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1.
Pathol Res Pract ; 227: 153637, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619577

RESUMO

Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a relevant prognostic factor in germ cell tumors of the testis (GCTT) and it has been included in the AJCC staging system. Nevertheless, its histological assessment is challenging, with low/moderate interobserver agreement also among expert uropathologists. Few studies focused on the potential role of immunohistochemistry to solve this critical issue; as result, in current guidelines there is no indication for additional staining to detect this histological feature. In the present study, we investigated the detection of LVI invasion in a small cohort of GCTT with double staining for OCT4/CD34. Although our results need to be validated in larger case series with follow-up data, they suggest as OCT4/CD34 could be a useful tool for the histological assessment of these tumors, helping to identify some histological mimickers of LVI and modifying the pT/stage in a significant percentage of patients.

2.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536504

RESUMO

Prostate cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed non-skin malignancy in male patients, still representing one of the main causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Evidence is mounting that suggests the putative role of microbiota in the carcinogenesis as well as in modulating the efficacy and activity of anticancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapies) in a large number of hematological and solid tumors. However, few data are available regarding the interactions between prostate cancer and microbiome so far, in particular in terms of the impact of microbiota on disease development, pathogenesis, and response to medical treatments in this genitourinary malignancy. Herein, we provide an overview of current knowledge, novel insights and emerging therapeutic approaches related to gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiome in prostate cancer patients, especially focusing on available evidence and published trials on this topic.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508017

RESUMO

PRAME (PReferentially expressed Antigen in MElanoma) is a tumor-associated antigen that was recently found to be expressed by malignant melanocytic lesions but not by benign ones, thus resulting useful in this diagnostic field. PRAME could also be expressed by some normal tissues and nonmelanocytic tumors, suggesting as caution should be adopted to use PRAME as a "pan-melanoma" marker for the differential diagnosis with other malignant tumors. Until now, PRAME expression was exclusively investigated through single staining with a monoclonal antibody targeting PRAME and with double staining for Melan A/PRAME found to be useful in specific diagnostic sets. Herein, we studied the expression of PRAME in 40 melanocytic lesions and 23 nonmelanocytic ones using PRAME, Melan A/PRAME, and novel double staining for HMB45/PRAME. Although our results need to be validated, they support the adoption of HMB45/PRAME, alone or in combination with PRAME and Melan A/PRAME, as a helpful marker in the diagnosis of melanocytic neoplasms with a high concordance rate between primary melanoma and corresponding metastases.

4.
Eur Urol ; 80(4): 480-488, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) can guide the surgical plan during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), and intraoperative frozen section (IFS) can facilitate real-time surgical margin assessment. OBJECTIVE: To assess a novel technique of IFS targeted to the index lesion by using augmented reality three-dimensional (AR-3D) models in patients scheduled for nerve-sparing RARP (NS-RARP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between March 2019 and July 2019, 20 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent NS-RARP with IFS directed to the index lesion with the help of AR-3D models (study group). Control group consists of 20 patients matched with 1:1 propensity score for age, clinical stage, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score v2, International Society of Urological Pathology grade, prostate volume, NS approach, and prostate-specific antigen in which RARP was performed by cognitive assessment of mpMRI. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: In the study group, an AR-3D model was superimposed to the surgical field to guide the surgical dissection. Tissue sampling for IFS was taken in the area in which the index lesion was projected by AR-3D guidance. MEASUREMENTS: Chi-square test, Student t test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare, respectively, proportions, means, and medians between the two groups. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Patients in the AR-3D group had comparable preoperative characteristics and those undergoing the NS approach were referred to as the control group (all p ≥ 0.06). Overall, positive surgical margin (PSM) rates were comparable between the two groups; PSMs at the level of the index lesion were significantly lower in patients referred to AR-3D guided IFS to the index lesion (5%) than those in the control group (20%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The novel technique of AR-3D guidance for IFS analysis may allow for reducing PSMs at the level of the index lesion. PATIENT SUMMARY: Augmented reality three-dimensional guidance for intraoperative frozen section analysis during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy facilitates the real-time assessment of surgical margins and may reduce positive surgical margins at the index lesion.

