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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5006, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408135


Obesity is a strong risk factor for cancer progression, posing obesity-related cancer as one of the leading causes of death. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that endow cancer cells with metastatic properties in patients affected by obesity remain unexplored.Here, we show that IL-6 and HGF, secreted by tumor neighboring visceral adipose stromal cells (V-ASCs), expand the metastatic colorectal (CR) cancer cell compartment (CD44v6 + ), which in turn secretes neurotrophins such as NGF and NT-3, and recruits adipose stem cells within tumor mass. Visceral adipose-derived factors promote vasculogenesis and the onset of metastatic dissemination by activation of STAT3, which inhibits miR-200a and enhances ZEB2 expression, effectively reprogramming CRC cells into a highly metastatic phenotype. Notably, obesity-associated tumor microenvironment provokes a transition in the transcriptomic expression profile of cells derived from the epithelial consensus molecular subtype (CMS2) CRC patients towards a mesenchymal subtype (CMS4). STAT3 pathway inhibition reduces ZEB2 expression and abrogates the metastatic growth sustained by adipose-released proteins. Together, our data suggest that targeting adipose factors in colorectal cancer patients with obesity may represent a therapeutic strategy for preventing metastatic disease.

Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Reprogramação Celular , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
Gut ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436496


OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumour spreading and relapse. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression is a negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) and a potential target in tumours carrying the gene amplification. Our aim was to define the expression of HER2 in colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs) and its possible role as therapeutic target in CRC resistant to anti- epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. DESIGN: A collection of primary sphere cell cultures obtained from 60 CRC specimens was used to generate CR-CSC mouse avatars to preclinically validate therapeutic options. We also made use of the ChIP-seq analysis for transcriptional evaluation of HER2 activation and global RNA-seq to identify the mechanisms underlying therapy resistance. RESULTS: Here we show that in CD44v6-positive CR-CSCs, high HER2 expression levels are associated with an activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which promotes the acetylation at the regulatory elements of the Erbb2 gene. HER2 targeting in combination with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors induces CR-CSC death and regression of tumour xenografts, including those carrying Kras and Pik3ca mutation. Requirement for the triple targeting is due to the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which release cytokines able to confer CR-CSC resistance to PI3K/AKT inhibitors. In contrast, targeting of PI3K/AKT as monotherapy is sufficient to kill liver-disseminating CR-CSCs in a model of adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: While PI3K targeting kills liver-colonising CR-CSCs, the concomitant inhibition of PI3K, HER2 and MEK is required to induce regression of tumours resistant to anti-EGFR therapies. These data may provide a rationale for designing clinical trials in the adjuvant and metastatic setting.

Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13988, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814794


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death. Chemoresistance is a pivotal feature of cancer cells leading to treatment failure and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are responsible for the efflux of several molecules, including anticancer drugs. The Hedgehog-GLI (HH-GLI) pathway is a major signalling in CRC, however its role in chemoresistance has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that the HH-GLI pathway favours resistance to 5-fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin in CRC cells. We identified potential GLI1 binding sites in the promoter region of six ABC transporters, namely ABCA2, ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCB7, ABCC2 and ABCG1. Next, we investigated the binding of GLI1 using chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and we demonstrate that GLI1 transcriptionally regulates the identified ABC transporters. We show that chemoresistant cells express high levels of GLI1 and of the ABC transporters and that GLI1 inhibition disrupts the transporters up-regulation. Moreover, we report that human CRC tumours express high levels of the ABCG1 transporter and that its expression correlates with worse patients' prognosis. This study identifies a new mechanism where HH-GLI signalling regulates CRC chemoresistance features. Our results indicate that the inhibition of Gli1 regulates the ABC transporters expression and therefore should be considered as a therapeutic option in chemoresistant patients.

Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244500


MicroRNAs are tiny but powerful regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Aberrant expression of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor microRNAs has been recognized as a common feature of human cancers. Colorectal cancer represents a major clinical challenge in the developed world and the design of innovative therapeutic approaches relies on the identification of novel biological targets. Here, we perform a functional screening in colorectal cancer cells using a library of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified anti-miRs in order to unveil putative oncogenic microRNAs whose inhibition yields a cytotoxic effect. We identify miR-1285-3p and further explore the effect of its targeting in both commercial cell lines and primary colorectal cancer stem cells, finding induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We show that DAPK2, a known tumor-suppressor, is a novel miR-1285 target and mediates both the anti-proliferative and the pro-apoptotic effects of miR-1285 depletion. Altogether, our findings uncover a novel oncogenic microRNA in colorectal cancer and lay the foundation for further studies aiming at the development of possible therapeutic strategies based on miR-1285 targeting.

Apoptose/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Oligonucleotídeos
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 70, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927908


In the last decades, the role of the microenvironment in tumor progression and therapeutic outcome has gained increasing attention. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have emerged as key players among stromal cells, owing to their abundance in most solid tumors and their diverse tumor-restraining/promoting roles. The interplay between tumor cells and neighboring CAFs takes place by both paracrine signals (cytokines, exosomes and metabolites) or by the multifaceted functions of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Here, we dissect the most recent identified mechanisms underlying CAF-mediated control of tumor progression and therapy resistance, which include induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), activation of survival pathways or stemness-related programs and metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells. Importantly, the recently unveiled heterogeneity in CAFs claims tailored therapeutic efforts aimed at eradicating the specific subset facilitating tumor progression, therapy resistance and relapse. However, despite the large amount of pre-clinical data, much effort is still needed to translate CAF-directed anti-cancer strategies from the bench to the clinic.

Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Comunicação Parácrina , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral