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1.
J Gen Virol ; 102(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738886

RESUMO

Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales, with unsegmented (except for members of the genus Tapwovirus), negative-sense RNA genomes of 10-13 kb. Nyamviruses have a genome organisation and content similar to that of other mononegaviruses. Nyamiviridae includes several genera that form monophyletic clades on phylogenetic analysis of the RNA polymerase. Nyamiviruses have been found associated with diverse invertebrates as well as land- and seabirds. Members of the genera Nyavirus and Socyvirus produce enveloped, spherical virions. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Nyamiviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/nyamiviridae.

2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(20): 11938-11958, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751406

RESUMO

The 2A protein of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) acts as a switch to stimulate programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) during infection. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structure of TMEV 2A and define how it recognises the stimulatory RNA element. We demonstrate a critical role for bases upstream of the originally predicted stem-loop, providing evidence for a pseudoknot-like conformation and suggesting that the recognition of this pseudoknot by beta-shell proteins is a conserved feature in cardioviruses. Through examination of PRF in TMEV-infected cells by ribosome profiling, we identify a series of ribosomal pauses around the site of PRF induced by the 2A-pseudoknot complex. Careful normalisation of ribosomal profiling data with a 2A knockout virus facilitated the identification, through disome analysis, of ribosome stacking at the TMEV frameshifting signal. These experiments provide unparalleled detail of the molecular mechanisms underpinning Theilovirus protein-stimulated frameshifting.

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(8): e1009824, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398933

RESUMO

The herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 protein pUL21 is essential for efficient virus replication and dissemination. While pUL21 has been shown to promote multiple steps of virus assembly and spread, the molecular basis of its function remained unclear. Here we identify that pUL21 is a virus-encoded adaptor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). pUL21 directs the dephosphorylation of cellular and virus proteins, including components of the viral nuclear egress complex, and we define a conserved non-canonical linear motif in pUL21 that is essential for PP1 recruitment. In vitro evolution experiments reveal that pUL21 antagonises the activity of the virus-encoded kinase pUS3, with growth and spread of pUL21 PP1-binding mutant viruses being restored in adapted strains where pUS3 activity is disrupted. This study shows that virus-directed phosphatase activity is essential for efficient herpesvirus assembly and spread, highlighting the fine balance between kinase and phosphatase activity required for optimal virus replication.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009644, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138976

RESUMO

Coronavirus infection induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular signalling pathway composed of three branches, triggered by unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to high ER load. We have used RNA sequencing and ribosome profiling to investigate holistically the transcriptional and translational response to cellular infection by murine hepatitis virus (MHV), often used as a model for the Betacoronavirus genus to which the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 also belongs. We found the UPR to be amongst the most significantly up-regulated pathways in response to MHV infection. To confirm and extend these observations, we show experimentally the induction of all three branches of the UPR in both MHV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Over-expression of the SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 or S proteins alone is itself sufficient to induce the UPR. Remarkably, pharmacological inhibition of the UPR greatly reduced the replication of both MHV and SARS-CoV-2, revealing the importance of this pathway for successful coronavirus replication. This was particularly striking when both IRE1α and ATF6 branches of the UPR were inhibited, reducing SARS-CoV-2 virion release (~1,000-fold). Together, these data highlight the UPR as a promising antiviral target to combat coronavirus infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0066321, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963053

RESUMO

RNA structural elements occur in numerous single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The stem-loop 2 motif (s2m) is one such element with an unusually high degree of sequence conservation, being found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) in the genomes of many astroviruses, some picornaviruses and noroviruses, and a variety of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. The evolutionary conservation and its occurrence in all viral subgenomic transcripts imply a key role for s2m in the viral infection cycle. Our findings indicate that the element, while stably folded, can nonetheless be invaded and remodeled spontaneously by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that initiate pairing in exposed loops and trigger efficient sequence-specific RNA cleavage in reporter assays. ASOs also act to inhibit replication in an astrovirus replicon model system in a sequence-specific, dose-dependent manner and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture. Our results thus permit us to suggest that the s2m element is readily targeted by ASOs, which show promise as antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE The highly conserved stem-loop 2 motif (s2m) is found in the genomes of many RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Our findings indicate that the s2m element can be targeted by antisense oligonucleotides. The antiviral potential of this element represents a promising start for further research into targeting conserved elements in RNA viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Genoma Viral , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Dobramento de RNA , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Animais , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Células Vero
6.
Virology ; 558: 145-151, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774510

