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1.
Sleep ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384946

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Report the first prevalence estimates of advanced sleep phase (ASP), familial advanced sleep phase (FASP), and advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD). This can guide clinicians on the utility of screening for extreme chronotypes both for clinical decision-making and to flag prospective participants in the study of the genetics and biology of FASP. METHODS: Data on morning or evening sleep schedule preference (chronotype) were collected from 2422 new patients presenting to a North American sleep center over 9.8 years. FASP was determined using a severity criterion that has previously identified dominant circadian mutations in humans. All patients were personally seen and evaluated by one of the authors (C.R.J.). RESULTS: Our results demonstrate an ASP prevalence of 0.33%, an FASP prevalence of 0.21%, and an ASWPD prevalence of at least 0.04%. Most cases of young-onset ASP were familial. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients presenting to a sleep clinic, conservatively 1 out of every 300 patients will have ASP, 1 out of every 475 will have FASP, and 1 out of every 2500 will have ASWPD. This supports obtaining a routine circadian history and, for those with extreme chronotypes, obtaining a family history of circadian preference. This can optimize treatment for evening sleepiness and early morning awakening and lead to additional circadian gene discovery. We hope these findings will lead to improved treatment options for a wide range of sleep and medical disorders in the future.

2.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 129(11): 2306-2314, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are thought to be prevalent in elderly populations, but their impact on quality of life remains unclear. We examined the prevalence of PLMS, impact of age on prevalence, and association between PLMS and sleepiness. METHODS: We identified limb movements in 2335 Wisconsin Sleep Cohort polysomnograms collected over 12 years. Prevalence of periodic limb movement index (PLMI) ≥15 was calculated at baseline (n = 1084). McNemar's test assessed changes in prevalence over time. Association of sleepiness and PLMS evaluated using linear mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations. Models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Prevalence of PLMI ≥15 at baseline was 25.3%. Longitudinal prevalence increased significantly with age (p = 2.97 × 10-14). Sleepiness did not differ significantly between PLMI groups unless stratified by restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms. The RLS+/PLM+ group was sleepier than the RLS+/PLM- group. Multiple Sleep Latency Test trended towards increased alertness in the RLS-/PLM+ group compared to RLS-/PLM-. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of adults have PLMS and prevalence increased with age. No noteworthy association between PLMI category and sleepiness unless stratified by RLS symptoms. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that RLS and PLMS may have distinct clinical consequences and interactions that can help guide treatment approach.

3.
Sleep ; 40(11)2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029253

RESUMO

Study Objectives: To determine whether defining two subtypes of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) events-with or without hypoxia-results in measures that are more strongly associated with hypertension and sleepiness. Methods: A total of 1022 participants with 2112 nocturnal polysomnograms from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort were analyzed with our automated algorithm, developed to detect breathing disturbances and desaturations. Breathing events were time-locked to desaturations, resulting in two indices-desaturating (hypoxia-breathing disturbance index [H-BDI]) and nondesaturating (nonhypoxia-breathing disturbance index [NH-BDI]) events-regardless of arousals. Measures of subjective (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and objective (2981 multiple sleep latency tests from a subset of 865 participants) sleepiness were analyzed, in addition to clinically relevant clinicodemographic variables. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140/90 or antihypertensive use. Results: H-BDI, but not NH-BDI, correlated strongly with SDB severity indices that included hypoxia (r ≥ 0.89, p ≤ .001 with 3% oxygen-desaturation index [ODI] and apnea hypopnea index with 4% desaturations). A doubling of desaturation-associated events was associated with hypertension prevalence, which was significant for ODI but not H-BDI (3% ODI OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00-1.12, p < .05; H-BDI OR 1.04, 95% CI = 0.98-1.10) and daytime sleepiness (ß = 0.20 Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] score, p < .0001; ß = -0.20 minutes in MSL on multiple sleep latency test [MSLT], p < .01). Independently, nondesaturating event doubling was associated with more objective sleepiness (ß = -0.52 minutes in MSL on MSLT, p < .001), but had less association with subjective sleepiness (ß = 0.12 ESS score, p = .10). In longitudinal analyses, baseline nondesaturating events were associated with worsening of H-BDI over a 4-year follow-up, suggesting evolution in severity. Conclusions: In SDB, nondesaturating events are independently associated with objective daytime sleepiness, beyond the effect of desaturating events.