5.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387596

RESUMO

AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and meeting abstracts. Outcomes of interest included: overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Platinum-based AC was associated with improved DFS, while the benefit in OS and CSS was not statistically significant compared to observation. Conversely, platinum-based AC showed a modest OS benefit in an analysis combing multivariable HRs with estimated HRs from Kaplan-Meier curves. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that platinum-based AC is associated with improved DFS and a modest OS benefit in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinomas.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207825

RESUMO

Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas are a miscellaneous group of tumors that include different histological subtypes, each one characterized by peculiarity in terms of genetic alteration, clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment response. Because of their low incidence and poor enrollment in clinical trials, alongside their heterogeneity, additional efforts are required to better unveil the pathogenetic mechanisms and, consequently, to improve the treatment algorithm. Nowadays, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTOR and MET inhibitors, and even cisplatin-based chemotherapy and immunotherapy are potential weapons that are still under evaluation in this setting. Various biomarkers have been evaluated for detecting progression and monitoring renal cell carcinoma, but more studies are necessary to improve this field. In this review, we provide an overview on the molecular characteristics of this group of tumors and the recently published trials, giving an insight into what might become the future therapeutic standard in this complex world of non-clear cell kidney cancers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The conventional imaging flowchart for prostate cancer (PCa) staging may fail in correctly detecting lymph node metastases (LNM). Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) represents the only reliable method, although invasive. A new amino acid PET compound, [18F]-fluciclovine, was recently authorized in suspected PCa recurrence but not yet included in the standard staging work-up of primary PCa. A prospective monocentric study was designed to evaluate [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT diagnostic performance for preoperative LN staging in primary high-risk PCa. METHODS: Consecutive patients (pts) with biopsy-proven PCa, standard staging (including [11C]choline PET/CT), eligible for PLND, were enrolled to undergo an investigational [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT. Nodal uptake higher than surrounding background was reported by at least two readers (blinded to [11C]choline) using a visual 5-point scale (1-2 probably negative; 4-5 probably positive; 3 equivocal); SUVmax, target-to-background (aorta-A; bone marrow-BM) ratios (TBRs), were also calculated. PET results were validated with PLND. [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT performance using visual score and semi-quantitative indexes was analyzed both per patient and per LN anatomical region, compared to conventional [11C]choline and clinical predictive factors (to note that diagnostic performance of [18F]-fluciclovine was explored for LNM but not examined for intrapelvic or extrapelvic M1 lesions). RESULTS: Overall, 94 pts underwent [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT; 72/94 (77%) high-risk pts were included in the final analyses (22 pts excluded: 8 limited PLND; 3 intermediate-risk; 2 treated with radiotherapy; 4 found to be M1; 5 neoadjuvant hormonal therapy). Median LNM risk by Briganti nomogram was 19%. LNM confirmed on histology was 25% (18/72 pts). Overall, 1671 LN were retrieved; 45/1671 (3%) LNM detected. Per pt, median no. of removed LN was 22 (mean 23 ± 10; range 8-51), of LNM was 2 (mean 3 ± 2; range 1-10). Median LNM size was 5 mm (mean 5 ± 2.5; range 2-10). On patient-based analyses (n = 72), diagnostic performance for LNM resulted significant with [18F]-fluciclovine (AUC 0.66, p 0.04; 50% sensitivity, 81% specificity, 47% PPV, 83% NPV, 74% accuracy), but not with [11C]choline (AUC 0.60, p 0.2; 50%, 70%, 36%, 81%, and 65% respectively). Briganti nomogram (OR = 1.03, p = 0.04) and [18F]-fluciclovine visual score (≥ 4) (OR = 4.27, p = 0.02) resulted independent predictors of LNM at multivariable analyses. On region-based semi-quantitative analyses (n = 576), PET/CT performed better using TBR parameters (TBR-A similar to TBR-BM; TBR-A fluciclovine AUC 0.61, p 0.35, vs choline AUC 0.57 p 0.54; TBR-BM fluciclovine AUC 0.61, p 0.36, vs choline AUC 0.58, p 0.52) rather than using absolute LN SUVmax (fluciclovine AUC 0.51, p 0.91, vs choline AUC 0.51, p 0.94). However, in all cases, diagnostic performance was not statistically significant for LNM detection, although slightly in favor of the experimental tracer [18F]-fluciclovine for each parameter. On the contrary, visual interpretation significantly outperformed PET semi-quantitative parameters (choline and fluciclovine: AUC 0.65 and 0.64 respectively; p 0.03) and represents an independent predictive factor of LNM with both tracers, in particular [18F]-fluciclovine (OR = 8.70, p 0.002, vs OR = 3.98, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In high-risk primary PCa, [18F]-fluciclovine demonstrates some advantages compared with [11C]choline but sensitivity for metastatic LN detection is still inadequate compared to PLND. Visual (combined morphological and functional), compared to semi-quantitative assessment, is promising but relies mainly on readers' experience rather than on unquestionable LN avidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2014-003,165-15.

