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1.
J Vasc Surg ; 67(2): 597-606, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In surgical aortic repair or cardiac surgery with aorta occlusion, the occurrence of mesenteric ischemia and bowel injury has been associated with higher short-term mortality. The vascular protection of estrogens has been investigated and is mainly mediated by increasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, this study investigated the role of 17ß-estradiol on visceral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after descending aorta occlusion in male rats. METHODS: Mesenteric ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by placing a 2F Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) in the descending aorta, which remained occluded for 15 minutes, followed by reperfusion for up to 2 hours. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) rats that underwent surgical manipulation only (sham, n = 22); (2) rats that underwent I/R injury (n = 22); (3) rats treated with intravenous 17ß-estradiol (280 µg/kg) 30 minutes before I/R (n = 22); (4) or at the beginning of reperfusion (n = 22). Intestinal histopathologic changes were evaluated by histomorphometry. Mesenteric microcirculatory alterations were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and intravital microscopy technique. Protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and endothelin-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry; in addition, eNOS and endothelin-1 gene expressions were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Relative to the sham group, the I/R group exhibited a highly pronounced loss of intestine mucosal thickness, a reduction in mesenteric blood flow (P = .0203), increased migrated leukocytes (P < .05), and high mortality rate (35%). Treatment with 17ß-estradiol before aorta occlusion preserved intestine mucosal thickness (P = .0437) and mesenteric blood flow (P = .0251), reduced the number of migrated leukocytes (P < .05), and prevented any fatal occurrence. Furthermore, 17ß-estradiol downregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P = .0001) and P-selectin (P < .0001) on the endothelium and increased the protein expression of eNOS (P < .0001). The gene expressions of eNOS and endothelin-1 did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prophylactic treatment with 17ß-estradiol showed better overall repercussions and was able to prevent any fatal occurrence, increase eNOS expression, thus preserving mesenteric perfusion and intestinal integrity, and reduce inflammation.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Íleo/irrigação sanguínea , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Mesentérica/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Circulação Esplâncnica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/patologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Isquemia Mesentérica/etiologia , Isquemia Mesentérica/metabolismo , Isquemia Mesentérica/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 107(3): 245-256, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579544

RESUMO

Background: : Complications after surgical procedures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) are an emerging problem due to an increasing number of such procedures and aging of the population, which consequently increases the frequency of comorbidities. Objective: : To identify the rates of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmissions, and evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of these events. Methods:: Prospective and unicentric study that included all individuals undergoing CIED surgical procedures from February to August 2011. The patients were distributed by type of procedure into the following groups: initial implantations (cohort 1), generator exchange (cohort 2), and lead-related procedures (cohort 3). The outcomes were evaluated by an independent committee. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the risk factors, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results:: A total of 713 patients were included in the study and distributed as follows: 333 in cohort 1, 304 in cohort 2, and 76 in cohort 3. Postoperative complications were detected in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 11.8% of the patients in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.014). During a 6-month follow-up, there were 58 (8.1%) deaths and 75 (10.5%) hospital readmissions. Predictors of hospital readmission included the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2), functional class III--IV (OR = 1.8), and warfarin administration (OR = 1.9). Predictors of mortality included age over 80 years (OR = 2.4), ventricular dysfunction (OR = 2.2), functional class III-IV (OR = 3.3), and warfarin administration (OR = 2.3). Conclusions:: Postoperative complications, hospital readmissions, and deaths occurred frequently and were strongly related to the type of procedure performed, type of CIED, and severity of the patient's underlying heart disease. Fundamento:: Complicações após procedimentos cirúrgicos em portadores de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis (DCEI) são um problema emergente devido ao aumento crescente na taxa destes procedimentos e ao envelhecimento da população, com consequente aumento de comorbidades. Objetivos:: Identificar as taxas de complicações pós-operatórias, mortalidade e readmissão hospitalar, e pesquisar fatores de risco para a ocorrência desses eventos. Métodos:: Registro prospectivo e unicêntrico que incluiu todos os indivíduos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos em DCEI no período de fevereiro a agosto de 2011. Os pacientes foram distribuídos por tipos de procedimento nos seguintes grupos: implantes iniciais (coorte 1), troca de gerador (coorte 2) e procedimentos em cabos-eletrodos (coorte 3). Os desfechos foram avaliados por um comitê independente. Empregou-se a análise univariada e multivariada para a pesquisa de fatores de risco e o método de Kaplan-Meier para análise de sobrevida. Resultados:: Foram incluídos 713 pacientes, sendo 333, 304 e 76 distribuídos nas coortes 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Complicações pós-operatórias foram detectadas em 7,5%, 1,6% e 11,8% dos pacientes nas coortes 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente (p = 0,014). Durante os 6 meses de seguimento, houve 58 (8,1%) óbitos e 75 (10,5%) readmissões hospitalares. Preditores de readmissão hospitalar incluíram o uso de cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável ( odds ratio [OR] = 4,2), classe funcional III-IV (OR = 1,8) e uso de warfarina (OR = 1,9). Preditores de mortalidade incluíram idade acima de 80 anos (OR = 2,4), disfunção ventricular (OR = 2,2), classe funcional III-IV (OR = 3,3) e uso de warfarina (OR = 2,3). Conclusões:: Complicações pós-operatórias, readmissões hospitalares e óbitos foram frequentes. Esses eventos estiveram fortemente relacionados ao tipo de procedimento realizado, tipo de DCEI e gravidade da doença cardíaca do paciente.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 245-256, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-796031