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Respiração , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Fases do Sono , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Wisconsin
4.
J Affect Disord ; 207: 197-202, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypersomnolence is common in depression, however longitudinal associations of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), long habitual sleep duration, and objective sleep propensity with depressive symptomatology are not well established. METHODS: Data from adults participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study who had multiple assessments at 4-year intervals were utilized in analyses. Conditional (intrasubject) logistic regression estimated the likelihood of development of depression and three primary hypersomnolence measures: subjective EDS [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) >10], habitual sleep duration ≥9h/day, and increased physiological sleep propensity [multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) mean sleep latency <8min]. RESULTS: After adjusting for all covariates, the odds for development of depression were significantly increased 1.67-fold (95% CI 1.02-2.73, p=0.04) in participants who also developed subjective EDS. However, development of increased physiological sleep propensity on the MSLT was associated with a trend towards reduced odds for development of depression (odds ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.24-1.06, p=0.07). No significant longitudinal association between excessive sleep duration and depression was observed. LIMITATIONS: Depression was not verified by psychiatric interview and an objective measure of sleep duration was not utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a significant longitudinal association between increased subjective EDS and depression. However, increased physiological sleep propensity on the MSLT was paradoxically marginally protective against the development of depression. Further research is indicated to determine the mechanism underling divergent effects of various aspects of hypersomnolence on the course of mood disorders.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Wisconsin
5.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 12(4): 571-8, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888592

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of depression with habitual sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and objective sleep propensity in a nonclinical population. METHODS: Data from adults participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study were utilized in analyses. There were 1,287 adults (3,324 observations) who were used in the analysis of subjective hypersomnolence measures; 1,155 adults (2,981 observations) were used in the analysis of objective sleep propensity assessed by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Repeated-measures logistic regression estimated associations between presence of depression (defined as modified Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale ≥ 50 or use of antidepressant medications) and three primary hypersomnolence measures: subjective excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] ≥ 11), self-reported sleep duration ≥ 9 h/d, and objective sleep propensity (MSLT mean sleep latency < 8 min). RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, sedative hypnotic medication use, caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol use, sleep disordered breathing, as well as insomnia and sleep duration when appropriate, estimated odd ratios (95% confidence interval) for depression were: 1.56 (1.31,1.86) for ESS ≥ 11; 2.01 (1.49, 2.72) for habitual sleep time ≥ 9 h; and 0.76 (0.63-0.92) for MSLT mean sleep latency < 8 min. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate divergent associations between subjective and objective symptoms of hypersomnolence and depression, with subjective sleepiness and excessive sleep duration associated with increased odds of depression, but objective sleep propensity as measured by the MSLT associated with decreased odds of depression. Further research is indicated to explain this paradox and the impact of different hypersomnolence measures on the course of mood disorders. COMMENTARY: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 467.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Wisconsin
6.
Thorax ; 70(11): 1062-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular disease. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with incident non-dipping. However, the relationship between disordered breathing during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the risk of developing non-dipping has not been examined. This study investigates whether OSA during REM sleep is associated with incident non-dipping. METHODS: Our sample included 269 adults enrolled in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study who completed two or more 24 h ambulatory BP studies over an average of 6.6 years of follow-up. After excluding participants with prevalent non-dipping BP or antihypertensive use at baseline, there were 199 and 215 participants available for longitudinal analysis of systolic and diastolic non-dipping, respectively. OSA in REM and non-REM sleep were defined by apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) from baseline in-laboratory polysomnograms. Systolic and diastolic non-dipping were defined by systolic and diastolic sleep/wake BP ratios >0.9. Modified Poisson regression models estimated the relative risks for the relationship between REM AHI and incident non-dipping, adjusting for non-REM AHI and other covariates. RESULTS: There was a dose-response greater risk of developing systolic and diastolic non-dipping BP with greater severity of OSA in REM sleep (p-trend=0.021 for systolic and 0.024 for diastolic non-dipping). Relative to those with REM AHI<1 event/h, those with REM AHI≥15 had higher relative risk of incident systolic non-dipping (2.84, 95% CI 1.10 to 7.29) and incident diastolic non-dipping (4.27, 95% CI 1.20 to 15.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in a population-based sample, REM OSA is independently associated with incident non-dipping of BP.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Adulto , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
7.
Sleep ; 38(5): 677-84, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25515104