8.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274255

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few data are available regarding the trend of IgA anti-transglutaminase antibodies (TGA-IgA) in children with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Our aim is to examine the normalization time of CD serology in a large pediatric population, and its predictors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the normalization time of TGA-IgA and its predictive factors (age, sex, ethnicity, symptoms, associated diabetes/thyroiditis, Marsh stage, TGA-IgA and endomysial antibody levels at diagnosis, diet adherence), in 1024 children diagnosed from 2000 to 2019 in three pediatric Italian centers, on a GFD. RESULTS: TGA-IgA remission was reached in 67,3%, 80,7%, 89,8% and 94,9% after 12, 18, 24 and 36 months from starting a GFD, respectively (median time = 9 months). TGA-IgA >10´upper limit of normal at diagnosis (HR = 0.56), age 7-12 years old (HR = 0.83), poor compliance to diet (HR = 0.69), female sex (HR = 0.82), non-Caucasian ethnicity (HR = 0.75), and comorbidities (HR = 0.72) were independent factors significantly associated with longer time to normalization. CONCLUSIONS: Our population is the largest in the literature, with the majority of patients normalizing CD serology within 24 months from starting a GFD. We suggest a special attention to patients with comorbidities, language barriers or age 7-12 years for a proper management and follow-up.

9.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(5): 423-431, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising source of biological information in cancer. Data correlating PD-L1 expression in CTCs with patients' response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still lacking. METHODS: This is a prospective single-center cohort study enrolling patients with advanced NSCLC. CTCs were identified and counted with the CellSearch system. PD-L1 expression on CTCs was assessed with phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-human PD-L1 antibody, clone MIH3 (BioLegend, USA). Primary endpoint was the correlation between the CTCs PD-L1 expression and overall survival (OS). Among secondary objectives, we evaluated the correlation between PD-L1 expression on CTCs and matched tumor tissue and the correlation of CTC number and baseline tumor size (BTS). RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents as second- or third-line therapy were enrolled. Patients were divided into 3 groups: no CTC detectable (CTCnull, n = 15), PD-L1 positive CTC (CTCpos, n = 13), and PD-L1 negative CTC (CTCneg, n = 11). Median OS in patients with CTCneg was 2.2 months, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.6 (reference) versus 3.7 months, 95% CI, 0.1-7.5 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13-0.83; P = .019) in patients with CTCpos versus 16.0 months, 95% CI, 2.2-29.8 (HR 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06-0.45; P< .001) in patients with CTCnull. No correlation was found between PD-L1 expression on CTCs and on tumor tissue. CTC number was correlated with BTS. CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression on CTCs is a promising biomarker in patients with NSCLC treated with ICIs. Further validation as predictive biomarker is needed.

10.
Pathol Res Pract ; 222: 153440, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 (AR-V7) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Herein, we performed a meta-analysis aimed at systematically exploring the association between metastatic sites and AR-V7 expression in CRPC patients across prospective clinical trials. METHODS: We retrieved all the relevant prospective clinical trials through PubMed/Medline, Cochrane library, and EMBASE; additionally, proceedings of the main international oncological meetings were also searched for relevant abstracts. Outcomes of interest included metastatic sites (lymph node metastases, any site metastases, visceral metastases, and bone metastases) in AR-V7 positive and AR-V7 negative CRPC patients. Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 14 eligible prospective studies involving a total of 1944 CRPC patients (AR-V7 positive: 467; AR-V7 negative: 1477) were included in the analysis. According to our results, no differences between AR-V7 positive and AR-V7 negative CRPC patients were observed in terms of lymph node (OR 1.01; 95 % CI 0.49-2.09) and visceral metastases (OR 1.23; 95 % CI 0.89-1.71). Conversely, AR-V7 positive CRPC patients presented higher rate of any site metastases (OR 2.22; 95 % CI 1.58-3.12) and bone metastases (OR 2.03; 95 % CI 1.42-2.9) compared to AR-V7 negative subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis, the first in literature to be specifically focused on this topic so far, suggest that AR-V7 positivity may be associated with any site metastases and bone metastases; conversely, no association has been highlighted between AR-V7 expression and lymph node or visceral metastases. Although this meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution due to some limitations, our findings confirm that AR-V7 status could designate a unique and peculiar subtype of PC. Further studies aimed at improving and standardizing AR-V7 detection in clinical trials on CRPC patients are warranted.

