Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 150
Filtrar
1.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(6): 478-489, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172359

RESUMO

Objective: Developmental dyslexia is a highly heritable specific reading and writing disability. To identify a possible new locus and candidate gene for this disability, we investigated a four-generation pedigree where transmission of dyslexia is consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Methods: We performed genome wide array-based SNP genotyping and parametric linkage analysis and sequencing analysis of protein-coding exons, exon-intron boundaries and conserved extragenic regions within the haplotype cosegregating with dyslexia in DNA from one affected and one unaffected family member. Cosegregation was confirmed by sequencing all available family members. Additionally, we analyzed 96 dyslexic individuals who had previously shown positive LOD scores on chromosome 4q28 as well as an even larger sample (n = 2591). Results: We found a single prominent linkage interval on chromosome 4q, where sequence analysis revealed a nucleotide variant in the 3' UTR of brain expressed SPRY1 in the dyslexic family member that cosegregated with dyslexia. This sequence alteration might affect the binding efficiency of the IGF2BP1 RNA-binding protein and thus influence the expression level of the SPRY1 gene product. An analysis of 96 individuals from a cohort of dyslexic individuals revealed a second heterozygous variant in this gene, which was absent in the unaffected sister of the proband. An investigation of the region in a much larger sample further found a nominal p-value of 0.0016 for verbal short-term memory (digit span) in 2,591 individuals for a neighboring SNV. After correcting for the local number of analyzed SNVs, and after taking into account linkage disequilibrium, we found this corresponds to a p-value of 0.0678 for this phenotype. Conclusions: We describe a new locus for familial dyslexia and discuss the possibility that SPRY1 might play a role in the etiology of a monogenic form of dyslexia.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(10)2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036198

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants have been identified in 85% of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. These variants were mainly located in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) gene. However, the penetrance of BMPR2 variants was reduced leading to a disease manifestation in only 30% of carriers. In these PAH patients, further modifiers such as additional pathogenic BMPR2 promoter variants could contribute to disease manifestation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify BMPR2 promoter variants in PAH patients and to analyze their transcriptional effect on gene expression and disease manifestation. BMPR2 promoter variants were identified in PAH patients and cloned into plasmids. These were transfected into human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells to determine their respective transcriptional activity. Nine different BMPR2 promoter variants were identified in seven PAH families and three idiopathic PAH patients. Seven of the variants (c.-575A>T, c.-586dupT, c.-910C>T, c.-930_-928dupGGC, c.-933_-928dupGGCGGC, c.-930_-928delGGC and c.-1141C>T) led to a significantly decreased transcriptional activity. This study identified novel BMPR2 promoter variants which may affect BMPR2 gene expression in PAH patients. They could contribute to disease manifestations at least in some families. Further studies are needed to investigate the frequency of BMPR2 promoter variants and their impact on penetrance and disease manifestation.

3.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a neglected disease with substantial geographical variability: Chile shows the highest incidence worldwide, while GBC is relatively rare in Europe. Here we investigate the causal effects of risk factors considered in current GBC prevention programmes as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a marker of chronic inflammation. APPROACH & RESULTS: We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using publicly available data and our own data from a retrospective Chilean and a prospective European study. Causality was assessed by inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimates complemented with sensitivity analyses on potential heterogeneity and pleiotropy, two-step MR and mediation analysis. We found evidence for a causal effect of gallstone disease on GBC risk in Chileans (p = 9 × 10-5 ) and Europeans (p = 9 × 10-5 ). A genetically elevated body mass index (BMI) increased GBC risk in Chileans (p = 0.03), while higher CRP concentrations increased GBC risk in Europeans (p = 4.1 × 10-6 ). European results suggest causal effects of BMI on gallstone disease (p = 0.008); public Chilean data were not, however, available to enable assessment of the mediation effects among causal GBC risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Two risk factors considered in the current Chilean programme for GBC prevention are causally linked to GBC risk: gallstones and BMI. For Europeans, BMI showed a causal effect on gallstone risk, which was itself causally linked to GBC risk.