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the association of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure (HF) in a nonclinical population. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of a community-dwelling cohort followed up to 24 y. SETTING: Sleep laboratory at the Clinical Research Unit of the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. PARTICIPANTS: There were 1,131 adults who completed one or more overnight polysomnography studies, were free of CHD or HF at baseline, were not treated by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and followed over 24 y. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: In-laboratory overnight polysomnography was used to assess SDB, defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep. Incident CHD or HF was defined by new reports of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedures, congestive heart failure, and cardiovascular deaths. We used baseline AHI as the predictor variable in survival analysis models predicting CHD or HF incidence adjusted for traditional confounders. The incidence of CHD or HF was 10.9/1,000 person-years. The mean time to event was 11.2 ± 5.8 y. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking, estimated hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident CHD or HF were 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for AHI > 0-5, 1.9 (1.05-3.5) for AHI 5 ≤ 15, 1.8 (0.85-4.0) for AHI 15 ≤ 30, and 2.6 (1.1-6.1) for AHI > 30 compared to AHI = 0 (P trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with untreated severe sleep disordered breathing (AHI > 30) were 2.6 times more likely to have an incident coronary heart disease or heart failure compared to those without sleep disordered breathing. Our findings support the postulated adverse effects of sleep disordered breathing on coronary heart disease and heart failure.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Polissonografia , Características de Residência , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 190(10): 1158-67, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25295854

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hypertension. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify the independent association of OSA during REM sleep with prevalent and incident hypertension. METHODS: We included adults enrolled in the longitudinal community-based Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study with at least 30 minutes of REM sleep obtained from overnight in-laboratory polysomnography. Studies were repeated at 4-year intervals to quantify OSA. Repeated measures logistic regression models were fitted to explore the association between REM sleep OSA and prevalent hypertension in the entire cohort (n = 4,385 sleep studies on 1,451 individuals) and additionally in a subset with ambulatory blood pressure data (n = 1,085 sleep studies on 742 individuals). Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to longitudinally explore the association between REM OSA and development of hypertension. All models controlled for OSA events during non-REM sleep, either by statistical adjustment or by stratification. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fully adjusted models demonstrated significant dose-relationships between REM apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and prevalent hypertension. The higher relative odds of prevalent hypertension were most evident with REM AHI greater than or equal to 15. In individuals with non-REM AHI less than or equal to 5, a twofold increase in REM AHI was associated with 24% higher odds of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.41). Longitudinal analysis revealed a significant association between REM AHI categories and the development of hypertension (P trend = 0.017). Non-REM AHI was not a significant predictor of hypertension in any of the models. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that REM OSA is cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with hypertension. This is clinically relevant because treatment of OSA is often limited to the first half of the sleep period leaving most of REM sleep untreated.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Sono REM , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
9.
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 5(2): 114-22, 2011 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21414566