RESUMO

At least six small alternative-frame open reading frames (ORFs) overlapping well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 genes have been hypothesized to encode accessory proteins. Researchers have used different names for the same ORF or the same name for different ORFs, resulting in erroneous homological and functional inferences. We propose standard names for these ORFs and their shorter isoforms, developed in consultation with the Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. We recommend calling the 39 codon Spike-overlapping ORF ORF2b; the 41, 57, and 22 codon ORF3a-overlapping ORFs ORF3c, ORF3d, and ORF3b; the 33 codon ORF3d isoform ORF3d-2; and the 97 and 73 codon Nucleocapsid-overlapping ORFs ORF9b and ORF9c. Finally, we document conflicting usage of the name ORF3b in 32 studies, and consequent erroneous inferences, stressing the importance of reserving identical names for homologs. We recommend that authors referring to these ORFs provide lengths and coordinates to minimize ambiguity caused by prior usage of alternative names.


Assuntos
Fases de Leitura Aberta , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Terminologia como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/classificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009403, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735221

RESUMO

Arteriviruses are enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses that assemble and egress using the host cell's exocytic pathway. In previous studies, we demonstrated that most arteriviruses use a unique -2 ribosomal frameshifting mechanism to produce a C-terminally modified variant of their nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2). Like full-length nsp2, the N-terminal domain of this frameshift product, nsp2TF, contains a papain-like protease (PLP2) that has deubiquitinating (DUB) activity, in addition to its role in proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins. In cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), nsp2TF localizes to compartments of the exocytic pathway, specifically endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex. Here, we show that nsp2TF interacts with the two major viral envelope proteins, the GP5 glycoprotein and membrane (M) protein, which drive the key process of arterivirus assembly and budding. The PRRSV GP5 and M proteins were found to be poly-ubiquitinated, both in an expression system and in cells infected with an nsp2TF-deficient mutant virus. In contrast, ubiquitinated GP5 and M proteins did not accumulate in cells infected with the wild-type, nsp2TF-expressing virus. Further analysis implicated the DUB activity of the nsp2TF PLP2 domain in deconjugation of ubiquitin from GP5/M proteins, thus antagonizing proteasomal degradation of these key viral structural proteins. Our findings suggest that nsp2TF is targeted to the exocytic pathway to reduce proteasome-driven turnover of GP5/M proteins, thus promoting the formation of GP5-M dimers that are critical for arterivirus assembly.


Assuntos
Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Suínos , Montagem de Vírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4070, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792502

RESUMO

Human astroviruses are small non-enveloped viruses with positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomes. Astroviruses cause acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide and have been associated with encephalitis and meningitis in immunocompromised individuals. It is still unknown how astrovirus particles exit infected cells following replication. Through comparative genomic analysis and ribosome profiling we here identify and confirm the expression of a conserved alternative-frame ORF, encoding the protein XP. XP-knockout astroviruses are attenuated and pseudo-revert on passaging. Further investigation into the function of XP revealed plasma and trans Golgi network membrane-associated roles in virus assembly and/or release through a viroporin-like activity. XP-knockout replicons have only a minor replication defect, demonstrating the role of XP at late stages of infection. The discovery of XP advances our knowledge of these important human viruses and opens an additional direction of research into their life cycle and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Mamastrovirus/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Genômica/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Imunoprecipitação , Canais Iônicos/genética , Mamastrovirus/genética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Plasmídeos/genética , Ribossomos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Viroporinas , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
9.
J Gen Virol ; 101(10): 1085-1089, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667280

RESUMO

Identification of the full complement of genes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a crucial step towards gaining a fuller understanding of its molecular biology. However, short and/or overlapping genes can be difficult to detect using conventional computational approaches, whereas high-throughput experimental approaches - such as ribosome profiling - cannot distinguish translation of functional peptides from regulatory translation or translational noise. By studying regions showing enhanced conservation at synonymous sites in alignments of SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses (subgenus Sarbecovirus) and correlating the results with the conserved presence of an open reading frame (ORF) and a plausible translation mechanism, a putative new gene - ORF3c - was identified. ORF3c overlaps ORF3a in an alternative reading frame. A recently published ribosome profiling study confirmed that ORF3c is indeed translated during infection. ORF3c is conserved across the subgenus Sarbecovirus, and encodes a 40-41 amino acid predicted transmembrane protein.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Homologia de Genes/genética , Fases de Leitura/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Proteínas Viroporinas
10.
Cell ; 181(7): 1502-1517.e23, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559462

