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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 195-204, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462486

RESUMO

Admixed populations are routinely excluded from genomic studies due to concerns over population structure. Here, we present a statistical framework and software package, Tractor, to facilitate the inclusion of admixed individuals in association studies by leveraging local ancestry. We test Tractor with simulated and empirical two-way admixed African-European cohorts. Tractor generates accurate ancestry-specific effect-size estimates and P values, can boost genome-wide association study (GWAS) power and improves the resolution of association signals. Using a local ancestry-aware regression model, we replicate known hits for blood lipids, discover novel hits missed by standard GWAS and localize signals closer to putative causal variants.

2.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1355-1363, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199916

RESUMO

Fine-mapping aims to identify causal variants impacting complex traits. We propose PolyFun, a computationally scalable framework to improve fine-mapping accuracy by leveraging functional annotations across the entire genome-not just genome-wide-significant loci-to specify prior probabilities for fine-mapping methods such as SuSiE or FINEMAP. In simulations, PolyFun + SuSiE and PolyFun + FINEMAP were well calibrated and identified >20% more variants with a posterior causal probability >0.95 than identified in their nonfunctionally informed counterparts. In analyses of 49 UK Biobank traits (average n = 318,000), PolyFun + SuSiE identified 3,025 fine-mapped variant-trait pairs with posterior causal probability >0.95, a >32% improvement versus SuSiE. We used posterior mean per-SNP heritabilities from PolyFun + SuSiE to perform polygenic localization, constructing minimal sets of common SNPs causally explaining 50% of common SNP heritability; these sets ranged in size from 28 (hair color) to 3,400 (height) to 2 million (number of children). In conclusion, PolyFun prioritizes variants for functional follow-up and provides insights into complex trait architectures.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1237, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144282

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have associated thousands of genetic variants with complex traits and diseases, but pinpointing the causal variant(s) among those in tight linkage disequilibrium with each associated variant remains a major challenge. Here, we use seven experimental assays to characterize all common variants at the multiple disease-associated TNFAIP3 locus in five disease-relevant immune cell lines, based on a set of features related to regulatory potential. Trait/disease-associated variants are enriched among SNPs prioritized based on either: (1) residing within CRISPRi-sensitive regulatory regions, or (2) localizing in a chromatin accessible region while displaying allele-specific reporter activity. Of the 15 trait/disease-associated haplotypes at TNFAIP3, 9 have at least one variant meeting one or both of these criteria, 5 of which are further supported by genetic fine-mapping. Our work provides a comprehensive strategy to characterize genetic variation at important disease-associated loci, and aids in the effort to identify trait causal genetic variants.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Proteína 3 Induzida por Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/imunologia , Haplótipos/genética , Haplótipos/imunologia , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial/imunologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
5.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1295, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273336

RESUMO

In the version of the paper initially published, information on competing interests for author Benjamin M. Neale was missing. The 'Competing interests' statement should have included the sentence 'B.M.N. is on the Scientific Advisory Board of Deep Genomics'.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 683-693, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858613

RESUMO

Widespread linkage disequilibrium and incomplete annotation of cell-to-cell state variation represent substantial challenges to elucidating mechanisms of trait-associated genetic variation. Here we perform genetic fine-mapping for blood cell traits in the UK Biobank to identify putative causal variants. These variants are enriched in genes encoding proteins in trait-relevant biological pathways and in accessible chromatin of hematopoietic progenitors. For regulatory variants, we explore patterns of developmental enhancer activity, predict molecular mechanisms, and identify likely target genes. In several instances, we localize multiple independent variants to the same regulatory element or gene. We further observe that variants with pleiotropic effects preferentially act in common progenitor populations to direct the production of distinct lineages. Finally, we leverage fine-mapped variants in conjunction with continuous epigenomic annotations to identify trait-cell type enrichments within closely related populations and in single cells. Our study provides a comprehensive framework for single-variant and single-cell analyses of genetic associations.


Assuntos
Hematopoese/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Cromatina/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 790, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770844

RESUMO

Understanding the role of rare variants is important in elucidating the genetic basis of human disease. Negative selection can cause rare variants to have larger per-allele effect sizes than common variants. Here, we develop a method to estimate the minor allele frequency (MAF) dependence of SNP effect sizes. We use a model in which per-allele effect sizes have variance proportional to [p(1 - p)]α, where p is the MAF and negative values of α imply larger effect sizes for rare variants. We estimate α for 25 UK Biobank diseases and complex traits. All traits produce negative α estimates, with best-fit mean of -0.38 (s.e. 0.02) across traits. Despite larger rare variant effect sizes, rare variants (MAF < 1%) explain less than 10% of total SNP-heritability for most traits analyzed. Using evolutionary modeling and forward simulations, we validate the α model of MAF-dependent trait effects and assess plausible values of relevant evolutionary parameters.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética , Algoritmos , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Reino Unido
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
10.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(2): 180-188, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474154

