduction in restenosis by sirolimus elution compared to CBA, and no evidence of embolic phenomena indicative of adverse particulate effects. DISCUSSION: Long release sirolimus coated balloons may serve as a promising novel alternative therapy to paclitaxel-based technology for treating conduit stenosis secondary to neointimal hyperplasia. Pre-clinical pharmacokinetic and histological animal data are encouraging and provide suggestion of safety and efficacy in this setting. This single-center trial will provide a first step toward demonstration of efficacy and safety of this device for treatment of stenotic fistulas.

4.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(8): 725-737, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular events are one of the most serious consequences after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). More than half of the cerebrovascular events following TAVR are due to procedure-related emboli. Embolic protection devices (EPDs) have the potential to decrease cerebrovascular events during TAVR procedure. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not conclusively determined if EPDs are effective, likely because of small number of patients enrolled. However, meta-analyses and propensity-matched analyses from large registries have shown efficacy and suggest the importance of EPDs in prevention of stroke during TAVR and perhaps other structural heart procedures. AREAS COVERED: This review will focus on clinical and histopathologic studies examining the efficacy, safety, and histopathologic device capture findings in the presence and absence of EPDs during TAVR procedures. EXPERT OPINION: Clinical studies have not conclusively determined the efficacy of EPDs. Current ongoing large-scale RCT (PROTECTED TAVR [NCT04149535]) has the potential to prove their efficacy. Histopathological evaluation of debris captured by EPDs contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of TAVR procedure-related embolic events and suggests the importance of preventing cerebral embolization of debris released during this and other structural heart procedures.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 338: 42-49, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have suggested the feasibility of 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for patients receiving drug-eluting stent (DES). Although our previous ex-vivo swine arteriovenous (AV) shunt studies under low dose heparin treatment suggested superior thromboresistance of fluoropolymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent (FP-EES) when compared to other polymer-based DESs, the relative thromboresistance of different DESs under single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) has never been examined. This study aimed to evaluate platelet adhesion under SAPT in competitive DESs in the in vitro flow loop model and ex vivo swine AV shunt model. METHODS: The thrombogenicity of FP-EES, BioLinx polymer zotarolimus-eluting stent (BL-ZES), and biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (BP-EES) was assessed acutely using the swine AV shunt model under aspirin or clopidogrel SAPT. Stents were immunostained using antibodies against platelets and inflammatory markers and evaluated by confocal microscopy. Also, the adhesion of platelet and albumin on the three DESs was assessed by an in-vitro flow loop model using human platelets under aspirin SAPT and fluorescent albumin, respectively. RESULTS: In the shunt model, FP-EES showed significantly less platelet and inflammatory cell adhesion than BL-ZES and BP-EES. In the flow loop model, FP-EES showed significantly less platelet coverage and more albumin adsorption than BL-ZES and BP-EES. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest FP-EES may have particular advantage for short-term DAPT compared to other DESs.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Implantes Absorvíveis , Animais , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Everolimo , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Desenho de Prótese , Stents , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(9): 1013-1022, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076677