RESUMO

RNA viruses are a major human health threat. The life cycles of many highly pathogenic RNA viruses like influenza A virus (IAV) and Lassa virus depends on host mRNA, because viral polymerases cleave 5'-m7G-capped host transcripts to prime viral mRNA synthesis ("cap-snatching"). We hypothesized that start codons within cap-snatched host transcripts could generate chimeric human-viral mRNAs with coding potential. We report the existence of this mechanism of gene origination, which we named "start-snatching." Depending on the reading frame, start-snatching allows the translation of host and viral "untranslated regions" (UTRs) to create N-terminally extended viral proteins or entirely novel polypeptides by genetic overprinting. We show that both types of chimeric proteins are made in IAV-infected cells, generate T cell responses, and contribute to virulence. Our results indicate that during infection with IAV, and likely a multitude of other human, animal and plant viruses, a host-dependent mechanism allows the genesis of hybrid genes.


Assuntos
Capuzes de RNA/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cães , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Mutantes Quiméricas/genética , Proteínas Mutantes Quiméricas/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/metabolismo , Vírus de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética
11.
Nat Plants ; 6(5): 522-532, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284544

RESUMO

Temperature is a major environmental cue affecting plant growth and development. Plants often experience higher temperatures in the context of a 24 h day-night cycle, with temperatures peaking in the middle of the day. Here, we find that the transcript encoding the bHLH transcription factor PIF7 undergoes a direct increase in translation in response to warmer temperature. Diurnal expression of PIF7 transcript gates this response, allowing PIF7 protein to quickly accumulate in response to warm daytime temperature. Enhanced PIF7 protein levels directly activate the thermomorphogenesis pathway by inducing the transcription of key genes such as the auxin biosynthetic gene YUCCA8, and are necessary for thermomorphogenesis to occur under warm cycling daytime temperatures. The temperature-dependent translational enhancement of PIF7 messenger RNA is mediated by the formation of an RNA hairpin within its 5' untranslated region, which adopts an alternative conformation at higher temperature, leading to increased protein synthesis. We identified similar hairpin sequences that control translation in additional transcripts including WRKY22 and the key heat shock regulator HSFA2, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism enabling plants to respond and adapt rapidly to high temperatures.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
12.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 25, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: POLG, located on nuclear chromosome 15, encodes the DNA polymerase γ(Pol γ). Pol γ is responsible for the replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Pol γ is the only DNA polymerase found in mitochondria for most animal cells. Mutations in POLG are the most common single-gene cause of diseases of mitochondria and have been mapped over the coding region of the POLG ORF. RESULTS: Using PhyloCSF to survey alternative reading frames, we found a conserved coding signature in an alternative frame in exons 2 and 3 of POLG, herein referred to as ORF-Y that arose de novo in placental mammals. Using the synplot2 program, synonymous site conservation was found among mammals in the region of the POLG ORF that is overlapped by ORF-Y. Ribosome profiling data revealed that ORF-Y is translated and that initiation likely occurs at a CUG codon. Inspection of an alignment of mammalian sequences containing ORF-Y revealed that the CUG codon has a strong initiation context and that a well-conserved predicted RNA stem-loop begins 14 nucleotides downstream. Such features are associated with enhanced initiation at near-cognate non-AUG codons. Reanalysis of the Kim et al. (2014) draft human proteome dataset yielded two unique peptides that map unambiguously to ORF-Y. An additional conserved uORF, herein referred to as ORF-Z, was also found in exon 2 of POLG. Lastly, we surveyed Clinvar variants that are synonymous with respect to the POLG ORF and found that most of these variants cause amino acid changes in ORF-Y or ORF-Z. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for a novel coding sequence, ORF-Y, that overlaps the POLG ORF. Ribosome profiling and mass spectrometry data show that ORF-Y is expressed. PhyloCSF and synplot2 analysis show that ORF-Y is subject to strong purifying selection. An abundance of disease-correlated mutations that map to exons 2 and 3 of POLG but also affect ORF-Y provides potential clinical significance to this finding.


