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1.
Neurology ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings. METHODS: We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in seven prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately. RESULTS: The analyses revealed ten significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.94; P = 4.45×10-5), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; P = 7.45×10-4), acute phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15; P = 1.27×10-3), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2 and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focusing on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.19; P = 4.13×10-4) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles. CONCLUSIONS: We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e002769, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D). RESULTS: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 41(35): 3325-3333, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011775

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction models are used in Western European countries, but less so in Eastern European countries where rates of CVD can be two to four times higher. We recalibrated the SCORE prediction model for three Eastern European countries and evaluated the impact of adding seven behavioural and psychosocial risk factors to the model. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed and validated models using data from the prospective HAPIEE cohort study with 14 598 participants from Russia, Poland, and the Czech Republic (derivation cohort, median follow-up 7.2 years, 338 fatal CVD cases) and Estonian Biobank data with 4632 participants (validation cohort, median follow-up 8.3 years, 91 fatal CVD cases). The first model (recalibrated SCORE) used the same risk factors as in the SCORE model. The second model (HAPIEE SCORE) added education, employment, marital status, depression, body mass index, physical inactivity, and antihypertensive use. Discrimination of the original SCORE model (C-statistic 0.78 in the derivation and 0.83 in the validation cohorts) was improved in recalibrated SCORE (0.82 and 0.85) and HAPIEE SCORE (0.84 and 0.87) models. After dichotomizing risk at the clinically meaningful threshold of 5%, and when comparing the final HAPIEE SCORE model against the original SCORE model, the net reclassification improvement was 0.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11] in the derivation cohort and 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.25) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: Our recalibrated SCORE may be more appropriate than the conventional SCORE for some Eastern European populations. The addition of seven quick, non-invasive, and cheap predictors further improved prediction accuracy.

4.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a neglected disease with substantial geographical variability: Chile shows the highest incidence worldwide, while GBC is relatively rare in Europe. Here we investigate the causal effects of risk factors considered in current GBC prevention programmes as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a marker of chronic inflammation. APPROACH & RESULTS: We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using publicly available data and our own data from a retrospective Chilean and a prospective European study. Causality was assessed by inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimates complemented with sensitivity analyses on potential heterogeneity and pleiotropy, two-step MR and mediation analysis. We found evidence for a causal effect of gallstone disease on GBC risk in Chileans (p = 9 × 10-5 ) and Europeans (p = 9 × 10-5 ). A genetically elevated body mass index (BMI) increased GBC risk in Chileans (p = 0.03), while higher CRP concentrations increased GBC risk in Europeans (p = 4.1 × 10-6 ). European results suggest causal effects of BMI on gallstone disease (p = 0.008); public Chilean data were not, however, available to enable assessment of the mediation effects among causal GBC risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Two risk factors considered in the current Chilean programme for GBC prevention are causally linked to GBC risk: gallstones and BMI. For Europeans, BMI showed a causal effect on gallstone risk, which was itself causally linked to GBC risk.

5.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(6): 589-600, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537749

RESUMO

As many cases of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are likely to remain undiagnosed, better tools for early detection of high-risk individuals are needed to prevent or postpone the disease. We investigated the value of the doubly weighted genetic risk score (dwGRS) for the prediction of incident T2D in the Lifelines and Estonian Biobank (EstBB) cohorts. The dwGRS uses an additional weight for each single nucleotide polymorphism in the risk score, to correct for "Winner's curse" bias in the effect size estimates. The traditional (single-weighted genetic risk score; swGRS) and dwGRS were calculated for participants in Lifelines (n = 12,018) and EstBB (n = 34,129). The dwGRS was found to have stronger association with incident T2D (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26 [95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.43] and HR = 1.35 [1.28-1.42]) compared to the swGRS (HR = 1.21 [1.07-1.38] and HR = 1.25 [1.19-1.32]) in Lifelines and EstBB, respectively. Comparing the 5-year predicted risks from the models with and without the dwGRS, the continuous net reclassification index was 0.140 (0.034-0.243; p = .009 Lifelines), and 0.257 (0.194-0.319; p < 2 × 10-16 EstBB). The dwGRS provided incremental value to the T2D prediction model with established phenotypic predictors. It clearly distinguished the risk groups for incident T2D in both biobanks thereby showing its clinical relevance.