11.
Respiration ; 100(6): 515-522, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis, staging, and molecular profiling of lung cancer are mostly carried out with bronchoscopy or CT-guided aspiration/biopsy. However, patients with locally advanced or advanced disease often harbor "superficial" metastases for which a percutaneous, ultrasound-assisted needle aspiration/biopsy (US-NAB) might represent an equally effective yet less invasive and costly alternative. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed a prospectively collected database of consecutive patients with known/suspected lung cancer who underwent a US-NAB of a suspected "superficial" metastasis. Cancer genotyping was carried out with next-generation sequencing using the Oncomine™ Focus DNA and RNA fusion panels. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry was performed with the SP263 antibody. Feasibility, diagnostic yield for tissue diagnosis, sensitivity for malignancy, diagnostic yield for the molecular profiling, and complications were the study endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 98 lesions were evaluated, and 93 were biopsied (95% feasibility). The spectrum of sampled sites included lymph nodes (63 patients), bone (11), subcutaneous tissue (8), muscle (7), and the pleura (4). The diagnostic yield for a tissue diagnosis was 93% (91/98). US-NAB correctly identified 85 of the 87 patients finally diagnosed with malignancy (98% sensitivity). Cancer genotyping and PDL1 testing were successfully completed in 41/42 patients (98%) and in 40/50 patients (80%) for whom these tests were requested, respectively. No complications were observed. CONCLUSION: US-NAB of "superficial" metastasis of lung cancer is safe and is associated with high success for diagnosis and molecular profiling. In this clinical setting, using US-NAB as a first-step technique would significantly limit the use of more invasive and costly diagnostic procedures.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805543

RESUMO

The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the role of [18F]Fluciclovine PET/CT in the characterization of intra-prostatic lesions in high-risk primary PCa patients eligible for radical prostatectomy, in comparison with conventional [11C]Choline PET/CT and validated by prostatectomy pathologic examination. Secondary aims were to determine the performance of PET semi-quantitative parameters (SUVmax; target-to-background ratios [TBRs], using abdominal aorta, bone marrow and liver as backgrounds) for malignant lesion detection (and best cut-off values) and to search predictive factors of malignancy. A six sextants prostate template was created and used by PET readers and pathologists for data comparison and validation. PET visual and semi-quantitative analyses were performed: for instance, patient-based, blinded to histopathology; subsequently lesion-based, un-blinded, according to the pathology reference template. Among 19 patients included (mean age 63 years, 89% high and 11% very-high-risk, mean PSA 9.15 ng/mL), 45 malignant and 31 benign lesions were found and 19 healthy areas were selected (n = 95). For both tracers, the location of the "blinded" prostate SUVmax matched with the lobe of the lesion with the highest pGS in 17/19 cases (89%). There was direct correlation between [18F]Fluciclovine uptake values and pISUP. Overall, lesion-based (n = 95), the performance of PET semiquantitative parameters, with either [18F]Fluciclovine or [11C]Choline, in detecting either malignant/ISUP2-5/ISUP4-5 PCa lesions, was moderate and similar (AUCs ≥ 0.70) but still inadequate (AUCs ≤ 0.81) as a standalone staging procedure. A [18F]Fluciclovine TBR-L3 ≥ 1.5 would depict a clinical significant lesion with a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 68% respectively; whereas a SUVmax cut-off value of 4 would be able to identify a ISUP 4-5 lesion in all cases (sensitivity 100%), although with low specificity (52%). TBRs (especially with threshold significantly higher than aorta and slightly higher than bone marrow), may be complementary to implement malignancy targeting.