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Complications after surgical procedures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) are an emerging problem due to an increasing number of such procedures and aging of the population, which consequently increases the frequency of comorbidities. Objective: To identify the rates of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmissions, and evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of these events. Methods: Prospective and unicentric study that included all individuals undergoing CIED surgical procedures from February to August 2011. The patients were distributed by type of procedure into the following groups: initial implantations (cohort 1), generator exchange (cohort 2), and lead-related procedures (cohort 3). The outcomes were evaluated by an independent committee. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the risk factors, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: A total of 713 patients were included in the study and distributed as follows: 333 in cohort 1, 304 in cohort 2, and 76 in cohort 3. Postoperative complications were detected in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 11.8% of the patients in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.014). During a 6-month follow-up, there were 58 (8.1%) deaths and 75 (10.5%) hospital readmissions. Predictors of hospital readmission included the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2), functional class III­-IV (OR = 1.8), and warfarin administration (OR = 1.9). Predictors of mortality included age over 80 years (OR = 2.4), ventricular dysfunction (OR = 2.2), functional class III-IV (OR = 3.3), and warfarin administration (OR = 2.3). Conclusions: Postoperative complications, hospital readmissions, and deaths occurred frequently and were strongly related to the type of procedure performed, type of CIED, and severity of the patient's underlying heart disease.