Assuntos
Códon de Iniciação/genética , DNA Polimerase gama/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Éxons/genética , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética
13.
Virus Evol ; 6(1): veaa007, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064120

RESUMO

Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses form the largest and most diverse group of eukaryote-infecting viruses. Their genomes comprise one or more segments of coding-sense RNA that function directly as messenger RNAs upon release into the cytoplasm of infected cells. Positive-sense RNA viruses are generally accepted to encode proteins solely on the positive strand. However, we previously identified a surprisingly long (∼1,000-codon) open reading frame (ORF) on the negative strand of some members of the family Narnaviridae which, together with RNA bacteriophages of the family Leviviridae, form a sister group to all other positive-sense RNA viruses. Here, we completed the genomes of three mosquito-associated narnaviruses, all of which have the long reverse-frame ORF. We systematically identified narnaviral sequences in public data sets from a wide range of sources, including arthropod, fungal, and plant transcriptomic data sets. Long reverse-frame ORFs are widespread in one clade of narnaviruses, where they frequently occupy >95 per cent of the genome. The reverse-frame ORFs correspond to a specific avoidance of CUA, UUA, and UCA codons (i.e. stop codon reverse complements) in the forward-frame RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ORF. However, absence of these codons cannot be explained by other factors such as inability to decode these codons or GC3 bias. Together with other analyses, we provide the strongest evidence yet of coding capacity on the negative strand of a positive-sense RNA virus. As these ORFs comprise some of the longest known overlapping genes, their study may be of broad relevance to understanding overlapping gene evolution and de novo origin of genes.

14.
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748389

RESUMO

CpG dinucleotides are suppressed in the genomes of many vertebrate RNA viruses, including HIV-1. The cellular antiviral protein ZAP (zinc finger antiviral protein) binds CpGs and inhibits HIV-1 replication when CpGs are introduced into the viral genome. However, it is not known if ZAP-mediated restriction is the only mechanism driving CpG suppression. To determine how CpG dinucleotides affect HIV-1 replication, we increased their abundance in multiple regions of the viral genome and analyzed the effect on RNA expression, protein abundance, and infectious-virus production. We found that the antiviral effect of CpGs was not correlated with their abundance. Interestingly, CpGs inserted into some regions of the genome sensitize the virus to ZAP antiviral activity more efficiently than insertions into other regions, and this sensitivity can be modulated by interferon treatment or ZAP overexpression. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the virus to endogenous ZAP was correlated with its sensitivity to the ZAP cofactor KHNYN. Finally, we show that CpGs in some contexts can also inhibit HIV-1 replication by ZAP-independent mechanisms, and one of these is the activation of a cryptic splice site at the expense of a canonical splice site. Overall, we show that the location and sequence context of the CpG in the viral genome determines its antiviral activity.IMPORTANCE Some RNA virus genomes are suppressed in the nucleotide combination of a cytosine followed by a guanosine (CpG), indicating that they are detrimental to the virus. The antiviral protein ZAP binds viral RNA containing CpGs and prevents the virus from multiplying. However, it remains unknown how the number and position of CpGs in viral genomes affect restriction by ZAP and whether CpGs have other antiviral mechanisms. Importantly, manipulating the CpG content in viral genomes could help create new vaccines. HIV-1 shows marked CpG suppression, and by introducing CpGs into its genome, we show that ZAP efficiently targets a specific region of the viral genome, that the number of CpGs does not predict the magnitude of antiviral activity, and that CpGs can inhibit HIV-1 gene expression through a ZAP-independent mechanism. Overall, the position of CpGs in the HIV-1 genome determines the magnitude and mechanism through which they inhibit the virus.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Dinucleosídeos/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Fosfatos de Dinucleosídeos/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Muramidase , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(17): 9386-9399, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396629