14.
Minerva Urol Nephrol ; 73(3): 357-366, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the detection rate of overall PCa and csPCa, and the clinical impact of MRI/TRUS fusion targeted biopsy (FUSION-TB) compared to TRUS guided systematic biopsy (SB) in patients with different biopsy settings. METHODS: Three hundred and five patients were submitted to FUSION-TB, divided into three groups: biopsy naïve patients, previous negative biopsies and patients under active surveillance (AS). All patients had a single suspicious index lesion at mpMRI. Within these groups, we enrolled men underwent both to FUSION-TB and SB in the same session. Overall detection rate of PCa and csPCa for the two biopsy methods were compared separately between the three groups of patients. RESULTS: No differences were observed between the three groups concerning clinical and radiological characteristics. We found no differences in terms of overall PCa detection (66% vs. 63.8%, P=0.617) and csPCa detection (56.4% vs. 51.1%; P=0.225) concerning biopsy naïve patients. In patients previously submitted to a negative biopsy, FUSION-TB showed higher detection rate of csPCa compared to SB alone (41,3% vs. 27% respectively, P=0.038). In patients under AS, no differences were observed between FUSION-TB and SB in terms of overall PCa (50% vs. 73.1%) and csPCa (30.8% vs. 26.9%, respectively; P=0.705) detection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in men with previously negative biopsy, FUSION-TB showed significantly higher diagnostic performance for clinically significant PCa as compared to SB. Combination of FUSION-TB and SB should be recommended in AS population to offer higher chance of csPCa diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Conduta Expectante
15.
Pathol Res Pract ; 220: 153410, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, HER2 amplification has been evaluated as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in urothelial carcinoma (UC). In this retrospective study, we aimed at exploring the prognostic role of HER2 amplification in UC, measured by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the presence of HER2 amplification by using CISH in 31 UC patients followed at a single institution between 2018 and 2020. The primary objective was to assess the frequency of HER2 amplification and to compare clinical outcomes of HER2-amplified patients with non-amplified UCs. RESULTS: HER2 amplification was identified in 4 out of 31 patients (12.9 %). After a median follow-up of 28.1 months (95 % Confidence Intervals [CI] 11.2-45.1), median overall survival (OS) in the whole population was 10.9 months (95 % CI 3.5-22.1). Despite not reaching statistical significance, median OS was shorter in HER2-amplified patients (6.8 months, 95 % CI 3.9-9.7) compared to HER2-negative UCs (15.4 months, 95 % CI 7.5-23.3) (p = 0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Although limited by the small sample size, the results of our study suggest that HER2 amplifications by CISH could represent a prognostic factor for shorter survival in UC patients.

16.
Pathol Res Pract ; 219: 153350, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Due to its rarity, its molecular characterization as well as therapeutic targets are still not fully understood. METHODS: We performed a next-generation sequencing analysis using the platform Ion PGM System on 20 retrospectively collected ChRCC cases with the aim of identify molecular biomarkers with potential prognostic value or that could have therapeutic implications. RESULTS: We identified mutation onTP53, SMARCB1, RB1 and JAK3. The most frequently altered gene was TP53 (6/20, 30 % of cases). SMARCB1 mutation was found in 3 (15 %) patients and in all cases the mutational variant was p.T72 K, with known pathogenenic meaning. One (5%) patient presented a pathogenetic mutation of RB1. JAK3 was mutated in 1 (5%) patient and this mutation resulted to have uncertain pathogenetic significance. CONCLUSION: ChRCC is a rare disease still not fully molecularly characterized. Next-generation sequencing analysis could be useful to identify potential mutation with prognostic value or that could be potential therapeutic targets.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3257, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547336