RESUMO

Recent studies have examined the genetic correlations of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect sizes across pairs of populations to better understand the genetic architectures of complex traits. These studies have estimated ρ g , the cross-population correlation of joint-fit effect sizes at genotyped SNPs. However, the value of ρ g depends both on the cross-population correlation of true causal effect sizes ( ρ b ) and on the similarity in linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in the two populations, which drive tagging effects. Here, we derive the value of the ratio ρ g / ρ b as a function of LD in each population. By applying existing methods to obtain estimates of ρ g , we can use this ratio to estimate ρ b . Our estimates of ρ b were equal to 0.55 ( SE = 0.14) between Europeans and East Asians averaged across nine traits in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging data set, 0.54 ( SE = 0.18) between Europeans and South Asians averaged across 13 traits in the UK Biobank data set, and 0.48 ( SE = 0.06) and 0.65 ( SE = 0.09) between Europeans and East Asians in summary statistic data sets for type 2 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively. These results implicate substantially different causal genetic architectures across continental populations.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Adulto , Envelhecimento/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reino Unido
11.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1600-1607, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297966

RESUMO

Common variant heritability has been widely reported to be concentrated in variants within cell-type-specific non-coding functional annotations, but little is known about low-frequency variant functional architectures. We partitioned the heritability of both low-frequency (0.5%≤ minor allele frequency <5%) and common (minor allele frequency ≥5%) variants in 40 UK Biobank traits across a broad set of functional annotations. We determined that non-synonymous coding variants explain 17 ± 1% of low-frequency variant heritability ([Formula: see text]) versus 2.1 ± 0.2% of common variant heritability ([Formula: see text]). Cell-type-specific non-coding annotations that were significantly enriched for [Formula: see text] of corresponding traits were similarly enriched for [Formula: see text] for most traits, but more enriched for brain-related annotations and traits. For example, H3K4me3 marks in brain dorsolateral prefrontal cortex explain 57 ± 12% of [Formula: see text] versus 12 ± 2% of [Formula: see text] for neuroticism. Forward simulations confirmed that low-frequency variant enrichment depends on the mean selection coefficient of causal variants in the annotation, and can be used to predict effect size variance of causal rare variants (minor allele frequency <0.5%).


Assuntos
Frequência do Gene , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Reino Unido
12.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1483-1493, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177862

RESUMO

Biological interpretation of genome-wide association study data frequently involves assessing whether SNPs linked to a biological process, for example, binding of a transcription factor, show unsigned enrichment for disease signal. However, signed annotations quantifying whether each SNP allele promotes or hinders the biological process can enable stronger statements about disease mechanism. We introduce a method, signed linkage disequilibrium profile regression, for detecting genome-wide directional effects of signed functional annotations on disease risk. We validate the method via simulations and application to molecular quantitative trait loci in blood, recovering known transcriptional regulators. We apply the method to expression quantitative trait loci in 48 Genotype-Tissue Expression tissues, identifying 651 transcription factor-tissue associations including 30 with robust evidence of tissue specificity. We apply the method to 46 diseases and complex traits (average n = 290 K), identifying 77 annotation-trait associations representing 12 independent transcription factor-trait associations, and characterize the underlying transcriptional programs using gene-set enrichment analyses. Our results implicate new causal disease genes and new disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nature ; 559(7714): 350-355, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995854

RESUMO

The selective pressures that shape clonal evolution in healthy individuals are largely unknown. Here we investigate 8,342 mosaic chromosomal alterations, from 50 kb to 249 Mb long, that we uncovered in blood-derived DNA from 151,202 UK Biobank participants using phase-based computational techniques (estimated false discovery rate, 6-9%). We found six loci at which inherited variants associated strongly with the acquisition of deletions or loss of heterozygosity in cis. At three such loci (MPL, TM2D3-TARSL2, and FRA10B), we identified a likely causal variant that acted with high penetrance (5-50%). Inherited alleles at one locus appeared to affect the probability of somatic mutation, and at three other loci to be objects of positive or negative clonal selection. Several specific mosaic chromosomal alterations were strongly associated with future haematological malignancies. Our results reveal a multitude of paths towards clonal expansions with a wide range of effects on human health.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Hematopoese/genética , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Quebra Cromossômica , Sítios Frágeis do Cromossomo/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Feminino , Saúde , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Reino Unido
14.
Science ; 360(6395)2018 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930110

RESUMO

Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Encefalopatias/classificação , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 1041-1047, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942083