Resumo Fundamento: Complicações após procedimentos cirúrgicos em portadores de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis (DCEI) são um problema emergente devido ao aumento crescente na taxa destes procedimentos e ao envelhecimento da população, com consequente aumento de comorbidades. Objetivos: Identificar as taxas de complicações pós-operatórias, mortalidade e readmissão hospitalar, e pesquisar fatores de risco para a ocorrência desses eventos. Métodos: Registro prospectivo e unicêntrico que incluiu todos os indivíduos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos em DCEI no período de fevereiro a agosto de 2011. Os pacientes foram distribuídos por tipos de procedimento nos seguintes grupos: implantes iniciais (coorte 1), troca de gerador (coorte 2) e procedimentos em cabos-eletrodos (coorte 3). Os desfechos foram avaliados por um comitê independente. Empregou-se a análise univariada e multivariada para a pesquisa de fatores de risco e o método de Kaplan-Meier para análise de sobrevida. Resultados: Foram incluídos 713 pacientes, sendo 333, 304 e 76 distribuídos nas coortes 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Complicações pós-operatórias foram detectadas em 7,5%, 1,6% e 11,8% dos pacientes nas coortes 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente (p = 0,014). Durante os 6 meses de seguimento, houve 58 (8,1%) óbitos e 75 (10,5%) readmissões hospitalares. Preditores de readmissão hospitalar incluíram o uso de cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável ( odds ratio [OR] = 4,2), classe funcional III-IV (OR = 1,8) e uso de warfarina (OR = 1,9). Preditores de mortalidade incluíram idade acima de 80 anos (OR = 2,4), disfunção ventricular (OR = 2,2), classe funcional III-IV (OR = 3,3) e uso de warfarina (OR = 2,3). Conclusões: Complicações pós-operatórias, readmissões hospitalares e óbitos foram frequentes. Esses eventos estiveram fortemente relacionados ao tipo de procedimento realizado, tipo de DCEI e gravidade da doença cardíaca do paciente.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 178: 55-62, 2015 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental conflicting data have questioned the relationship between infectious agents, inflammation and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious agents and inflammation in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens from patients with idiopathic DCM, explanted hearts from different etiologies, including Chagas' disease, compared to donated hearts. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, myocardial samples from 29 heart donors and 55 patients with DCMs from different etiologies were studied (32 idiopathic, 9 chagasic, 6 ischemic and 8 other specific etiologies). Inflammation was investigated by immunohistochemistry and infectious agents by immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. RESULTS: There were no differences regarding the presence of macrophages, expression of HLA class II and ICAM-I in donors and DCM. Inflammation in Chagas' disease was predominant. By immunohistochemistry, in donors, there was a higher expression of antigens of enterovirus and Borrelia, hepatitis B and C in DCMs. By molecular biology, in all groups, the positivity was elevated to microorganisms, including co-infections, with a higher positivity to adenovirus and HHV6 in donors towards DCMs. This study was the first to demonstrate the presence of virus in the heart tissue of chagasic DCM. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of inflammation and infectious agents is frequent in donated hearts, in the myocardium of patients with idiopathic DCM, myocardial dysfunction related to cardiovascular diseases, and primary and secondary cardiomyopathies, including Chagas' disease. The role of co-infection in Chagas' heart disease physiopathology deserves to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/microbiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/microbiologia , Coração/microbiologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/normas , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2014: 914326, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25152568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), a late consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy with prognosis worse than those of noninflammatory etiology (NIC). Although the T cell-rich myocarditis is known to play a pathogenetic role, the relative contribution of each of the functional T cell subsets has never been thoroughly investigated. We therefore assessed gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors involved in differentiation and effector function of each functional T cell subset (TH1/TH2/TH17/Treg) in CCC, NIC, and heart donor myocardial samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantitative PCR showed markedly upregulated expression of IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, and minor increases of GATA-3; FoxP3 and CTLA-4; IL-17 and IL-18 in CCC as compared with NIC samples. Conversely, cytokines expressed by TH2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) or associated with Treg (TGF-ß and IL-10) were not upregulated in CCC myocardium. Expression of TH1-related genes such as T-bet, IFN-γ, and IL-18 correlated with ventricular dilation, FoxP3, and CTLA-4. CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with a strong local TH1-mediated response in most samples, possibly associated with pathological myocardial remodeling, and a proportionally smaller FoxP3(+)CTLA4(+) Treg cell population, which is unable to completely curb IFN-γ production in CCC myocardium, therefore fueling inflammation.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Células Th1/metabolismo
8.
Int J Cardiol ; 175(3): 409-17, 2014 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24910366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/METHODS: Chagas disease is caused by an intracellular parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is a leading cause of heart failure in Latin America. The main clinical consequence of the infection is the development of a Chronic Chagas disease Cardiomyopathy (CCC), which is characterized by myocarditis, hypertrophy and fibrosis and affects about 30% of infected patients. CCC has a worse prognosis than other cardiomyopathies, like idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It is well established that myocardial gene expression patterns are altered in CCC, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. MicroRNAs are recently discovered regulators of gene expression, and are recognized as important factors in heart development and cardiovascular disorders (CD). We analyzed the expression of nine different miRNAs in myocardial tissue samples of CCC patients in comparison to DCM patients and samples from heart transplant donors. Using the results of a cDNA microarray database on CCC and DCM myocardium, signaling networks were built and nodal molecules were identified. RESULTS: We observed that five miRNAs were significantly altered in CCC and three in DCM; importantly, three miRNAs were significantly reduced in CCC as compared to DCM. We observed that multiple gene targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed a concordant inverse expression in CCC. Significantly, most gene targets and involved networks belong to crucial disease-related signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that miRNAs may play a major role in the regulation of gene expression in CCC pathogenesis, with potential implication as diagnostic and prognostic tools.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(5): 505-509, 10/06/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-711087

RESUMO

Fundamento: Discordâncias entre diagnóstico pre e post-mortem são relatadas na literatura, podendo variar de 4,1 a 49,8% dentre os casos encaminhados para exame necroscópico, com importante repercussão no tratamento dos pacientes. Objetivo: Analisar pacientes com óbito após o transplante cardíaco e confrontar os diagnósticos pre e post-mortem. Métodos: Por meio da revisão de prontuários, foram analisados dados clínicos, presença de comorbidades, esquema de imunossupressão, exames laboratoriais, causa clínica do óbito e causa do óbito à necrópsia. Foram confrontadas, então, a causa clínica e a causa necroscópica do óbito de cada paciente. Resultados: Foram analisados 48 óbitos submetidos à necrópsia no período de 2000 a 2010; 29 (60,4%) tiveram diagnósticos clínico e necroscópico concordantes, 16 (33,3%) tiveram diagnósticos discordantes e três (6,3%) tiveram diagnóstico não esclarecido. Entre os discordantes, 15 (31,3%) apresentaram possível impacto na sobrevida e um (2,1%) não apresentou impacto na sobrevida. O principal diagnóstico clínico feito equivocadamente foi o de infecção, com cinco casos (26,7% dos discordantes), seguido por rejeição hiperaguda, com quatro casos (20% dos discordantes), e tromboembolismo pulmonar, com três casos (13,3% dos discordantes). Conclusão: Discordâncias entre o diagnóstico clínico e achados da necrópsia são comumente encontradas no transplante cardíaco. Novas estratégias no aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico clínico devem ser introduzidas, considerando-se os resultados da necrópsia para melhoria do tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca por meio do transplante cardíaco. .