RESUMO

Importance: Unexplained sudden cardiac death (SCD) describes SCD with no cause identified. Genetic testing helps to diagnose inherited cardiac diseases in unexplained SCD; however, the associations between pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants of inherited cardiomyopathies (CMs) and arrhythmia syndromes and the risk of unexplained SCD in both White and African American adults living the United States has never been systematically examined. Objective: To investigate cases of unexplained SCD to determine the frequency of P/LP genetic variants of inherited CMs and arrhythmia syndromes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genetic association study included 683 African American and White adults who died of unexplained SCD and were included in an autopsy registry. Overall, 413 individuals had DNA of acceptable quality for genetic sequencing. Data were collected from January 1995 to December 2015. A total of 30 CM genes and 38 arrhythmia genes were sequenced, and variants in these genes, curated as P/LP, were examined to study their frequency. Data analysis was performed from June 2018 to March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The frequency of P/LP variants for CM or arrhythmia in individuals with unexplained SCD. Results: The median (interquartile range) age at death of the 413 included individuals was 41 (29-48) years, 259 (62.7%) were men, and 208 (50.4%) were African American adults. A total of 76 patients (18.4%) with unexplained SCD carried variants considered P/LP for CM and arrhythmia genes. In total, 52 patients (12.6%) had 49 P/LP variants for CM, 22 (5.3%) carried 23 P/LP variants for arrhythmia, and 2 (0.5%) had P/LP variants for both CM and arrhythmia. Overall, 41 P/LP variants for hypertrophic CM were found in 45 patients (10.9%), 9 P/LP variants for dilated CM were found in 11 patients (2.7%), and 10 P/LP variants for long QT syndrome were found in 11 patients (2.7%). No significant difference was found in clinical and heart characteristics between individuals with or without P/LP variants. African American and White patients were equally likely to harbor P/LP variants. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large genetic association study of community cases of unexplained SCD, nearly 20% of patients carried P/LP variants, suggesting that genetics may contribute to a significant number of cases of unexplained SCD. Our findings regarding both the association of unexplained SCD with CM genes and race-specific genetic variants suggest new avenues of study for this poorly understood entity.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(7): 2201-2214, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039022
9.
Future Cardiol ; 17(6): 931-944, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876697

RESUMO

Catheter-based renal denervation is a novel treatment approach for patients with hypertension and initial unblinded trials have shown promising results. The Paradise™ Ultrasound Renal Denervation System (ReCor Medical, CA, USA) is an ultrasound-based catheter with a distal balloon that acts as a coolant to protect the renal arterial wall. This device received CE-mark in 2012. Randomized, sham-controlled trials and postmarket studies have shown promising efficacy and safety results. Currently, three additional ongoing randomized, sham-controlled trials are underway in the USA, Europe, Japan and Korea, and the results will be pivotal in device approval in some of these countries. These studies with larger numbers of patients and longer duration of follow-up are needed to further confirm the safety and efficacy of this device.