RESUMO

In all biological systems, RNAs are associated with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), forming complexes that control gene regulatory mechanisms, from RNA synthesis to decay. In mammalian mitochondria, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is conducted by mitochondrial RBPs (mt-RBPs) at various stages of mt-RNA metabolism, including polycistronic transcript production, its processing into individual transcripts, mt-RNA modifications, stability, translation and degradation. To date, only a handful of mt-RBPs have been characterized. Here, we describe a putative human mitochondrial protein, C6orf203, that contains an S4-like domain-an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding domain previously identified in proteins involved in translation. Our data show C6orf203 to bind highly structured RNA in vitro and associate with the mitoribosomal large subunit in HEK293T cells. Knockout of C6orf203 leads to a decrease in mitochondrial translation and consequent OXPHOS deficiency, without affecting mitochondrial RNA levels. Although mitoribosome stability is not affected in C6orf203-depleted cells, mitoribosome profiling analysis revealed a global disruption of the association of mt-mRNAs with the mitoribosome, suggesting that C6orf203 may be required for the proper maturation and functioning of the mitoribosome. We therefore propose C6orf203 to be a novel RNA-binding protein involved in mitochondrial translation, expanding the repertoire of factors engaged in this process.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/biossíntese , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/fisiologia , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia
16.
J Virol ; 93(16)2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167906

RESUMO

The -2/-1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (-2/-1 PRF) mechanism in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leads to the translation of two additional viral proteins, nonstructural protein 2TF (nsp2TF) and nsp2N. This -2/-1 PRF mechanism is transactivated by a viral protein, nsp1ß, and cellular poly(rC) binding proteins (PCBPs). Critical elements for -2/-1 PRF, including a slippery sequence and a downstream C-rich motif, were also identified in 11 simarteriviruses. However, the slippery sequences (XXXUCUCU instead of XXXUUUUU) in seven simarteriviruses can only facilitate -2 PRF to generate nsp2TF. The nsp1ß of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) was identified as a key factor that transactivates both -2 and -1 PRF, and the universally conserved Tyr111 and Arg114 in nsp1ß are essential for this activity. In vitro translation experiments demonstrated the involvement of PCBPs in simarterivirus -2/-1 PRF. Using SHFV reverse genetics, we confirmed critical roles of nsp1ß, slippery sequence, and C-rich motif in -2/-1 PRF in SHFV-infected cells. Attenuated virus growth ability was observed in SHFV mutants with impaired expression of nsp2TF and nsp2N. Comparative genomic sequence analysis showed that key elements of -2/-1 PRF are highly conserved in all known arteriviruses except equine arteritis virus (EAV) and wobbly possum disease virus (WPDV). Furthermore, -2/-1 PRF with SHFV PRF signal RNA can be stimulated by heterotypic nsp1ßs of all non-EAV arteriviruses tested. Taken together, these data suggest that -2/-1 PRF is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism employed in non-EAV/-WPDV arteriviruses for the expression of additional viral proteins that are important for viral replication.IMPORTANCE Simarteriviruses are a group of arteriviruses infecting nonhuman primates, and a number of new species have been established in recent years. Although these arteriviruses are widely distributed among African nonhuman primates of different species, and some of them cause lethal hemorrhagic fever disease, this group of viruses has been undercharacterized. Since wild nonhuman primates are historically important sources or reservoirs of human pathogens, there is concern that simarteriviruses may be preemergent zoonotic pathogens. Thus, molecular characterization of simarteriviruses is becoming a priority in arterivirology. In this study, we demonstrated that an evolutionarily conserved ribosomal frameshifting mechanism is used by simarteriviruses and other distantly related arteriviruses for the expression of additional viral proteins. This mechanism is unprecedented in eukaryotic systems. Given the crucial role of ribosome function in all living systems, the potential impact of the in-depth characterization of this novel mechanism reaches beyond the field of virology.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Arterivirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
17.
J Virol ; 93(18)2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243124