Background: Discrepancies between pre and post-mortem diagnoses are reported in the literature, ranging from 4.1 to 49.8 % in cases referred for necropsy, with important impact on patient treatment. Objective: To analyze patients who died after cardiac transplantation and to compare the pre- and post-mortem diagnoses. Methods: Perform a review of medical records and analyze clinical data, comorbidities, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory tests, clinical cause of death and cause of death at the necropsy. Then, the clinical and necroscopic causes of death of each patient were compared. Results: 48 deaths undergoing necropsy were analyzed during 2000-2010; 29 (60.4 %) had concordant clinical and necroscopic diagnoses, 16 (33.3%) had discordant diagnoses and three (6.3%) had unclear diagnoses. Among the discordant ones, 15 (31.3%) had possible impact on survival and one (2.1%) had no impact on survival. The main clinical misdiagnosis was infection, with five cases (26.7 % of discordant), followed by hyperacute rejection, with four cases (20 % of the discordant ones), and pulmonary thromboembolism, with three cases (13.3% of discordant ones). Conclusion: Discrepancies between clinical diagnosis and necroscopic findings are commonly found in cardiac transplantation. New strategies to improve clinical diagnosis should be made, considering the results of the necropsy, to improve the treatment of heart failure by heart transplantation. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 102(5): 505-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24759949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between pre and post-mortem diagnoses are reported in the literature, ranging from 4.1 to 49.8 % in cases referred for necropsy, with important impact on patient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze patients who died after cardiac transplantation and to compare the pre- and post-mortem diagnoses. METHODS: Perform a review of medical records and analyze clinical data, comorbidities, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory tests, clinical cause of death and cause of death at the necropsy. Then, the clinical and necroscopic causes of death of each patient were compared. RESULTS: 48 deaths undergoing necropsy were analyzed during 2000-2010; 29 (60.4 %) had concordant clinical and necroscopic diagnoses, 16 (33.3%) had discordant diagnoses and three (6.3%) had unclear diagnoses. Among the discordant ones, 15 (31.3%) had possible impact on survival and one (2.1%) had no impact on survival. The main clinical misdiagnosis was infection, with five cases (26.7 % of discordant), followed by hyperacute rejection, with four cases (20 % of the discordant ones), and pulmonary thromboembolism, with three cases (13.3% of discordant ones). CONCLUSION: Discrepancies between clinical diagnosis and necroscopic findings are commonly found in cardiac transplantation. New strategies to improve clinical diagnosis should be made, considering the results of the necropsy, to improve the treatment of heart failure by heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Adulto , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Inflammation ; 37(1): 196-204, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24092406

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is related to inflammatory response and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CPB leukocyte filtration on inflammation and lung function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A prospective randomized study was performed to compare CABG patients undergoing CPB leukocyte filtration (n = 9) or standard CPB (n = 11). Computed tomography, oxygenation, leukocyte count, hemodynamic data, PaO2/FiO2, shunt fraction, interleukins, elastase, and myeloperoxidase were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two-factor ANOVA for repeated measurements. The filtered group showed lower neutrophil counts up to 50 min of CPB, lower shunt fraction up to 6 h after surgery, and lower levels of IL-10 at the end of surgery (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between groups related to other parameters. Leukodepletion during CPB results in neutrophil sequestration by a short time, decreased IL-10 serum levels, and lower worsening of lung function only temporarily.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Inflamação/sangue , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Elastase de Leucócito/sangue , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Peroxidase/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória
12.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e83446, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24367596