4.
Cancer ; 126(17): 4032-4041, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a high-risk cancer predisposition syndrome caused by pathogenic germline variants of TP53. Cancer surveillance has noted a significant survival advantage in individuals with LFS; however, little is known about the feasibility, acceptance, and psychosocial effects of such a program. METHODS: Pathogenic TP53 germline variant carriers completed a 7-part questionnaire evaluating sociodemographics, cancer history, surveillance participation, reasons for nonadherence, worries, and distress adapted from the Cancer Worry Scale. Counselees' common concerns and suggestions were assessed in MAXQDA Analytics Pro 12. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants (46 females and 3 males), aged 40.0 ± 12.6 years, formed the study population; 43 (88%) had a personal cancer history (including multiple cancers in 10 [20%]). Forty-three individuals participated (88%) in surveillance during the study or formerly. Willingness to undergo surveillance was influenced by satisfaction with genetic testing and counseling (P = .019 [Fisher-Yates test]) but not by sociodemographics, cancer history, or distress level. Almost one-third of the participants reported logistical difficulties in implementing surveillance because of the high frequency of medical visits, scheduling difficulties, and the travel distance to their surveillance providers. Self-reported distress and perceived emotional burden for family members and partners were moderate (median for self-reported distress, 3.3; median for perceived emotional burden, 3.0). For both, the interquartile range was moderate to very high (2.7-3.7 and 3.0-3.7, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with LFS require efficient counseling as well as an accessible, well-organized, interdisciplinary, standardized surveillance program to increase adherence and psychological coping.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397294

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare disease which is often caused by recurrent emboli. These are also frequently found in patients with myeloproliferative diseases. While myeloproliferative diseases can be caused by gene defects, the genetic predisposition to CTEPH is largely unexplored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyse these genes and further genes involved in pulmonary hypertension in CTEPH patients. A systematic screening was conducted for pathogenic variants using a gene panel based on next generation sequencing. CTEPH was diagnosed according to current guidelines. In this study, out of 40 CTEPH patients 4 (10%) carried pathogenic variants. One patient had a nonsense variant (c.2071A>T p.Lys691*) in the BMPR2 gene and three further patients carried the same pathogenic variant (missense variant, c.1849G>T p.Val617Phe) in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. The latter led to a myeloproliferative disease in each patient. The prevalence of this JAK2 variant was significantly higher than expected (p < 0.0001). CTEPH patients may have a genetic predisposition more often than previously thought. The predisposition for myeloproliferative diseases could be an additional risk factor for CTEPH development. Thus, clinical screening for myeloproliferative diseases and genetic testing may be considered also for CTEPH patients.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 41(40): 3949-3959, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227235

RESUMO

AIMS: Imbalances of iron metabolism have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. However, subjects with hereditary haemochromatosis have a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to understand the underlying mechanisms by combining data from genome-wide association study analyses in humans, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, and loss-of-function studies in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our analysis of the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) dataset revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the haemochromatosis gene HFE associate with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in human plasma. The LDL-C lowering effect could be phenocopied in dyslipidaemic ApoE-/- mice lacking Hfe, which translated into reduced atherosclerosis burden. Mechanistically, we identified HFE as a negative regulator of LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, we uncovered liver-resident Kupffer cells (KCs) as central players in cholesterol homeostasis as they were found to acquire and transfer LDL-derived cholesterol to hepatocytes in an Abca1-dependent fashion, which is controlled by iron availability. CONCLUSION: Our results disentangle novel regulatory interactions between iron metabolism, KC biology and cholesterol homeostasis which are promising targets for treating dyslipidaemia but also provide a mechanistic explanation for reduced cardiovascular morbidity in subjects with haemochromatosis.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101643, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first large-scale genome-wide association study of gallbladder cancer (GBC) recently identified and validated three susceptibility variants in the ABCB1 and ABCB4 genes for individuals of Indian descent. We investigated whether these variants were also associated with GBC risk in Chileans, who show the highest incidence of GBC worldwide, and in Europeans with a low GBC incidence. METHODS: This population-based study analysed genotype data from retrospective Chilean case-control (255 cases, 2042 controls) and prospective European cohort (108 cases, 181 controls) samples consistently with the original publication. RESULTS: Our results confirmed the reported associations for Chileans with similar risk effects. Particularly strong associations (per-allele odds ratios close to 2) were observed for Chileans with high Native American (=Mapuche) ancestry. No associations were noticed for Europeans, but the statistical power was low. CONCLUSION: Taking full advantage of genetic and ethnic differences in GBC risk may improve the efficiency of current prevention programs.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
High Alt Med Biol ; 21(1): 28-36, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976756

