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1.
Metabolites ; 11(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205653

RESUMO

Trillions of microorganisms, termed the "microbiota", reside in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, and collectively participate in regulating the host phenotype. It is now clear that the gut microbiota, metabolites, and intestinal immune function are correlated, and that alterations of the complex and dynamic host-microbiota interactions can have deep consequences for host health. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system regulates the microbiota and by which the microbiota shapes host immunity are still not fully understood. This article discusses the contribution of metabolites in the crosstalk between gut microbiota and immune cells. The identification of key metabolites having a causal effect on immune responses and of the mechanisms involved can contribute to a deeper insight into host-microorganism relationships. This will allow a better understanding of the correlation between dysbiosis, microbial-based dysmetabolism, and pathogenesis, thus creating opportunities to develop microbiota-based therapeutics to improve human health. In particular, we systematically review the role of soluble and membrane-bound microbial metabolites in modulating host immunity in the gut, and of immune cells-derived metabolites affecting the microbiota, while discussing evidence of the bidirectional impact of this crosstalk. Furthermore, we discuss the potential strategies to hear the sound of such metabolite-mediated crosstalk.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 18(6)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545923

RESUMO

Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata is a planktonic marine diatom with a diplontic life cycle comprising a short sexual phase, during which gametes are produced following the encounter of two diploid cells of opposite mating type (MT). Gene expression studies have highlighted the presence of substantial changes occurring at the onset of sexual reproduction. Herein, we have hypothesized that the amount and nature of cellular metabolites varies along the mating process. To capture the metabolome of Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata at different harvesting times in an unbiased manner, we undertook an untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Using three different extraction steps, the method revealed pronounced differences in the metabolic profiles between control cells in the vegetative phase (MT+ and MT-) and mixed strains of opposite MTs (cross) undergoing sexual reproduction. Of the 2408 high-quality features obtained, 70 known metabolites could be identified based on in-house libraries and online databases; additional 46 features could be classified by molecular networking of tandem mass spectra. The reduction of phytol detected in the cross can be linked to the general downregulation of photosynthesis during sexual reproduction observed elsewhere. Moreover, the role of highly regulated compounds such as 7-dehydrodesmosterol, whose changes in abundance were the highest in the experiment, oleamide, ectoine, or trigonelline is discussed.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolômica , Água do Mar
3.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 1(5): 1301-1310, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996234

RESUMO

Biocompatible soft materials have recently found applications in interventional endoscopy to facilitate resection of mucosal tumors. When neoplastic lesions are in organs that can be easily damaged by perforation, such as stomach, intestine, and esophagus, the formation of a submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) is needed to lift the tumor from the underlying muscle during the resection of neoplasias. Such procedure is called endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We describe an injectable, biodegradable, hybrid hydrogel able to form a SFC and to facilitate ESD. The hydrogel, based on polyamidoamines, contains breakable silica nanocapsules covalently bound to its network and able to release biomolecules. To promote degradation, the hydrogel is composed of cleavable disulfide moieties that are reduced by the cells through secretion of glutathione. The same stimulus triggers the breaking of the silica nanocapsules; therefore, the entire hybrid material can be completely degraded and its decomposition depends entirely on the presence of cells. Interestingly, the hydrogel precursor solution showed rapid gelation when injected in vivo and afforded a long-lasting high mucosal elevation, keeping the cushion volume constant during the dissection. This novel material can provide a solution to ESD limitations and promote healing of tissues after surgery.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 410, 2017 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of four Health Literacy (HL) measurement tools, viz. Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA), Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS) and Single question on Self-rated Reading Ability (SrRA) among Italian oncology patients. METHODS: The original version of the tools were translated from the English language into Italian using a standard forward-backward procedure and according to internationally recognized good practices. Their internal consistency (reliability) and validity (construct, convergent and discriminative) were tested in a sample of 245 consecutive cancer patients recruited from seven Italian health care centers. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the STOFHLA-I was Chronbach's α=0.96 and that of NVS-I was α=0.74. The STOFHLA-I, NVS-I, SILS-I and SrRA-I scores were in a good relative correlation and in all tools the discriminative known-group validity was confirmed. The reliability and validity values were similar to those obtained from other cultural context studies. CONCLUSION: The psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of NVS, STHOFLA, SILS and SrRA were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. This indicates that they could be used as a screening tool in Italian patients. Moreover, the use of the same cross-cultural tools, validated in different languages, is essential for implementing multicenter studies to measure and compare the functional HL levels across countries.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Neoplasias , Psicometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Idioma , Masculino , Oncologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
5.
Small ; 12(35): 4881-4893, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364463

RESUMO

The challenge of mimicking the extracellular matrix with artificial scaffolds that are able to reduce immunoresponse is still unmet. Recent findings have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) infiltrating into the implanted scaffold have effects on the implant integration by improving the healing process. Toward this aim, a novel polyamidoamine-based nanocomposite hydrogel is synthesized, cross-linked with porous nanomaterials (i.e., mesoporous silica nanoparticles), able to release chemokine proteins. A comprehensive viscoelasticity study confirms that the hydrogel provides optimal structural support for MSC infiltration and proliferation. The efficiency of this hydrogel, containing the chemoattractant stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), in promoting MSC migration in vitro is demonstrated. Finally, subcutaneous implantation of SDF-1α-releasing hydrogels in mice results in a modulation of the inflammatory reaction. Overall, the proposed SDF-1α-nanocomposite hydrogel proves to have potential for applications in tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Hidrogéis/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Nanocompostos/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CXCL12/farmacologia , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Porosidade , Reologia , Dióxido de Silício/química
6.
Dalton Trans ; 44(18): 8478-87, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25572839

RESUMO

An emerging field regarding N^C^N terdentate Pt(II) complexes is their application as luminescent labels for bio-imaging. In fact, phosphorescent Pt complexes possess many advantages such as a wide emission color tunability, a better stability towards photo- and chemical degradation, a very large Stokes shift, and long-lived luminescent excited states with lifetimes typically two to three orders of magnitude longer than those of classic organic fluorophores. Here, we describe the synthesis and photophysical characterization of three new neutral N^C^N terdentate cyclometallated Pt complexes as long-lived bio-imaging probes. The novel molecular probes bear hydrophilic (oligo-)ethyleneglycol chains of various lengths to increase their water solubility and bio-compatibility and to impart amphiphilic nature to the molecules. The complexes are characterized by a high cell permeability and a low cytotoxicity, with an internalization kinetics that depends on both the length of the ethyleneglycol chain and the ancillary ligand.


Assuntos
Substâncias Luminescentes/síntese química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/síntese química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Microscopia Confocal , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química
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