10.
EuroIntervention ; 17(8): e688-e698, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In peripheral artery disease, two different types of calcification are frequently observed, i.e., medial and intimal calcification. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) to detect medial and intimal calcification in human peripheral arteries. METHODS: We performed ex vivo intravascular imaging of cadaveric human peripheral arteries with calcifications. IVUS and OFDI images were co-registered with histology. A total of 12 legs from nine patients were examined, and 438 cross-sectional images were co-registered with histology. RESULTS: OFDI could detect 183 of 231 intimal calcifications by histology, whereas IVUS could detect 194 (OFDI: sensitivity 79%, specificity 86%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.83; IVUS: sensitivity 84%, specificity 85%, AUC 0.85). Of 245 medial calcifications by histology, 160 and 164 were detected by OFDI and IVUS, respectively (OFDI: sensitivity 65%, specificity 85%, AUC 0.75; IVUS: sensitivity 67%, specificity 80%, AUC 0.74). Medial calcification with overlying intimal calcification (overlapped calcification) and an unclear border between intima and media were the main reasons for misdiagnosis. Without those 89 overlapped calcifications, sensitivity in both OFDI and IVUS was improved (OFDI: sensitivity 81%, specificity 85%, AUC 0.83; IVUS: sensitivity 88%, specificity 80%, AUC 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: There are limitations in detecting medial calcification in overlapped intimal calcification and with an unclear border between intima and media by both IVUS and OFDI. It is important to distinguish medial calcification from intimal calcification before proceeding with endovascular therapy since different approaches will be required.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença Arterial Periférica , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(13): 1599-1611, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcified nodule (CN) has a unique plaque morphology, in which an area of nodular calcification causes disruption of the fibrous cap with overlying luminal thrombus. CN is reported to be the least frequent cause of acute coronary thrombosis, and the pathogenesis of CN has not been well studied. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive morphologic assessment of the CN in addition to providing an evolutionary perspective as to how CN causes acute coronary thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. METHODS: A total of 26 consecutive CN lesions from 25 subjects from our autopsy registry were evaluated. Detailed morphometric analysis was performed to understand the plaque characteristics of CN and nodular calcification. RESULTS: The mean age was 70 years, with a high prevalence of diabetes and chronic kidney disease. CNs were equally distributed between men and women, with 61.5% of CNs found in the right coronary artery (n = 16), mainly within its mid-portion (56%). All CNs demonstrated surface nonocclusive luminal thrombus, consisting of multiple nodular fragments of calcification, protruding and disrupting the overlying fibrous cap, with evidence of endothelial cell loss. The degree of circumferential sheet calcification was significantly less in the culprit section (89° [interquartile range: 54° to 177°]) than in the adjacent proximal (206° [interquartile range: 157° to 269°], p = 0.0034) and distal (240° [interquartile range: 178° to 333°], p = 0.0004) sections. Polarized picrosirius red staining showed the presence of necrotic core calcium at culprit sites of CNs, whereas collagen calcium was more prevalent at the proximal and distal regions of CNs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that fibrous cap disruption in CN with overlying thrombosis is initiated through the fragmentation of necrotic core calcifications, which is flanked-proximally and distally-by hard, collagen-rich calcification in coronary arteries, which are susceptible to mechanical stress.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Trombose Coronária/patologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(6): 792-801.e5, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the long-term vascular healing responses of healthy swine iliofemoral arteries treated with a polymer-free paclitaxel-eluting stent (Z-PES, Zilver PTX) or a fluoropolymer-based paclitaxel-eluting stent (FP-PES, Eluvia). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bilateral iliofemoral arteries in 20 swine were treated with a Z-PES (n = 16) or a FP-PES (n = 24) and were examined histologically at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis revealed larger external and internal elastic lamina, stent expansion, and lumen area in the FP-PES than in the Z-PES at all timepoints. Luminal narrowing was similar in the 2 groups at 1 month; however, greater stenosis was observed in the Z-PES group at 3 months, with significant regression thereafter, resulting in equivalent stenosis at 6 and 12 months. Greater drug effect and less complete vessel healing were found in the FP-PES group at all timepoints, including greater numbers of malapposed struts with excessive fibrin deposition at 1 and 3 months, than in the Z-PES group. Three of 12 FP-PESs from the 6- and 12-month cohorts also showed circumferential medial disruption with peri-strut inflammation, whereas no abnormal findings were observed in contralateral Z-PESs. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged paclitaxel release with the presence of a permanent polymer may contribute to the differential vascular responses seen for the Z-PES and FP-PES groups, including medial layer disruption and aneurysmal vessel degeneration that was sometimes observed in the FP-PES group. These distinct features should be confirmed by pathology and in vivo imaging of human superficial femoral arteries to determine their clinical significance.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Stents Farmacológicos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Artéria Femoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Polímeros , Animais , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Neointima , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Prótese , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Fatores de Tempo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(3): 304-315, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to understand the anatomy of periarterial nerve distribution in human accessory renal arteries (ARAs). BACKGROUND: Renal denervation is a promising technique for blood pressure control. Despite the high prevalence of ARAs, the anatomic distribution of periarterial nerves around ARAs remains unknown. METHODS: Kidneys with surrounding tissues were collected from human autopsy subjects, and histological evaluation was performed using morphometric software. An ARA was defined as an artery arising from the aorta above or below the dominant renal artery (DRA) or an artery that bifurcated within 20 mm of the takeoff of the DRA from the aorta. The DRA was defined as an artery that perfused >50% of the kidney. RESULTS: A total of 7,287 nerves from 14 ARAs and 9 DRAs were evaluated. The number of nerves was smaller in the ARA than DRA (median: 30 [interquartile range: 17.5 to 48.5] vs. 49 [interquartile range: 36 to 76]; p < 0.0001). In both ARAs and DRAs, the distance from the arterial lumen to nerve was shortest in the distal, followed by the middle and proximal segments. On the basis of the post-mortem angiography, ARAs were divided into large (≥3 mm diameter) and small (<3 mm) groups. The number of nerves was greatest in the DRA, followed by the large and small ARA groups (53 [41 to 97], 38 [25 to 53], and 24.5 [10.5 to 36.3], respectively; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ARAs showed a smaller number of nerves than DRAs, but these results were dependent on the size of the ARA. Ablation, especially in large ARAs, may allow more complete denervation with the potential to further reduce blood pressure.