6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(7): 1596-1606, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and its associated diseases are major health problems characterized by extensive metabolic disturbances. Understanding the causal connections between these phenotypes and variation in metabolite levels can uncover relevant biology and inform novel intervention strategies. Recent studies have combined metabolite profiling with genetic instrumental variable (IV) analysis (Mendelian randomization) to infer the direction of causality between metabolites and obesity, but often omitted a large portion of untargeted profiling data consisting of unknown, unidentified metabolite signals. METHODS: We expanded upon previous research by identifying body mass index (BMI)-associated metabolites in multiple untargeted metabolomics datasets, and then performing bidirectional IV analysis to classify metabolites based on their inferred causal relationships with BMI. Meta-analysis and pathway analysis of both known and unknown metabolites across datasets were enabled by our recently developed bioinformatics suite, PAIRUP-MS. RESULTS: We identified ten known metabolites that are more likely to be causes (e.g., alpha-hydroxybutyrate) or effects (e.g., valine) of BMI, or may have more complex bidirectional cause-effect relationships with BMI (e.g., glycine). Importantly, we also identified about five times more unknown than known metabolites in each of these three categories. Pathway analysis incorporating both known and unknown metabolites prioritized 40 enriched (p < 0.05) metabolite sets for the cause versus effect groups, providing further support that these two metabolite groups are linked to obesity via distinct biological mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the potential utility of our approach to uncover causal connections with obesity from untargeted metabolomics datasets. Combining genetically informed causal inference with the ability to map unknown metabolites across datasets provides a path to jointly analyze many untargeted datasets with obesity or other phenotypes. This approach, applied to larger datasets with genotype and untargeted metabolite data, should generate sufficient power for robust discovery and replication of causal biological connections between metabolites and various human diseases.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1628, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242022

RESUMO

Polygenic Scores (PSs) describe the genetic component of an individual's quantitative phenotype or their susceptibility to diseases with a genetic basis. Currently, PSs rely on population-dependent contributions of many associated alleles, with limited applicability to understudied populations and recently admixed individuals. Here we introduce a combination of local ancestry deconvolution and partial PS computation to account for the population-specific nature of the association signals in individuals with admixed ancestry. We demonstrate partial PS to be a proxy for the total PS and that a portion of the genome is enough to improve susceptibility predictions for the traits we test. By combining partial PSs from different populations, we are able to improve trait predictability in admixed individuals with some European ancestry. These results may extend the applicability of PSs to subjects with a complex history of admixture, where current methods cannot be applied.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(8): eaax0301, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128391

RESUMO

Effector functions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) are regulated by the composition of a glycan moiety, thus affecting activity of the immune system. Aberrant glycosylation of IgG has been observed in many diseases, but little is understood about the underlying mechanisms. We performed a genome-wide association study of IgG N-glycosylation (N = 8090) and, using a data-driven network approach, suggested how associated loci form a functional network. We confirmed in vitro that knockdown of IKZF1 decreases the expression of fucosyltransferase FUT8, resulting in increased levels of fucosylated glycans, and suggest that RUNX1 and RUNX3, together with SMARCB1, regulate expression of glycosyltransferase MGAT3. We also show that variants affecting the expression of genes involved in the regulation of glycoenzymes colocalize with variants affecting risk for inflammatory diseases. This study provides new evidence that variation in key transcription factors coupled with regulatory variation in glycogenes modifies IgG glycosylation and has influence on inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Alelos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101643, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first large-scale genome-wide association study of gallbladder cancer (GBC) recently identified and validated three susceptibility variants in the ABCB1 and ABCB4 genes for individuals of Indian descent. We investigated whether these variants were also associated with GBC risk in Chileans, who show the highest incidence of GBC worldwide, and in Europeans with a low GBC incidence. METHODS: This population-based study analysed genotype data from retrospective Chilean case-control (255 cases, 2042 controls) and prospective European cohort (108 cases, 181 controls) samples consistently with the original publication. RESULTS: Our results confirmed the reported associations for Chileans with similar risk effects. Particularly strong associations (per-allele odds ratios close to 2) were observed for Chileans with high Native American (=Mapuche) ancestry. No associations were noticed for Europeans, but the statistical power was low. CONCLUSION: Taking full advantage of genetic and ethnic differences in GBC risk may improve the efficiency of current prevention programs.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(18): 7694-7706, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557729