RESUMO

AIMS: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America, and may lead to a life-threatening inflammatory dilated, chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). One third of T. cruzi-infected individuals progress to CCC while the others remain asymptomatic (ASY). A possible genetic component to disease progression was suggested by familial aggregation of cases and the association of markers of innate and adaptive immunity genes with CCC development. Since mutations in multiple sarcomeric genes, including alpha-cardiac actin (ACTC1) have been involved in hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy, we investigated the involvement of the ACTC1 gene in CCC pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a proteomic and genetic study on a Brazilian study population. The genetic study was done on a main cohort including 118 seropositive asymptomatic subjects and 315 cases and the replication was done on 36 asymptomatic and 102 CCC cases. ACTC1 protein and mRNA levels were lower in myocardial tissue from patients with end-stage CCC than those found in hearts from organ donors. Genotyping a case-control cohort of CCC and ASY subjects for all informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ACTC1 gene identified rs640249 SNP, located at the 5' region, as associated to CCC. Associations are borderline after correction for multiple testing. Correlation and haplotype analysis led to the identification of a susceptibility haplotype. Functional assays have shown that the rs640249A/C polymorphism affects the binding of transcriptional factors in the promoter regions of the ACTC1 gene. Confirmation of the detected association on a larger independent replication cohort will be useful. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations at the ACTC1 gene may contribute to progression to chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy among T. cruzi-infected patients, possibly by modulating transcription factor binding to ACTC1 promoter regions.


Assuntos
Actinas/genética , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Actinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
PLOS ONE ; 8(12): 1-16, 2013. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-29744

RESUMO

Aims: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America, and may lead to alife-threatening inflammatory dilated, chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). One third of T. cruzi-infectedindividuals progress to CCC while the others remain asymptomatic (ASY). A possible genetic component to diseaseprogression was suggested by familial aggregation of cases and the association of markers of innate and adaptiveimmunity genes with CCC development. Since mutations in multiple sarcomeric genes, including alpha-cardiac actin(ACTC1) have been involved in hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy, we investigated the involvement of the ACTC1gene in CCC pathogenesis.Methods and Results: We conducted a proteomic and genetic study on a Brazilian study population. The geneticstudy was done on a main cohort including 118 seropositive asymptomatic subjects and 315 cases and thereplication was done on 36 asymptomatic and 102 CCC cases. ACTC1 protein and mRNA levels were lower inmyocardial tissue from patients with end-stage CCC than those found in hearts from organ donors. Genotyping acase-control cohort of CCC and ASY subjects for all informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ACTC1gene identified rs640249 SNP, located at the 5’ region, as associated to CCC. Associations are borderline aftercorrection for multiple testing. Correlation and haplotype analysis led to the identification of a susceptibility haplotype.Functional assays have shown that the rs640249A/C polymorphism affects the binding of transcriptional factors in thepromoter regions of the ACTC1 gene. Confirmation of the detected association on a larger independent replicationcohort will be useful.Conclusions: Genetic variations at the ACTC1 gene may contribute to progression to chronic ChagasCardiomyopathy among T. cruzi-infected patients, possibly by modulating transcription factor binding to ACTC1promoter regions. (AU)


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Variação Genética , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica
14.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 91(4): 229-240, out.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-747307

RESUMO

Dentre as diversas etiologias da insuficiência cardíaca, a miocardiopatia chagásica é considerada a mais agressiva. Como não há tratamento capaz de reverter a evolução da doença o transplante cardíaco torna-se a únicaopção. Foram analisados 107 pacientes portadores da doença de Chagas submetidos a transplante cardíaco, com idades compreendidas entre 11 e 62 anos (42,7±15,3 anos). Os pacientesportadores de megaesôfago e megacólon sintomáticos são automaticamente excluídos dos programas de transplante devido a uma maior possibilidade de complicações no pós-operatório a curto e longo prazo. A expectativa de resultados inferiores para o transplante em chagásicos em relação às demais cardiomiopatias não foi confirmada e, paradoxalmente,se encontram melhores taxas de sobrevida. Notou-se uma mortalidade imediata de 17,7% (19 casos), sendo as principais causas de morte: infecção (6 casos, 31,5%), disfunção do enxerto (6 casos, 31,5%), rejeição (4 casos 21,1%), parada cardiorrespiratória súbita (2 casos 10,5%) e incompatibilidades ABO (1 caso 5,3%). Tardiamente ao transplante, 27 (25,2%) pacientes morreram, sendo as principais causas de morte: rejeição (6 casos, 22,2%), infecção (6 casos, 22,2%), linfoma (4 casos, 14,8%), Kaposi (2 casos, 7,4%), pericardite constritiva (2 casos, 7,4%) e reativação da doença de Chagas no sistemanervoso central (1 caso, 7,1%). Por fim, pode-se concluir que: 1) o transplante cardíaco ainda é a única forma capazde modificar a evolução natural da cardiomiopatia chagásica; 2) o diagnóstico precoce aliado à rápida introdução de benzonidazol leva a um reconhecimento de padrões histológicosnormais do miocárdio sem que haja sequelas e 3) as doses de imunossupressores empregadas devem ser inferiores às utilizadas em outras etiologias.