RESUMO

Like all coronaviruses, avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) possesses a long, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome (∼27 kb) and has a complex replication strategy that includes the production of a nested set of subgenomic mRNAs (sgmRNAs). Here, we used whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNASeq) and ribosome profiling (RiboSeq) to delineate gene expression in the IBV M41-CK and Beau-R strains at subcodon resolution. RNASeq facilitated a comparative analysis of viral RNA synthesis and revealed two novel transcription junction sites in the attenuated Beau-R strain, one of which would generate a sgmRNA encoding a ribosomally occupied open reading frame (dORF) located downstream of the nucleocapsid coding region. RiboSeq permitted quantification of the translational efficiency of virus gene expression and identified, for the first time, sites of ribosomal pausing on the genome. Quantification of reads flanking the programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) signal at the genomic RNA ORF1a/ORF1b junction revealed that PRF in IBV is highly efficient (33 to 40%). Triplet phasing of RiboSeq data allowed precise determination of reading frames and revealed the translation of two ORFs (ORF4b and ORF4c on sgmRNA IR), which are widely conserved across IBV isolates. Analysis of differential gene expression in infected primary chick kidney cells indicated that the host cell response to IBV occurs primarily at the level of transcription, with global upregulation of immune-related mRNA transcripts following infection and comparatively modest changes in the translation efficiencies of host genes. Cellular genes and gene networks differentially expressed during virus infection were also identified, giving insights into the host cell response to IBV infection.IMPORTANCE IBV is a major avian pathogen and presents a substantial economic burden to the poultry industry. Improved vaccination strategies are urgently needed to curb the global spread of this virus, and the development of suitable vaccine candidates will be aided by an improved understanding of IBV molecular biology. Our high-resolution data have enabled a precise study of transcription and translation in cells infected with both pathogenic and attenuated forms of IBV and expand our understanding of gammacoronaviral gene expression. We demonstrate that gene expression shows considerable intraspecies variation, with single nucleotide polymorphisms being associated with altered production of sgmRNA transcripts, and our RiboSeq data sets enabled us to uncover novel ribosomally occupied ORFs in both strains. The numerous cellular genes and gene networks found to be differentially expressed during virus infection provide insights into the host cell response to IBV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Virulência/genética , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Códon/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(15): 8207-8223, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180502

RESUMO

Many viruses utilize programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) to express additional proteins or to produce frameshift and non-frameshift protein products at a fixed stoichiometric ratio. PRF is also utilized in the expression of a small number of cellular genes. Frameshifting is typically stimulated by signals contained within the mRNA: a 'slippery' sequence and a 3'-adjacent RNA structure. Recently, we showed that -1 PRF in encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is trans-activated by the viral 2A protein, leading to a temporal change in PRF efficiency from 0% to 70% during virus infection. Here we analyzed PRF in the related Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). We show that 2A is also required for PRF in TMEV and can stimulate PRF to levels as high as 58% in rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translations and 81% during virus infection. We also show that TMEV 2A trans-activates PRF on the EMCV signal but not vice versa. We present an extensive mutational analysis of the frameshift stimulators (mRNA signals and 2A protein) analysing activity in in vitro translation, electrophoretic mobility shift and in vitro ribosome pausing assays. We also investigate the PRF mRNA signal with RNA structure probing. Our results substantially extend previous characterization of protein-stimulated PRF.


Assuntos
Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Theilovirus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Camundongos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Theilovirus/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
19.
Bio Protoc ; 9(10)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192271

RESUMO

In virology the difference between the fitness of two viruses can be determined by using various methods, such as virus titer, growth curve analysis, measurement of virus infectivity, analysis of produced RNA copies and viral protein production. However, for closely performing viruses, it is often very hard to distinguish the differences. In vitro competition assays are a sensitive tool for determining viral replication fitness for many viruses replicating in cell culture. Relative viral replication fitness is usually measured from multiple cycle growth competition assays. Competition assays provide a sensitive measurement of viral fitness since the viruses are competing for cellular targets under identical growth conditions. This protocol describes a competition assay for enteroviruses and contains two alternative formats for initial infections, which can be varied depending on specific goals for each particular experiment. The protocol involves infection of cells with competing viruses, passaging, RNA extraction from infected cells, RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing followed by comparative analysis of resulting chromatograms obtained under various initial infection conditions. The techniques are applicable to members of many virus families, such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, pestiviruses, and other RNA viruses with an established reverse genetics system.

20.
J Gen Virol ; 100(5): 736-737, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835197

RESUMO

Solinviviridae is a family of picorna/calici-like viruses with non-segmented, linear, positive-sense RNA genomes of approximately 10-11 kb. Unusually, their capsid proteins are encoded towards the 3'-end of the genome where they can be expressed both from a subgenomic RNA and as an extension of the replication (picorna-like helicase-protease-polymerase) polyprotein. Members of two species within the family infect ants, but related unclassified virus sequences derive from a large variety of insects and other arthropods. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the Solinviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/solinviviridae.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Animais , Artrópodes/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
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