Assuntos
Obstrução da Artéria Renal , Artéria Renal , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Humanos , Rim , Simpatectomia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(7): 1422-1429, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical thrombectomy is increasingly being used as an alternative to pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of patients with acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and allows direct histopathologic comparison of thrombi extracted from living patients. We performed histopathologic analysis to thrombi extracted from cases of DVT and PE to gain insights into their relative cellular compositions. METHODS: Thrombus retrieved using a catheter-based thrombectomy system (ClotTriever for lower extremity DVT and FlowTriever for PE) from the 17 patients (7 DVT cases and 10 PE cases) were histologically evaluated. Histological features were used to estimate their age and pathological characteristics. RESULTS: The thrombus in all cases were composed of fibrin, platelets, red blood cells, and acute inflammatory cells. The weights of thrombus obtained from DVT versus PE cases were heavier (DVT 7.2 g (g) (5.6-10.2) vs. PE 4.8 g (3.6-6.8), p = .01). Overall thrombus healing (i.e., thrombus composed of smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and proteoglycans) was different between DVT and PE cases. 6/7 (86%) with features of late stage healing were from DVT cases while only three of ten (30%) were from PE cases while PE contained more acute thrombi with 7/10 (70%) stage 2 as compared 1/7 (14%) for DVT (p = .0498). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to directly compare the histology of extracted thrombus in DVT versus PE cases from patients with clinical events. Overall PE cases demonstrated significantly earlier stage thrombus with a larger component of red blood cells.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Trombose , Trombose Venosa , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Circulation ; 143(5): 479-500, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523728

RESUMO

Over the past 2 decades, chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention has developed into its own subspecialty of interventional cardiology. Dedicated terminology, techniques, devices, courses, and training programs have enabled progressive advancements. However, only a few randomized trials have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention. Moreover, several published observational studies have shown conflicting data. Part of the paucity of clinical data stems from the fact that prior studies have been suboptimally designed and performed. The absence of standardized end points and the discrepancy in definitions also prevent consistency and uniform interpretability of reported results in CTO intervention. To standardize the field, we therefore assembled a broad consortium comprising academicians, practicing physicians, researchers, medical society representatives, and regulators (US Food and Drug Administration) to develop methods, end points, biomarkers, parameters, data, materials, processes, procedures, evaluations, tools, and techniques for CTO interventions. This article summarizes the effort and is organized into 3 sections: key elements and procedural definitions, end point definitions, and clinical trial design principles. The Chronic Total Occlusion Academic Research Consortium is a first step toward improved comparability and interpretability of study results, supplying an increasingly growing body of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention evidence.