Among the several etiologies of heart failure, the chagasic myocardiopathy is considered the most aggressive. Once there is no treatment capable of reverting the disease evolution, the heart transplantation becomes the only option. We analyzed 107 patients with Chagas disease submitted to heart transplantation, aged between 11 and 62 years (42.7 ± 15.3 years). Patients with symptomatic megacolon andmegaesophagus are automatically excluded from transplant programs due to a higher possibility of postoperative short and long term complications. The expectation of inferior results for the transplantation of chagasic patients in comparison with other myocardiopathies was not confirmed and, paradoxically, were found better survival rates. We noticed an immediatemortality rated in 17.7% (19 cases), whose main cause of death were: infection (6 cases, 31.5%), graft dysfunction (6 cases, 31.5%), rejection (4 cases 21,1%), sudden cardiopulmonary arrest (2 cases 10.5%) and ABO incompatibilities (1 case 5,3%). Late after transplant, 27 (25.2%) patients died, and the majorcauses were: rejection (6 cases, 22.2%), infection (6 casos, 22.2%), lymphoma (4 cases, 14.8%), Kaposi sarcoma (2 cases, 7.4%), constrictive pericarditis (2 cases, 7.4%) and Chagas disease reactivation in the central nervous system (1 case, 7.1%). Finally, the conclusions are: 1) heart transplantation is still the only way to modify the natural course of chagasicmyocardiopathy, 2) early diagnosis coupled to the rapid introduction of benzonidazol leads to a pattern recognition of normal myocardial histology without sequelae and 3) the doses of immunosuppressants used should be lower than those usedin other etiologies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cardiomiopatias , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/etiologia , Doença de Chagas/etiologia , Transplante de Coração , Imunossupressão , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante/efeitos adversos
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 6(10): e1867, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23150742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), a life-threatening inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy, affects 30% of the approximately 8 million patients infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Even though the Th1 T cell-rich myocarditis plays a pivotal role in CCC pathogenesis, little is known about the factors controlling inflammatory cell migration to CCC myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using confocal immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR, we studied cell surface staining and gene expression of the CXCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CCR8 receptors and their chemokine ligands in myocardial samples from end-stage CCC patients. CCR5+, CXCR3+, CCR4+, CCL5+ and CXCL9+ mononuclear cells were observed in CCC myocardium. mRNA expression of the chemokines CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL17, CCL19 and their receptors was upregulated in CCC myocardium. CXCL9 mRNA expression directly correlated with the intensity of myocarditis, as well as with mRNA expression of CXCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CCR8 and their ligands. We also analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms for genes encoding the most highly expressed chemokines and receptors in a cohort of Chagas disease patients. CCC patients with ventricular dysfunction displayed reduced genotypic frequencies of CXCL9 rs10336 CC, CXCL10 rs3921 GG, and increased CCR5 rs1799988CC as compared to those without dysfunction. Significantly, myocardial samples from CCC patients carrying the CXCL9/CXCL10 genotypes associated to a lower risk displayed a 2-6 fold reduction in mRNA expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, and other chemokines and receptors, along with reduced intensity of myocarditis, as compared to those with other CXCL9/CXCL10 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Results may indicate that genotypes associated to reduced risk in closely linked CXCL9 and CXCL10 genes may modulate local expression of the chemokines themselves, and simultaneously affect myocardial expression of other key chemokines as well as intensity of myocarditis. Taken together our results may suggest that CXCL9 and CXCL10 are master regulators of myocardial inflammatory cell migration, perhaps affecting clinical progression to the life-threatening form of CCC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/biossíntese , Quimiocina CXCL9/biossíntese , Polimorfismo Genético , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc ; 27(2): 203-10, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22996970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal median sternotomy is the most common surgical approach for access to heart disease treatment. The deep wound infections in postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery are a serious complication requiring high costs during treatment. Different studies have indicated some risk factors for the development of mediastinitis and preoperative variables are currently under investigation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the preoperative risk factors for postoperative development of mediastinitis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and valve replacement. METHODS: This observational study represents a cohort of 2768 consecutive operated patients. The period considered for analysis was from May 2007 to May 2009 and there were no exclusion criteria. Analysis was performed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression model of 38 preoperative variables. RESULTS: Thirty-five (1.3%) patients developed mediastinitis and 19 (0.7%) associated with osteomyelitis. The patient age average was 59.9 ± 13.5 years and the EuroSCORE of 4.5 ± 3.6. Hospital mortality was 42.8%. The multivariate analysis identified three variables as independent predictors of postoperative mediastinitis: intra-aortic balloon pump (OR 5.41, 95% CI [1.83 -16.01], P = 0.002), hemodialysis (OR 4.87, 95% CI [1.41 to 16.86], P = 0.012) and extracardiac vascular intervention (OR 4.39, 95% CI [1.64 to 11.76], P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: This study showed that necessity of preoperative hemodynamic support with intra-aortic balloon, hemodialysis, and extracardiac vascular intervention were risk factors for development of mediastinitis after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Mediastinite/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Idoso , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(3): 848-856, set. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-649264