RESUMO

Virtual microscopy (VM) holds promise to reduce subjectivity as well as intra- and inter-observer variability for the histopathological evaluation of prostate cancer. We evaluated (i) the repeatability (intra-observer agreement) and reproducibility (inter-observer agreement) of the 2014 Gleason grading system and other selected features using standard light microscopy (LM) and an internally developed VM system, and (ii) the interchangeability of LM and VM. Two uro-pathologists reviewed 413 cores from 60 Swedish men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer 1998-2014. Reviewer 1 performed two reviews using both LM and VM. Reviewer 2 performed one review using both methods. The intra- and inter-observer agreement within and between LM and VM were assessed using Cohen's kappa and Bland and Altman's limits of agreement. We found good repeatability and reproducibility for both LM and VM, as well as interchangeability between LM and VM, for primary and secondary Gleason pattern, Gleason Grade Groups, poorly formed glands, cribriform pattern and comedonecrosis but not for the percentage of Gleason pattern 4. Our findings confirm the non-inferiority of VM compared to LM. The repeatability and reproducibility of percentage of Gleason pattern 4 was poor regardless of method used warranting further investigation and improvement before it is used in clinical practice.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 751-756, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men engaged in high physical activity have lower risks of advanced and fatal prostate cancer. Mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood but may include systemic and tumor-specific effects. We investigated potential mechanisms linking physical activity and gene expression in prostate tissue from men with prostate cancer. METHODS: We included a subset of 118 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1986 and 2005 with whole-transcriptome gene expression profiling on tumor and adjacent normal prostate tissue and physical activity data. Long-term vigorous physical activity was self-reported as the average time spent engaged in various forms of recreational physical activity at baseline and biennially until prostate cancer diagnosis. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed among KEGG and Hallmark gene sets to identify pathways with differential expression based on vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: In adjacent normal tissue, we identified 25 KEGG gene sets enriched (downregulated) in the highest compared with lowest quintile of vigorous physical activity at an FDR <0.10, including a number of cancer- and immune-related pathways. Although no gene sets reached statistical significance in tumor tissue, top gene sets differentially expressed included TGF beta, apoptosis, and p53 signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity may influence the tumor microenvironment. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and further investigate potential mechanisms linking physical activity to lethal prostate cancer. IMPACT: Identification of gene expression alterations in the prostate associated with physical activity can improve our understanding of prostate cancer etiology.

19.
Mol Cancer Res ; 19(3): 475-484, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168599

RESUMO

Gleason score, a measure of prostate tumor differentiation, is the strongest predictor of lethal prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis. Metabolomic profiling of tumor and of patient serum could identify biomarkers of aggressive disease and lead to the development of a less-invasive assay to perform active surveillance monitoring. Metabolomic profiling of prostate tissue and serum samples was performed. Metabolite levels and metabolite sets were compared across Gleason scores. Machine learning algorithms were trained and tuned to predict transformation or differentiation status from metabolite data. A total of 135 metabolites were significantly different (P adjusted < 0.05) in tumor versus normal tissue, and pathway analysis identified one sugar metabolism pathway (P adjusted = 0.03). Machine learning identified profiles that predicted tumor versus normal tissue (AUC of 0.82 ± 0.08). In tumor tissue, 25 metabolites were associated with Gleason score (unadjusted P < 0.05), 4 increased in high grade while the remainder were enriched in low grade. While pyroglutamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol were correlated (0.73 and 0.72, respectively) between tissue and serum from the same patient, no metabolites were consistently associated with Gleason score in serum. Previously reported as well as novel metabolites with differing abundance were identified across tumor tissue. However, a "metabolite signature" for Gleason score was not obtained. This may be due to study design and analytic challenges that future studies should consider. IMPLICATIONS: Metabolic profiling can distinguish benign and neoplastic tissues. A novel unsupervised machine learning method can be utilized to achieve this distinction.

20.
Histopathology ; 78(2): 290-299, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757426

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the morphological and molecular characteristics of Leydig cell tumours (LCTs) of the testis for the identification of cases that may metastasise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six parameters for a predictive model of the metastatic risk were evaluated in 37 benign and 14 malignant LCTs of the testis [LCT Scaled Score (LeSS)]. The tumour size (benign LCTs, mean 13.3 mm; malignant LCTs, mean 44 mm) (P < 0.001) and five other parameters (infiltrative margins, necrosis, vascular invasion, mitotic count, and nuclear atypia) showed significant differences (Wilcoxon's test, P < 0.001). Eight metastatic LCTs and one benign LCT had infiltrative margins. Foci of coagulative necrosis occurred in 10 metastatic LCTs, whereas vascular invasion was identified in nine of 14 metastatic LCTs and none of 37 benign LCTs. Benign LCTs showed <2 mitoses/10 high-power fields (HPFs), whereas a high mitotic count (range, 3-50 mitoses/10 HPFs) was a feature of malignant LCTs. These parameters were selected by use of an inferential analysis based on univariate logistic regression models to develop a score. A LeSS of <4 correctly identified all histologically and clinically benign LCTs. A LeSS of ≥4 correctly identified all malignant LCTs. MDM2 and CDK4 immunostains were applied in all 51 cases: benign LCTs were negative; three of 11 malignant LCTs (27%) showed strong and diffuse immunopositivity and high levels of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification as determined with fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis and next-generation sequencing. CONCLUSION: We provide a new tool, the LeSS, for the prediction of malignant behaviour in LCTs.

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