RESUMO

Glucuronic acid is a metabolite of glucose that is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds and the structure/remodeling of the extracellular matrix. We report for the first time that circulating glucuronic acid is a robust biomarker of mortality that is conserved across species. We find that glucuronic acid levels are significant predictors of all-cause mortality in three population-based cohorts from different countries with 4-20 years of follow-up (HR=1.44, p=2.9×10-6 in the discovery cohort; HR=1.13, p=0.032 and HR=1.25, p=0.017, respectively in the replication cohorts), as well as in a longitudinal study of genetically heterogenous mice (HR=1.29, p=0.018). Additionally, we find that glucuronic acid levels increase with age and predict future healthspan-related outcomes. Together, these results demonstrate glucuronic acid as a robust biomarker of longevity and healthspan.


Assuntos
Ácido Glucurônico/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Longevidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/metabolismo , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metabolômica/métodos , Telômero , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encurtamento do Telômero
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3346, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431621

RESUMO

Predicting longer-term mortality risk requires collection of clinical data, which is often cumbersome. Therefore, we use a well-standardized metabolomics platform to identify metabolic predictors of long-term mortality in the circulation of 44,168 individuals (age at baseline 18-109), of whom 5512 died during follow-up. We apply a stepwise (forward-backward) procedure based on meta-analysis results and identify 14 circulating biomarkers independently associating with all-cause mortality. Overall, these associations are similar in men and women and across different age strata. We subsequently show that the prediction accuracy of 5- and 10-year mortality based on a model containing the identified biomarkers and sex (C-statistic = 0.837 and 0.830, respectively) is better than that of a model containing conventional risk factors for mortality (C-statistic = 0.772 and 0.790, respectively). The use of the identified metabolic profile as a predictor of mortality or surrogate endpoint in clinical studies needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 557, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Published genetic risk scores for breast cancer (BC) so far have been based on a relatively small number of markers and are not necessarily using the full potential of large-scale Genome-Wide Association Studies. This study aimed to identify an efficient polygenic predictor for BC based on best available evidence and to assess its potential for personalized risk prediction and screening strategies. METHODS: Four different genetic risk scores (two already published and two newly developed) and their combinations (metaGRS) were compared in the subsets of two population-based biobank cohorts: the UK Biobank (UKBB, 3157 BC cases, 43,827 controls) and Estonian Biobank (EstBB, 317 prevalent and 308 incident BC cases in 32,557 women). In addition, correlations between different genetic risk scores and their associations with BC risk factors were studied in both cohorts. RESULTS: The metaGRS that combines two genetic risk scores (metaGRS2 - based on 75 and 898 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, respectively) had the strongest association with prevalent BC status in both cohorts. One standard deviation difference in the metaGRS2 corresponded to an Odds Ratio = 1.6 (95% CI 1.54 to 1.66, p = 9.7*10- 135) in the UK Biobank and accounting for family history marginally attenuated the effect (Odds Ratio = 1.58, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.64, p = 7.8*10- 129). In the EstBB cohort, the hazard ratio of incident BC for the women in the top 5% of the metaGRS2 compared to women in the lowest 50% was 4.2 (95% CI 2.8 to 6.2, p = 8.1*10- 13). The different GRSs were only moderately correlated with each other and were associated with different known predictors of BC. The classification of genetic risk for the same individual varied considerably depending on the chosen GRS. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that metaGRS2, that combined on the effects of more than 900 SNPs, provided best predictive ability for breast cancer in two different population-based cohorts. The strength of the effect of metaGRS2 indicates that the GRS could potentially be used to develop more efficient strategies for breast cancer screening for genotyped women.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genótipo , Herança Multifatorial , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Grupos Populacionais , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Risco
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(1): 233-245, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food neophobia is considered a behavioral trait closely linked to adverse eating patterns and reduced dietary quality, which have been associated with increased risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases. OBJECTIVES: In a cross-sectional and prospective study, we examined how food neophobia is associated with dietary quality, health-related biomarkers, and disease outcome incidence in Finnish and Estonian adult populations. METHODS: The study was conducted based on subsamples of the Finnish DIetary, Lifestyle, and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) cohort (n = 2982; age range: 25-74 y) and the Estonian Biobank cohort (n = 1109; age range: 18-83 y). The level of food neophobia was assessed using the Food Neophobia Scale, dietary quality was evaluated using the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS), and biomarker profiles were determined using an NMR metabolomics platform. Disease outcome information was gathered from national health registries. Follow-up data on the NMR-based metabolomic profiles and disease outcomes were available in both populations. RESULTS: Food neophobia associated significantly (adjusted P < 0.05) with health-related biomarkers [e.g., ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids, citrate, α1-acid glycoprotein, HDL, and MUFA] in the Finnish DILGOM cohort. The significant negative association between the severity of food neophobia and ω-3 fatty acids was replicated in all cross-sectional analyses in the Finnish DILGOM and Estonian Biobank cohorts. Furthermore, food neophobia was associated with reduced dietary quality (BSDS: ß: -0.03 ± 0.006; P = 8.04 × 10-5), increased fasting serum insulin (ß: 0.004 ± 0.0013; P = 5.83 × 10-3), and increased risk of type 2 diabetes during the ∼8-y follow-up (HR: 1.018 ± 0.007; P = 0.01) in the DILGOM cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In the Finnish and Estonian adult populations, food neophobia was associated with adverse alteration of health-related biomarkers and risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases. We also found that food neophobia associations with ω-3 fatty acids and associated metabolites are mediated through dietary quality independent of body weight.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Dieta , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Metabolômica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Estônia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Evol Appl ; 12(5): 1050-1061, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080514