RESUMO

Background: Exaggerated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a hallmark of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). The objective of this study was therefore to investigate genetic predisposition to HAPE by analyzing PAH candidate genes in a HAPE-susceptible (HAPE-S) family and in unrelated HAPE-S mountaineers. Materials and Methods: Eight family members and 64 mountaineers were clinically and genetically assessed using a PAH-specific gene panel for 42 genes by next-generation sequencing. Results: Two otherwise healthy family members, who developed re-entry HAPE at 3640 m during childhood, carried a likely pathogenic missense mutation (c.1198T>G p.Cys400Gly) in the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. One of them progressed to a mild form of PAH at the age of 23 years. In two of the 64 HAPE-S mountaineers likely pathogenic variants have been detected, one missense mutation in the Cytochrome P1B1 gene, and a deletion in the Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein (HRG) gene. Conclusions: This is the first study identifying an inherited missense mutation of a gene related to PAH in a family with re-entry HAPE showing a progression to borderline PAH in the index patient. Likely pathogenic variants in 3.1% of HAPE-S mountaineers suggest a genetic predisposition in some individuals that might be linked to PAH signaling pathways.

9.
Am J Pathol ; 190(3): 702-710, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953036

RESUMO

Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) account for 90% of human thyroid cancer cases, which represent 1% of all cancer cases. They are likely to develop from papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs), found in up to 36% of healthy individuals, due to rare progression events (0.01%). Although the prognosis of PTCs is excellent, 5% to 10% of tumors display an unfavorable outcome. About 45% of PTCs exhibit activating BRAFV600E mutations. Rats of the inbred BD strains postnatally exposed to the carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea developed PTMCs, which closely resembled their human counterparts judging from their histology, size, and marginal tendency to progress. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in exon 15 of the Braf gene identical to the human BRAFV600E mutation in 82% of the cases. Predominantly a 50:50 ratio of wild-type to mutant Braf alleles was seen regardless of tumor size or animal age, indicating that the Braf mutation is an early, if not the initial, event in rat PTMC development. Surprisingly, most PTMCs carrying a confirmed BrafV600E mutation did not display BrafV600E protein expression. As the BrafV600Egene is supposed to be the driver in PTC development, down-regulation of expression should contribute to the low risk for progression of PTMC. This model system will enable further insights into the molecular mechanisms of PTMC initiation and progression to PTC, further translating into targeted tumor prevention strategies/therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Etilnitrosoureia/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mutação , Prognóstico , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 999-1009, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081934

RESUMO

Comparably little is known about breast cancer (BC) risks in women from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations despite an indicative family history, as opposed to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We determined the age-dependent risks of first and contralateral breast cancer (FBC, CBC) both in noncarriers and carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, who participated in an intensified breast imaging surveillance program. The study was conducted between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2017, at 12 university centers of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Two cohorts were prospectively followed up for incident FBC (n = 4,380; 16,398 person-years [PY], median baseline age: 39 years) and CBC (n = 2,993; 10,090 PY, median baseline age: 42 years). Cumulative FBC risk at age 60 was 61.8% (95% CI 52.8-70.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 43.2% (95% CI 32.1-56.3%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 15.7% (95% CI 11.9-20.4%) for noncarriers. FBC risks were significantly higher than in the general population, with incidence rate ratios of 23.9 (95% CI 18.9-29.8) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 13.5 (95% CI 9.2-19.1) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 4.9 (95% CI 3.8-6.3) for BRCA1/2 noncarriers. Cumulative CBC risk 10 years after FBC was 25.1% (95% CI 19.6-31.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 6.6% (95% CI 3.4-12.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 3.6% (95% CI 2.2-5.7%) for noncarriers. CBC risk in noncarriers was similar to women with unilateral BC from the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm whether less intensified surveillance is justified in women from BRCA1/2 negative families with elevated risk.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 217, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, trial was to assess the effect of ambrisentan on mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mildly elevated pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Thirty-eight SSc patients with mildly elevated mPAP at rest between 21 and 24 mmHg and/or > 30 mmHg during low-dose exercise were randomly assigned to treatment with either ambrisentan 5-10 mg/day or placebo. Right heart catheterization and further clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. The primary endpoint was the difference of mPAP change at rest between groups. RESULTS: After 6 months, the two groups did not differ in the primary endpoint (ambrisentan mPAP - 1 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. placebo - 0.73 ± 3.59 mmHg at rest, p = 0.884). However, three patients from the placebo group but none of the ambrisentan group progressed to SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Furthermore, ambrisentan treatment showed significant improvements in the secondary endpoints cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest (CI 0.36 ± 0.66 l/min/m2 vs. - 0.31 ± 0.71 l/min/m2, p = 0.010; PVR - 0.70 ± 0.78 WU vs. 0.01 ± 0.71 WU, p = 0.012) and during exercise (CI 0.7 ± 0.81 l/min/m2 vs. - 0.45 ± 1.36 l/min/m2, p = 0.015; PVR - 0.84 ± 0.48 WU vs. - 0.0032 ± 0.34 WU, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the effect of ambrisentan in patients with mildly elevated mPAP and/or exercise PH. The primary endpoint change in mPAP did only tendentially improve in the ambrisentan group, but the significant improvement of other hemodynamic parameters points to a possible benefit of ambrisentan and will be helpful to design future trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, unique identifier NCT: NCT02290613 , registered 14th of November 2014.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(5): 805-816, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate right ventricular function and pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC; ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure) at rest and during exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with normal mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), patients with SSc with mildly elevated mean PAP, and patients with SSc with manifest pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Patients with SSc (n = 112) underwent clinical assessment and right-sided heart catheterization at rest and during exercise and were divided into 3 groups according to their resting mean PAP values: normal mean PAP (≤20 mm Hg), mildly elevated mean PAP (21-24 mm Hg), and PH (mean PAP ≥25 mm Hg). Results were compared between groups by analysis of variance followed by post hoc Student's t-test. RESULTS: Compared to patients with normal mean PAP, patients with mildly elevated mean PAP had a lower 6-minute walking distance (P = 0.008), lower cardiac index (P = 0.027) and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (P = 0.0002) during exercise, and lower PAC at rest (P = 0.016) and different stages of exercise (P = 0.033 for 25W and P = 0.024 for 75W). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that impaired 6-minute walking distance in SSc patients with mildly elevated mean PAP might be caused by reduced PAC during exercise and reduced right ventricular output reserve, presumably due to impaired coupling between the right ventricle and the pulmonary vasculature. These findings provide further evidence of the clinical relevance of mildly elevated mean PAP in patients with SSc.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Caminhada
14.
Front Mol Biosci ; 5: 109, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560135