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that many risk loci found using genome-wide association studies are molecular quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here we introduce a new set of functional annotations based on causal posterior probabilities of fine-mapped molecular cis-QTLs, using data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) and BLUEPRINT consortia. We show that these annotations are more strongly enriched for heritability (5.84× for eQTLs; P = 1.19 × 10-31) across 41 diseases and complex traits than annotations containing all significant molecular QTLs (1.80× for expression (e)QTLs). eQTL annotations obtained by meta-analyzing all GTEx tissues generally performed best, whereas tissue-specific eQTL annotations produced stronger enrichments for blood- and brain-related diseases and traits. eQTL annotations restricted to loss-of-function intolerant genes were even more enriched for heritability (17.06×; P = 1.20 × 10-35). All molecular QTLs except splicing QTLs remained significantly enriched in joint analysis, indicating that each of these annotations is uniquely informative for disease and complex trait architectures.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 668-681, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700475

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética
17.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 621-629, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632380

RESUMO

We introduce an approach to identify disease-relevant tissues and cell types by analyzing gene expression data together with genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics. Our approach uses stratified linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression to test whether disease heritability is enriched in regions surrounding genes with the highest specific expression in a given tissue. We applied our approach to gene expression data from several sources together with GWAS summary statistics for 48 diseases and traits (average N = 169,331) and found significant tissue-specific enrichments (false discovery rate (FDR) < 5%) for 34 traits. In our analysis of multiple tissues, we detected a broad range of enrichments that recapitulated known biology. In our brain-specific analysis, significant enrichments included an enrichment of inhibitory over excitatory neurons for bipolar disorder, and excitatory over inhibitory neurons for schizophrenia and body mass index. Our results demonstrate that our polygenic approach is a powerful way to leverage gene expression data for interpreting GWAS signals.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Epigênese Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neurônios/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Distribuição Tecidual/genética
18.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 538-548, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632383

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 100 risk loci for schizophrenia, but the causal mechanisms remain largely unknown. We performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) integrating a schizophrenia GWAS of 79,845 individuals from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with expression data from brain, blood, and adipose tissues across 3,693 primarily control individuals. We identified 157 TWAS-significant genes, of which 35 did not overlap a known GWAS locus. Of these 157 genes, 42 were associated with specific chromatin features measured in independent samples, thus highlighting potential regulatory targets for follow-up. Suppression of one identified susceptibility gene, mapk3, in zebrafish showed a significant effect on neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Expression and splicing from the brain captured most of the TWAS effect across all genes. This large-scale connection of associations to target genes, tissues, and regulatory features is an essential step in moving toward a mechanistic understanding of GWAS.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Nat Genet ; 49(10): 1421-1427, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28892061

RESUMO

Recent work has hinted at the linkage disequilibrium (LD)-dependent architecture of human complex traits, where SNPs with low levels of LD (LLD) have larger per-SNP heritability. Here we analyzed summary statistics from 56 complex traits (average N = 101,401) by extending stratified LD score regression to continuous annotations. We determined that SNPs with low LLD have significantly larger per-SNP heritability and that roughly half of this effect can be explained by functional annotations negatively correlated with LLD, such as DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs). The remaining signal is largely driven by our finding that more recent common variants tend to have lower LLD and to explain more heritability (P = 2.38 × 10-104); the youngest 20% of common SNPs explain 3.9 times more heritability than the oldest 20%, consistent with the action of negative selection. We also inferred jointly significant effects of other LD-related annotations and confirmed via forward simulations that they jointly predict deleterious effects.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Aptidão Genética , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 605-616, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343628

RESUMO

Genetic variants that modulate gene expression levels play an important role in the etiology of human diseases and complex traits. Although large-scale eQTL mapping studies routinely identify many local eQTLs, the molecular mechanisms by which genetic variants regulate expression remain unclear, particularly for distal eQTLs, which these studies are not well powered to detect. Here, we leveraged all variants (not just those that pass stringent significance thresholds) to analyze the functional architecture of local and distal regulation of gene expression in 15 human tissues by employing an extension of stratified LD-score regression that produces robust results in simulations. The top enriched functional categories in local regulation of peripheral-blood gene expression included coding regions (11.41×), conserved regions (4.67×), and four histone marks (p < 5 × 10-5 for all enrichments); local enrichments were similar across the 15 tissues. We also observed substantial enrichments for distal regulation of peripheral-blood gene expression: coding regions (4.47×), conserved regions (4.51×), and two histone marks (p < 3 × 10-7 for all enrichments). Analyses of the genetic correlation of gene expression across tissues confirmed that local regulation of gene expression is largely shared across tissues but that distal regulation is highly tissue specific. Our results elucidate the functional components of the genetic architecture of local and distal regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ansiedade/genética , Simulação por Computador , Depressão/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Regressão , Gêmeos/genética
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