RESUMO

According to the life-history theory, rates of sexual maturation have coevolved with mortality rates so that individuals who mature faster tend to die younger. We used two data sets, providing different markers for the speed of pubertal development to test whether rates of sexual maturation of women predict the age at death of their parents. In the data set of Estonian schoolgirls born between 1936 and 1961, the rate of breast development predicted lifespan of both mothers and fathers (irrespectively of their socio-economic position), so that parents of rapidly maturing girls died at younger age. This finding supports the view that fast maturation rates in humans have coevolved with short lifespans and that such trade-offs can be detected as intergenerational phenotypic correlations in modern populations. Menarcheal age of participants of Estonian Biobank (born between 1925 and 1996) did not predict the age of death of their mothers; however, it did predict survival of their fathers, but only in environment where the genetic variation is exposed (families where at least one parent had tertiary education). In such families (where girls also matured 0.2-0.4 years earlier than in poorly educated families), 1-year delay in daughter's menarche corresponded to 9% lower hazard of father's death. Heritability of menarcheal age was also highest in well-educated families. The latter findings are consistent with the idea that genetic differences in the rate of pubertal maturation may be expressed most clearly in well-off families because in such families, the contribution of environmental variance to total phenotypic variance in menarcheal age is smallest. Our findings suggest that with global improvement and equalization of growth conditions, reductions of environmental variation in the rate of maturation increasingly expose the genetic differences in menarcheal age to selection. Under such conditions, selection on menarcheal age has a potential to affect the evolution of lifespan.

17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(1): e1006734, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640898