RESUMO

Nondipping nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that ß1- and ß2-AR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) would associate with nondipping BP patterns. Participants (n = 497, age range 30-74 years, 40% female) of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study with at least one ambulatory BP monitoring test were included. Nondipping was defined as less than a 10% dip in sleep BP compared with wake BP. Dipping ratios were calculated as sleep/wake BP. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ß1-AR (rs7076938, tagging for Gly389Arg) and ß2-AR (rs17778257 and rs2400707, tagging for Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) were selected. ß2-AR SNP rs2400707 A-positive subjects (tagging for Glu27) had higher systolic and diastolic dipping ratios in a dose-response fashion. Systolic dipping ratios were: GG = 0.846; AG = 0.854; AA = 0.861 (P = .015). Diastolic dip ratios were: GG = 0.807; AG = 0.815; AA = 0.824 (P = .026). The ß2-AR rs17778257/rs2400707 A/A haplotype was associated with dipping ratios and systolic nondipping status (nondipping odds radio 2.0 [1.0-3.8] for A/A versus A/G). Results were similar when models included participants on antihypertensive medications. Higher dipping ratios indicating a lack of nocturnal BP dipping are associated with ß2-AR polymorphisms. Nocturnal dipping patterns may be modulated by ß2-AR polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Hipertensão , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Polissonografia , Fatores de Risco , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 171(6): 709-20, 2010 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20167581

RESUMO

Whether insomnia, a known correlate of depression, predicts depression longitudinally warrants elucidation. The authors examined 555 Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study participants aged 33-71 years without baseline depression or antidepressant use who completed baseline and follow-up overnight polysomnography and had complete questionnaire-based data on insomnia and depression for 1998-2006. Using Poisson regression, they estimated relative risks for depression (Zung scale score > or =50) at 4-year (average) follow-up according to baseline insomnia symptoms and polysomnographic markers. Twenty-six participants (4.7%) developed depression by follow-up. Having 3-4 insomnia symptoms versus none predicted depression risk (age-, sex-, and comorbidity-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 9.6). After multiple adjustments, frequent difficulty falling asleep (RR = 5.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 27.9) and polysomnographically assessed (upper or lower quartiles) sleep latency, continuity, and duration (RRs = 2.2-4.7; P's < or = 0.05) predicted depression. Graded trends (P-trend < or = 0.05) were observed with increasing number of symptoms, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty returning to sleep. Given the small number of events using Zung > or =50 (depression cutpoint), a limitation that may bias multivariable estimates, continuous depression scores were analyzed; mean values were largely consistent with dichotomous findings. Insomnia symptoms or markers increased depression risk 2.2- to 5.3-fold. These results support prior findings based on self-reported insomnia and may extend similar conclusions to objective markers. Heightened recognition and treatment of insomnia may prevent subsequent depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
11.
Sleep Breath ; 12(3): 251-8, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18247073

RESUMO

The evidence for a role of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is inconclusive and limited to clinic-based studies or population-based studies using historical CVD data. The authors investigated cross-sectional association of SDB, assessed by overnight polysomnography and described by frequency of apnea/hypopnea episodes (Apnea-Hypopnea Index, AHI), with screen-detected CVD consisting of cardiologist-confirmed, electrocardiographically indicated coronary artery disease (ECG-CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH), arrhythmias, and conduction abnormalities in a general population. Using multiple logistic regression with adjustments for covariables, there was no significant association of AHI with ECG-CAD, ECG-LVH by voltage, arrhythmias, or conduction abnormalities. There was, however, an association between AHI and ECG-LVH by Cornell criteria. Using AHI as categorical variable, the adjusted odds of ECG-CAD in AHI >or= 5 vs <5 was increased, but not significantly, at 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67, 2.51. The adjusted odds of ECG-LVH by Cornell criteria in AHI >or= 15 vs <5 was significant at 3.19, 95% CI 1.16, 8.76. The authors found a weak or no association between screen-detected CVD and sleep apnea, but did find a threefold increased odds of screen-detected LVH, using Cornell criteria, in moderate or worse SDB. These findings contribute to accumulating evidence of possible association between CVD and sleep apnea in the general population and underscore the need to better understand how SDB affects cardiovascular pathology.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Eletrocardiografia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia
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