RESUMO

Intestinal absorption of dietary amino acids is mediated via two routes. Free amino acids released by hydrolysis of dietary proteins are taken up by a multitude of amino acid transporters while di- and tripeptides released are taken up by the peptide transporter PEPT-1. Loss of PEPT-1 impairs growth, post-embryonic development and reproduction in Caenorhabditis elegans, and supplementation with a mixture of all L-amino acids only partially rescues fertility. In the present study, we demonstrate that dietary L-glutamate is the responsible amino acid that can increase fertility in hermaphrodite pept-1 worms. This effect was associated with a significantly higher uptake of glutamate/aspartate in pept-1 than in wildtype C. elegans. Furthermore, we found that the intestinal transporter proteins SNF-5 of the solute carrier SLC6 family of nutrient amino acid transporters (NAT) and AAT-6 of the SLC7 family as the light subunit of a heteromeric amino acid transporter (HAT) play a key role in glutamate homeostasis in pept-1 C. elegans. Genes encoding these transporters are highly expressed and upon silencing a 95% reduced fertility (snf-5) and sterility (aat-6) was observed. A subsequent L-glutamate supplementation failed to rescue these phenotypes. Dietary glutamate supplementation did neither influence the feeding frequency, nor did it improve mating efficiency of pept-1 males. Most strikingly, pept-1 were more prone to habituation to repeated gentle touch stimuli than wildtype C. elegans, and dietary glutamate supply was sufficient to alter this behavioral output by restoring the mechanosensory response to wildtype levels. Taken together, our data demonstrate a key role of L-glutamate in amino acid homeostasis in C. elegans lacking the peptide transporter in the intestine and demonstrate its distinct role in reproduction and for neural circuits mediating touch sensitivity.