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão pulmonar é associada ao pior prognóstico no pós-transplante cardíaco. O teste de reatividade pulmonar com Nitroprussiato de Sódio (NPS) está associado a elevados índices de hipotensão arterial sistêmica, disfunção ventricular do enxerto transplantado e elevadas taxas de desqualificação para o transplante. OBJETIVO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar os efeitos do Sildenafil (SIL) e NPS sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas, neuro-hormonais e ecocardiográficas durante teste de reatividade pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes foram submetidos, simultaneamente, ao cateterismo cardíaco direito, ao ecocardiograma e à dosagem de BNP e gasometria venosa, antes e após administração de NPS (1 - 2 µg/Kg/min) ou SIL (100 mg, dose única). RESULTADOS: Ambos reduziram a hipertensão pulmonar, porém o nitrato promoveu hipotensão sistêmica significativa (Pressão Arterial Média - PAM: 85,2 vs. 69,8 mmHg, p < 0,001). Ambos reduziram as dimensões cardíacas e melhoraram a função cardíaca esquerda (NPS: 23,5 vs. 24,8 %, p = 0,02; SIL: 23,8 vs. 26 %, p < 0,001) e direita (SIL: 6,57 ± 2,08 vs. 8,11 ± 1,81 cm/s, p = 0,002; NPS: 6,64 ± 1,51 vs. 7,72 ± 1,44 cm/s, p = 0,003), medidas pela fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda e Doppler tecidual, respectivamente. O SIL, ao contrário do NPS, apresentou melhora no índice de saturação venosa de oxigênio, medido pela gasometria venosa. CONCLUSÃO: Sildenafil e NPS são vasodilatadores que reduzem, de forma significativa, a hipertensão pulmonar e a geometria cardíaca, além de melhorar a função biventricular. O NPS, ao contrário do SIL, esteve associado a hipotensão arterial sistêmica e piora da saturação venosa de oxigênio.


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation. The pulmonary hypertension reversibility test with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is associated with a high rate of systemic arterial hypotension, ventricular dysfunction of the transplanted graft and high rates of disqualification from transplantation. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at comparing the effects of sildenafil (SIL) and SNP on hemodynamic, neurohormonal and echocardiographic variables during the pulmonary reversibility test. METHODS: The patients underwent simultaneously right cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, BNP measurement, and venous blood gas analysis before and after receiving either SNP (1 - 2 µg/kg/min) or SIL (100 mg, single dose). RESULTS: Both drugs reduced pulmonary hypertension, but SNP caused a significant systemic hypotension (mean blood pressure - MBP: 85.2 vs. 69.8 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Both drugs reduced cardiac dimensions and improved left cardiac function (SNP: 23.5 vs. 24.8%, p = 0.02; SIL: 23.8 vs. 26%, p < 0.001) and right cardiac function (SIL: 6.57 ± 2.08 vs. 8.11 ± 1.81 cm/s, p = 0.002; SNP: 6.64 ± 1.51 vs. 7.72 ± 1.44 cm/s, p = 0.003), measured through left ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler, respectively. Sildenafil, contrary to SNP, improved venous oxygen saturation, measured on venous blood gas analysis. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil and SNP are vasodilators that significantly reduce pulmonary hypertension and cardiac geometry, in addition to improving biventricular function. Sodium nitroprusside, contrary to SIL, was associated with systemic arterial hypotension and worsening of venous oxygen saturation.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Nitroprussiato/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos da radiação , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroprussiato/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Função Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 98(5): 375-83, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22858653