17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(4): 1459-1473, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567869
18.
Circulation ; 143(10): 1031-1042, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is common in patients who are hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and portends poorer prognosis. However, the mechanism and the type of myocardial damage associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a systematic pathological analysis of 40 hearts from hospitalized patients dying of COVID-19 in Bergamo, Italy, to determine the pathological mechanisms of cardiac injury. We divided the hearts according to presence or absence of acute myocyte necrosis and then determined the underlying mechanisms of cardiac injury. RESULTS: Of the 40 hearts examined, 14 (35%) had evidence of myocyte necrosis, predominantly of the left ventricle. Compared with subjects without necrosis, subjects with necrosis tended to be female, have chronic kidney disease, and have shorter symptom onset to admission. The incidence of severe coronary artery disease (ie, >75% cross-sectional narrowing) was not significantly different between those with and without necrosis. Three of 14 (21.4%) subjects with myocyte necrosis showed evidence of acute myocardial infarction, defined as ≥1 cm2 area of necrosis, whereas 11 of 14 (78.6%) showed evidence of focal (>20 necrotic myocytes with an area of ≥0.05 mm2 but <1 cm2) myocyte necrosis. Cardiac thrombi were present in 11 of 14 (78.6%) cases with necrosis, with 2 of 14 (14.2%) having epicardial coronary artery thrombi, whereas 9 of 14 (64.3%) had microthrombi in myocardial capillaries, arterioles, and small muscular arteries. We compared cardiac microthrombi from COVID-19-positive autopsy cases to intramyocardial thromboemboli from COVID-19 cases as well as to aspirated thrombi obtained during primary percutaneous coronary intervention from uninfected and COVID-19-infected patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Microthrombi had significantly greater fibrin and terminal complement C5b-9 immunostaining compared with intramyocardial thromboemboli from COVID-19-negative subjects and with aspirated thrombi. There were no significant differences between the constituents of thrombi aspirated from COVID-19-positive and -negative patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The most common pathological cause of myocyte necrosis was microthrombi. Microthrombi were different in composition from intramyocardial thromboemboli from COVID-19-negative subjects and from coronary thrombi retrieved from COVID-19-positive and -negative patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Tailored antithrombotic strategies may be useful to counteract the cardiac effects of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio , Miocárdio/patologia , Idoso , COVID-19/patologia , Trombose Coronária/patologia , Trombose Coronária/virologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/virologia , Feminino , Coração/virologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/virologia
19.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(9): 801-816, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470872

RESUMO

Introduction: In-stent restenosis (ISR) has been one of the biggest limitations to the success of percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). The introduction of drug-eluting stent (DES) was a revolution in the treatment of CAD because these devices drastically reduced ISR to very low levels (<5%). Subsequently, newer generation DES treatments have overcome the drawbacks of first-generation DES, i.e. delayed endothelialization, and late stent thrombosis. However, the issue of late ISR, including neoatherosclerosis after DES implantation especially in high-risk patients and complex lesions, still exists as a challenge to be overcome.Areas covered: We discuss the mechanisms of ISR development including neoatherosclerosis, past and current clinical status of ISR, and methods to predict and overcome this issue from pathological and clinical points of view.Expert opinion: The initial drawbacks of first-generation DES, such as delayed endothelial healing and subsequent risk of late stent thrombosis, have been improved upon by the current generation DES. To achieve better long-term clinical outcomes, further titration of drug-release and polymer degradation profile, strut thickness as well as material innovation are needed.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reestenose Coronária , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Angiografia Coronária , Reestenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(3): 314-325, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478655

RESUMO

To investigate whether severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced myocarditis constitutes an important mechanism of cardiac injury, a review was conducted of the published data and the authors' experience was added from autopsy examination of 16 patients dying of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Myocarditis is an uncommon pathologic diagnosis occurring in 4.5% of highly selected cases undergoing autopsy or endomyocardial biopsy. Although polymerase chain reaction-detectable virus could be found in the lungs of most coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-infected subjects in our own autopsy registry, in only 2 cases was the virus detected in the heart. It should be appreciated that myocardial inflammation alone by macrophages and T cells can be seen in noninfectious deaths and COVID-19 cases, but the extent of each is different, and in neither case do such findings represent clinically relevant myocarditis. Given its extremely low frequency and unclear therapeutic implications, the authors do not advocate use of endomyocardial biopsy to diagnose myocarditis in the setting of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miocardite/virologia , Biópsia , COVID-19/patologia , Humanos , Miocardite/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia
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