15.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 258, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPEH). The objective of this study was to evaluate right heart size and function assessed by echocardiography during long term treatment with riociguat. METHODS: Patients who started riociguat treatment (1.0-2.5 mg tid) within the trials phase II, PATENT, PATENTplus, EAS, CHEST and continued treatment for 3-12 months were included in this study. Echocardiography was analysed off-line at baseline, after 3, 6 and 12 months by investigators who were blinded to clinical data. Last and baseline observation carried forward method (LOCF, BOCF) were performed as sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients (45% PAH, 55% CTEPH; 53.5% female; 60 ± 13 years, mean pulmonary arterial pressure 46 ± 10 mmHg, mean PVR 700 ± 282dynes·sec·cm-5) were included. After 6 months, RA and RV area, RV thickness tricuspid regurgitation velocity showed a significant reduction. After 12 months, patients receiving riociguat therapy showed a significant reduction in right atrial (- 2.6 ± 4.4 cm2, 95% CI -3.84, - 1.33; p < 0.001, n = 49) and right ventricular (RV) area (- 3.5 ± 5.2 cm2, 95% CI -5.1, - 1.9; p < 0.001; n = 44), RV thickness (- 0.76 ± 2.2 mm, 95% CI -1.55, 0.03; n = 32), and a significant increase in TAPSE (2.95 ± 4.78 mm, 95% CI 1.52, 4.39; n = 45) and RV fractional area change (8.12 ± 8.87 mm, 95% CI 4.61, 11.62; n = 27). Both LOCF and BOCF showed similar results but lower effect sizes. CONCLUSION: Patients under long-term treatment with riociguat show significantly reduced right heart size and improved RV function in PAH and CTEPH. Further controlled prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Direita/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Ativadores de Enzimas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia
16.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 216, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess, whether right atrial (RA) and ventricular (RV) size is related to RV pump function at rest and during exercise in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: We included 54 patients with invasively diagnosed PAH that had been stable on targeted medication. All patients underwent clinical assessments including right heart catheterization and echocardiography at rest and during exercise. RV output reserve was defined as increase of cardiac index (CI) from rest to peak exercise (∆CIexercise). Patients were classified according to the median of RA and RV-area. RV pump function and further clinical parameters were compared between groups by student's t-test. Uni- and multivariate Pearson correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Patients with larger RA and/or RV-areas (above a median of 16 and 20cm2, respectively) showed significantly lower ∆CIexercise, higher mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance at rest and NT-proBNP levels. Furthermore, patients with higher RV-areas presented with a significantly lower RV stroke volume and pulmonary arterial compliance at peak exercise than patients with smaller RV-size. RV area was identified as the only independent predictor of RV output reserve. CONCLUSION: RV and RA areas represent valuable and easily accessible indicators of RV pump function at rest and during exercise. Cardiac output reserve should be considered as an important clinical parameter. Prospective studies are needed for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Direito/fisiologia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Respiration ; 96(3): 249-258, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a major prognostic predictor in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of a newly developed index merging haemodynamic parameters into 1 variable. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 2 cohorts of 248 patients (164 from Hamburg and 84 from Heidelberg) with invasively diagnosed PAH. During a median follow-up time of 3.6 years (3.1 and 4.0 years for Hamburg and Heidelberg, respectively), the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and lung transplantation occurred in 57 patients (53 and 4 patients for Hamburg and Heidelberg, respectively). The RV index was developed in the Hamburg cohort and validated in the Heidelberg cohort: (right atrial pressure × pulmonary vascular resistance)/mixed venous oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Patients with a high RV index had a higher incidence of the combined endpoint in Kaplan-Meier analyses in the Hamburg and Heidelberg cohort (p = 0.017 and p = 0.034, respectively). The calculated RV index cut-off value was 91 and identified patients with a worse outcome in the Hamburg cohort and showed a trend in the Heidelberg cohort (p < 0.001 and p = 0.089, respectively). The RV index in Cox regression hazard models was an independent predictor of outcomes after adjustment for sex and age in both cohorts (Hamburg: hazard ratio [HR] 1.26 [95% CI 1.08, 1.47], p = 0.0027; Heidelberg: HR 2.27 [95% CI 1.46, 3.51], p < 0.001). A nomogram based on these results allowed risk stratification. CONCLUSION: Merging 3 haemodynamic variables into 1 variable, the RV index increased the prognostic power up to an independent risk factor. The RV index is easy to calculate and allows the construction of a nomogram for an individualized risk assessment.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Função Ventricular Direita , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
18.
J Neurodev Disord ; 10(1): 15, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the SHANK genes, which encode postsynaptic scaffolding proteins, have been linked to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. The SHANK genes and the schizophrenia-associated microRNA-137 show convergence on several levels, as they are both expressed at the synapse, influence neuronal development, and have a strong link to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders like intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia. This compiled evidence raised the question if the SHANKs might be targets of miR-137. METHODS: In silico analysis revealed a putative binding site for microRNA-137 (miR-137) in the SHANK2 3'UTR, while this was not the case for SHANK1 and SHANK3. Luciferase reporter assays were performed by overexpressing wild type and mutated SHANK2-3'UTR and miR-137 in human neuroblastoma cells and mouse primary hippocampal neurons. miR-137 was also overexpressed or inhibited in hippocampal neurons, and Shank2 expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Additionally, expression levels of experimentally validated miR-137 target genes were analyzed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of schizophrenia and control individuals using the RNA-Seq data from the CommonMind Consortium. RESULTS: miR-137 directly targets the 3'UTR of SHANK2 in a site-specific manner. Overexpression of miR-137 in mouse primary hippocampal neurons significantly lowered endogenous Shank2 protein levels without detectable influence on mRNA levels. Conversely, miR-137 inhibition increased Shank2 protein expression, indicating that miR-137 regulates SHANK2 expression by repressing protein translation rather than inducing mRNA degradation. To find out if the miR-137 signaling network is altered in schizophrenia, we compared miR-137 precursor and miR-137 target gene expression in the DLPFC of schizophrenia and control individuals using the CommonMind Consortium RNA sequencing data. Differential expression of 23% (16/69) of known miR-137 target genes was detected in the DLPFC of schizophrenia individuals compared with controls. We propose that in further targets (e.g., SHANK2, as described in this paper) which are not regulated on RNA level, effects may only be detectable on protein level. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that a direct regulatory link exists between miR-137 and SHANK2 and supports the finding that miR-137 signaling might be altered in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Cultura Primária de Células , Esquizofrenia/genética
19.
Eur Respir J ; 51(4)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563168