RESUMO

Metabolomics is a powerful approach for discovering biomarkers and for characterizing the biochemical consequences of genetic variation. While untargeted metabolite profiling can measure thousands of signals in a single experiment, many biologically meaningful signals cannot be readily identified as known metabolites nor compared across datasets, making it difficult to infer biology and to conduct well-powered meta-analyses across studies. To overcome these challenges, we developed a suite of computational methods, PAIRUP-MS, to match metabolite signals across mass spectrometry-based profiling datasets and to generate metabolic pathway annotations for these signals. To pair up signals measured in different datasets, where retention times (RT) are often not comparable or even available, we implemented an imputation-based approach that only requires mass-to-charge ratios (m/z). As validation, we treated each shared known metabolite as an unmatched signal and showed that PAIRUP-MS correctly matched 70-88% of these metabolites from among thousands of signals, equaling or outperforming a standard m/z- and RT-based approach. We performed further validation using genetic data: the most stringent set of matched signals and shared knowns showed comparable consistency of genetic associations across datasets. Next, we developed a pathway reconstitution method to annotate unknown signals using curated metabolic pathways containing known metabolites. We performed genetic validation for the generated annotations, showing that annotated signals associated with gene variants were more likely to be enriched for pathways functionally related to the genes compared to random expectation. Finally, we applied PAIRUP-MS to study associations between metabolites and genetic variants or body mass index (BMI) across multiple datasets, identifying up to ~6 times more significant signals and many more BMI-associated pathways compared to the standard practice of only analyzing known metabolites. These results demonstrate that PAIRUP-MS enables analysis of unknown signals in a robust, biologically meaningful manner and provides a path to more comprehensive, well-powered studies of untargeted metabolomics data.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Metaboloma/genética , Metaboloma/fisiologia
18.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(3): 272-277, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to investigate the predictive ability of PCE (Pooled Cohort Equations), QRISK2 and SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Estimation) scoring systems for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk prediction in Estonia, a country with one of the highest ASCVD event rates in Europe. METHODS: Seven-year risk estimates were calculated in risk score-specific subsets of the Estonian Biobank cohort. Calibration was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and discrimination by Harrell's C-statistics. In addition, a head-to-head comparison of the scores was performed in the intersection of the three score-specific subcohorts. RESULTS: PCE, QRISK2 and SCORE risk estimates were calculated for 4356, 7191 and 3987 eligible individuals, respectively. During the 7-year follow-up, 220 hard ASCVD events (PCE outcome), 671 ASCVD events (QRISK2 outcome) and 94 ASCVD deaths (SCORE outcome) occurred among the score-specific subsets of the cohort. While PCE (SIR 1.03, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.18) and SCORE (SIR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.21) were calibrated well for the cohort, QRISK2 underestimated the risk by 48% (SIR 0.52, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.56). In terms of discrimination, PCE (C-statistic 0.778) was inferior to QRISK2 (C-statistic 0.812) and SCORE (C-statistic 0.865). All three risk scores performed at similar level in the head-to-head comparison. CONCLUSION: Of three widely used ASCVD risk scores, PCE and SCORE performed at acceptable level, while QRISK2 underestimated ASCVD risk markedly. These results highlight the need for evaluating the accuracy of ASCVD risk scores prior to use in high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
19.
Elife ; 82019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642433

RESUMO

We use a genome-wide association of 1 million parental lifespans of genotyped subjects and data on mortality risk factors to validate previously unreplicated findings near CDKN2B-AS1, ATXN2/BRAP, FURIN/FES, ZW10, PSORS1C3, and 13q21.31, and identify and replicate novel findings near ABO, ZC3HC1, and IGF2R. We also validate previous findings near 5q33.3/EBF1 and FOXO3, whilst finding contradictory evidence at other loci. Gene set and cell-specific analyses show that expression in foetal brain cells and adult dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enriched for lifespan variation, as are gene pathways involving lipid proteins and homeostasis, vesicle-mediated transport, and synaptic function. Individual genetic variants that increase dementia, cardiovascular disease, and lung cancer - but not other cancers - explain the most variance. Resulting polygenic scores show a mean lifespan difference of around five years of life across the deciles. Editorial note: This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Genômica , Longevidade/genética , Pais , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Biomark Med ; 13(11): 931-940, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191727

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the effects of variants at HMGCR-KIF6loci on a range of cardio-metabolic phenotypes. Methods: We analyzed the range of variants within Genetics in Brisighella Health Study and KIF6 genes using an additive genetic model on 18 cardiometabolic phenotypes in a sample of 1645 individuals from the Genetics in Brisighella Health Study and replicated in 10,662 individuals from the Estonian Genome Center University of Tartu. Results: We defined directly the effects of rs3846662:C>A at HMGCR on apoB levels. The analysis also confirmed effects of on low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Variants in KIF6 gene did not reveal any associations with cardiometabolic phenotypes. Conclusion: This study highlights effect of HMGCR locus on assay-determined apoB levels, an infrequent measure of blood lipids in large studies.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Adulto , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estônia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
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