RESUMO

In the past two years we observed several changes in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of patients with acute heart failure (acute HF), which led us to the need of performing a summary update of the II Brazilian Guidelines on Acute Heart Failure 2009. In the diagnostic evaluation, the diagnostic flowchart was simplified and the role of clinical assessment and echocardiography was enhanced. In the clinical-hemodynamic evaluation on admission, the hemodynamic echocardiography gained prominence as an aid to define this condition in patients with acute HF in the emergency room. In the prognostic evaluation, the role of biomarkers was better established and the criteria and prognostic value of the cardiorenal syndrome was better defined. The therapeutic approach flowcharts were revised, and are now simpler and more objective. Among the advances in drug therapy, the safety and importance of the maintenance or introduction of beta-blockers in the admission treatment are highlighted. Anticoagulation, according to new evidence, gained a wider range of indications. The presentation hemodynamic models of acute pulmonary edema were well established, with their different therapeutic approaches, as well as new levels of indication and evidence. In the surgical treatment of acute HF, CABG, the approach to mechanical lesions and heart transplantation were reviewed and updated. This update strengthens the II Brazilian Guidelines on Acute Heart Failure to keep it updated and refreshed. All clinical cardiologists who deal with patients with acute HF will find, in the guidelines and its summary, important tools to help them with the clinical practice for better diagnosis and treatment of their patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Doença Aguda , Brasil , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 99(3): 848-56, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22898992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation. The pulmonary hypertension reversibility test with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is associated with a high rate of systemic arterial hypotension, ventricular dysfunction of the transplanted graft and high rates of disqualification from transplantation. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at comparing the effects of sildenafil (SIL) and SNP on hemodynamic, neurohormonal and echocardiographic variables during the pulmonary reversibility test. METHODS: The patients underwent simultaneously right cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, BNP measurement, and venous blood gas analysis before and after receiving either SNP (1 - 2 µg/kg/min) or SIL (100 mg, single dose). RESULTS: Both drugs reduced pulmonary hypertension, but SNP caused a significant systemic hypotension (mean blood pressure - MBP: 85.2 vs. 69.8 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Both drugs reduced cardiac dimensions and improved left cardiac function (SNP: 23.5 vs. 24.8%, p = 0.02; SIL: 23.8 vs. 26%, p < 0.001) and right cardiac function (SIL: 6.57 ± 2.08 vs. 8.11 ± 1.81 cm/s, p = 0.002; SNP: 6.64 ± 1.51 vs. 7.72 ± 1.44 cm/s, p = 0.003), measured through left ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler, respectively. Sildenafil, contrary to SNP, improved venous oxygen saturation, measured on venous blood gas analysis. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil and SNP are vasodilators that significantly reduce pulmonary hypertension and cardiac geometry, in addition to improving biventricular function. Sodium nitroprusside, contrary to SIL, was associated with systemic arterial hypotension and worsening of venous oxygen saturation.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Nitroprussiato/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroprussiato/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Citrato de Sildenafila , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Função Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc ; 27(1): 110-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22729308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing need to improve myocardial protection, which will lead to better performance of cardiac operations and reduce morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of myocardial protection solution using both intracellular and extracellular crystalloid type regarding the performance of the electrical conduction system, left ventricular contractility and edema, after being subjected to ischemic arrest and reperfusion. METHODS: Hearts isolated from male Wistar (n=32) rats were prepared using Langendorff method and randomly divided equally into four groups according the cardioprotective solutions used Krebs-Henseleit-Buffer (KHB), Bretschneider-HTK (HTK), St. Thomas-1 (STH-1) and Celsior (CEL). After stabilization with KHB at 37ºC, baseline values (control) were collected for heart rate (HR), left ventricle systolic pressure (LVSP), maximum first derivate of rise left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt), maximum first derivate of fall left ventricular pressure (-dP/dt) and coronary flow (CF). The hearts were then perfused at 10ºC for 5 min and kept for 2 h in static ischemia at 20ºC in each cardioprotective solution. Data evaluation was done using analysis of variance in completely randomized One-Way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance chosen was P<0.05. RESULTS: HR was restored with all the solutions used. The evaluation of left ventricular contractility (LVSP, +dP/ dt and -dP/dt) showed that treatment with CEL solution was better compared to other solutions. When analyzing the CF, the HTK solution showed better protection against edema. CONCLUSION: Despite the cardioprotective crystalloid solutions studied are not fully able to suppress the deleterious effects of ischemia and reperfusion in the rat heart, the CEL solution had significantly higher results followed by HTK>KHB>STH-1.


Assuntos
Soluções Cardioplégicas/farmacologia , Edema Cardíaco/patologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Coração , Soluções Isotônicas/farmacologia , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bicarbonatos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Soluções Cristaloides , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Eletrólitos/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Glutationa/farmacologia , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/métodos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histidina/farmacologia , Magnésio/farmacologia , Masculino , Manitol/farmacologia , Modelos Animais , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Procaína/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Trometamina/farmacologia
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