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and determining factors in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) <60% predicted.In this bicentric, prospective cohort study, patients with SSc were clinically assessed at baseline and after 3 years, including right heart catheterisation (RHC). Analysis of determining factors for the development of PH was performed using univariate and multivariate analyses.96 patients with a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) <25 mmHg at baseline were followed for 2.95±0.7 years (median 3 years). Of these, 71 had a second RHC; 18 of these 71 patients (25.3%) developed PH, and five (7%) developed SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. For patients with an mPAP of 21-24 mmHg at baseline, the likelihood of presenting with PH as opposed to normal pressures on follow-up was significantly higher (p=0.026). Pulmonary vascular resistance, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, diffusion capacity and the size of the inferior vena cava at baseline were independent predictors for the development of PH during follow-up.In a selected cohort of SSc patients with a DLCO <60%, pulmonary pressures appeared to rise progressively during follow-up. In this population, it was possible to identify manifest PH in almost 25% of patients using prospective RHC during follow-up. Therefore, regular clinical assessment including RHC might be useful in patients with SSc.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Arterial , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Análise de Sobrevida , Resistência Vascular
20.
Mov Disord ; 33(2): 282-288, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships among neurodegenerative biomarkers and PD motor and nonmotor symptoms. BACKGROUND: CSF alpha-synuclein is decreased in PD versus healthy controls, but whether plasma and saliva alpha-synuclein differentiate these groups is controversial. Correlations of alpha-synuclein among biofluids (CSF, plasma, saliva) or biomarkers (eg, beta-amyloid, tau [total, phosphorylated]) are not fully understood. The relationships of these biomarkers with PD clinical features remain unclear. METHODS: BioFIND, a cross-sectional, observational study, examines clinical and biomarker characteristics in moderate-advanced PD and matched healthy controls. We compared alpha-synuclein concentrations across diagnosis, biofluids, and CSF biomarkers. Correlations of CSF biomarkers and MDS-UPDRS, motor phenotype, MoCA, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire scores in PD were examined. RESULTS: CSF alpha-synuclein was lower in PD versus controls (P = .01), controlling for age, gender, and education. Plasma and saliva alpha-synuclein did not differ between PD and controls, and alpha-synuclein did not significantly correlate among biofluids. CSF beta-amyloid1-42 was lower in PD versus controls (P < .01), and correlated weakly with MoCA recall scores (r = 0.23, P = .02). CSF alpha-synuclein was lower in the postural instability/gait difficulty phenotype than other motor phenotypes (P < .01). No CSF biomarkers predicted or correlated with total motor or rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder scores. CSF alpha-synuclein correlated with beta-amyloid1-42 , total-tau, and phosphorylated-tau (r = 0.41, 0.81, 0.43, respectively; Ps < .001). CONCLUSION: Lower CSF alpha-synuclein is associated with diagnosis and motor phenotype in moderate-advanced PD. Plasma and saliva alpha-synuclein neither correlate with CSF alpha-synuclein, nor distinguish PD from controls. CSF beta-amyloid1-42 remains a potential biomarker for cognitive impairment in PD. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Postural , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Estados Unidos , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA