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1.
RSC Med Chem ; 12(9): 1525-1539, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671736

RESUMO

The identification of specific biomarkers for Zika infection and its clinical complications is fundamental to mitigate the infection spread, which has been associated with a broad range of neurological sequelae. We present the characterization of antibody responses in serum samples from individuals infected with Zika, presenting non-severe (classical) and severe (neurological disease) phenotypes, with high-density peptide arrays comprising the Zika NS1 and NS2B proteins. The data pinpoints one strongly IgG-targeted NS2B epitope in non-severe infections, which is absent in Zika patients, where infection progressed to the severe phenotype. This differential IgG profile between the studied groups was confirmed by multivariate data analysis. Molecular dynamics simulations and circular dichroism have shown that the peptide in solution presents itself in a sub-optimal conformation for antibody recognition, which led us to computationally engineer an artificial protein able to stabilize the NS2B epitope structure. The engineered protein was used to interrogate paired samples from mothers and their babies presenting Zika-associated microcephaly and confirmed the absence of NS2B IgG response in those samples. These findings suggest that the assessment of antibody responses to the herein identified NS2B epitope is a strong candidate biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of Zika-associated neurological disease.

4.
Faraday Discuss ; 230(0): 68-86, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259682

RESUMO

The performance of Mo2C-based catalysts in CO2 assisted oxidative dehydrogenation (CO2-ODH) of ethane was evaluated. Mo2C on SiO2 was synthesized via three different techniques: wet impregnation (WI), hybrid nanocrystal technique (HNC) and sol-gel method (SG) and exposed to the same carburization conditions. In terms of characteristic properties, the allotrope composition was the most affected, with the SG sample containing MoOxCy and the WI and HNC samples containing ß-Mo2C. The two different allotropes were suggested to follow different reaction pathways, leading to small differences in the catalytic performance. However, overall, all three catalysts showed a decrease in activity (below 6%) and an increase in C2H4 selectivity (from 60 to 80 C%) with time on stream (TOS). The deactivation mechanism was suggested to be mainly due to oxidation of the carbide to MoOx and carbon deposition. Mo2C was also supported on various metal oxide materials via the wet impregnation technique. Mo2C supported on Al2O3 and ZrO2 increased initial activity (about 8% C2H6 conversion) but a faster deactivation with TOS was observed. Mo2C/Ga2O3 favoured the direct dehydrogenation reaction achieving high C2H4 selectivities (above 80 C%), but deactivation with TOS due to carbon deposition was significant. Mo2C supported on CeO2 and TiO2 had lower activity (about 3% C2H6 conversion). Oxidation to MoO2 and carbon deposition is again suggested to be the main deactivation mechanism. H2 co-feeding, on Mo2C/SiO2 and Mo2C/ZrO2, increased the stability of the catalysts but C2H4 yield was affected (from 5 to 2%). At 17 vol% H2 co-feeding, Mo2C/ZrO2 showed promising catalyst stability over a 20 h period, paralleled by a stable C2H4 yield.

7.
Faraday Discuss ; 229: 208-231, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629982

RESUMO

The effect of both the Fe : Ni ratio (5 to 1 : 1) and the relative Lewis acidity of a metal oxide support on catalytic activity, selectivity and stability was investigated in the CO2 mediated oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (CO2-ODH). To avoid effects of varying pore sizes, shapes and volumes of the supports, chromia and zirconia overlayers were coated onto a common γ-Al2O3 carrier (CrOx@Al2O3 and ZrOx@Al2O3). Separately, oxidic FexNiy alloy precursor nanoparticles were prepared using a nonaqueous surfactant-free method and deposited by sonication onto the carrier. In comparison to previous studies in the field, this synthesis technique yields closely associated iron and nickel increasing the chances for alloy formation. During reduction, a mixture of a bcc and a fcc alloy phase was formed, with the content of bcc increasing with increasing iron content as predicted by the bulk phase diagram. Upon exposure to carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures, the bcc metallic phase is selectively oxidised to an inverse spinel structure via the dissociation of CO2. When exposed to CO2-ODH conditions, the bare ZrOx@Al2O3 support shows no activity. The presence of FeNi phases increases the conversion of ethane and CO2 marginally (<2%) but forms ethylene at high selectivity (SC2H4 > 80%). The CrOx@Al2O3 support shows some initial activity (XC2H6 < 5%) at very high ethylene selectivity (SC2H4 > 90%) but deactivates with time on stream. Comparison of the ethane and carbon dioxide conversions suggests that direct dehydrogenation rather than the oxidative pathway is taking place. When FeNi particles with the highest Fe content are added, the ethane conversion behavior hardly changes, but the CO2 conversion is increased now supporting the stoichiometric CO2-ODH reaction (SC2H4 > 95%). It is therefore evident that a tandem catalyst system between a reducible oxide carrier and the FeNi species is required. Increasing the Ni content results in an increase in activity and stability while changing the dominant reaction pathway to a combination of dry reforming, CO2-ODH and possibly the reverse Boudouard reaction, with the latter countering catalyst deactivation through carbon deposition.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374803

RESUMO

Pancreatic ß-cell-specific clock knockout mice develop ß-cell oxidative-stress and failure, as well as glucose-intolerance. How inflammatory stress affects the cellular clock is under-investigated. Real-time recording of Per2:luciferase reporter activity in murine and human pancreatic islets demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) lengthened the circadian period. qPCR-profiling of core clock gene expression in insulin-producing cells suggested that the combination of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) caused pronounced but uncoordinated increases in mRNA levels of multiple core clock genes, in particular of reverse-erythroblastosis virus α (Rev-erbα), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The REV-ERBα/ß agonist SR9009, used to mimic cytokine-mediated Rev-erbα induction, reduced constitutive and cytokine-induced brain and muscle arnt-like 1 (Bmal1) mRNA levels in INS-1 cells as expected. SR9009 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced insulin-1/2 (Ins-1/2) mRNA and accumulated- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, reduced cell viability, and increased apoptosis levels, reminiscent of cytokine toxicity. In contrast, low (<5,0 µM) concentrations of SR9009 increased Ins-1 mRNA and accumulated insulin-secretion without affecting INS-1 cell viability, mirroring low-concentration IL-1ß mediated ß-cell stimulation. Inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, the lysine deacetylase HDAC3 and the immunoproteasome reduced cytokine-mediated increases in clock gene expression. In conclusion, the cytokine-combination perturbed the intrinsic clocks operative in mouse and human pancreatic islets and induced uncoordinated clock gene expression in INS-1 cells, the latter effect associated with NO, HDAC3, and immunoproteasome activity.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Ritmo Circadiano , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4339-4354, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892628

RESUMO

Emergence and re-emergence of pathogens bearing the risk of becoming a pandemic threat are on the rise. Increased travel and trade, growing population density, changes in urbanization, and climate have a critical impact on infectious disease spread. Currently, the world is confronted with the emergence of a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for yet more than 800 000 deaths globally. Outbreaks caused by viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV, Ebola, influenza, and Zika, have increased over the past decade, underlining the need for a rapid development of diagnostics and vaccines. Hence, the rational identification of biomarkers for diagnostic measures on the one hand, and antigenic targets for vaccine development on the other, are of utmost importance. Peptide microarrays can display large numbers of putative target proteins translated into overlapping linear (and cyclic) peptides for a multiplexed, high-throughput antibody analysis. This enabled for example the identification of discriminant/diagnostic epitopes in Zika or influenza and mapping epitope evolution in natural infections versus vaccinations. In this review, we highlight synthesis platforms that facilitate fast and flexible generation of high-density peptide microarrays. We further outline the multifaceted applications of these peptide array platforms for the development of serological tests and vaccines to quickly encounter pandemic threats.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos , Pandemias , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Dalton Trans ; 48(36): 13858-13868, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483416

RESUMO

The formation of mixed-metal cobalt oxides, representing potential metal-support compounds for cobalt-based catalysts, has been observed at high conversion levels in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over metal oxide-supported cobalt catalysts. An often observed increase in the carbon dioxide selectivity at Fischer-Tropsch conversion levels above 80% has been suggested to be associated to the formation of water-gas shift active oxidic cobalt species. Mixed-metal cobalt oxides, namely cobalt aluminate and cobalt titanate, were therefore synthesised and tested for potential catalytic activity in the water-gas shift reaction. We present a preparation route for amorphous mixed-metal oxides via thermal treatment of metal precursors in benzyl alcohol. Calcination of the as prepared nanoparticles results in highly crystalline phases. The nano-particulate mixed-metal cobalt oxides were thoroughly analysed by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. This complementary characterisation of the synthesised materials allows for a distinct identification of the phases and their properties. The cobalt aluminate prepared has a cobalt-rich composition (Co1+xAl2-xO4) with a homogeneous atomic distribution throughout the nano-particulate structures, while the perovskite-type cobalt titanate (CoTiO3) features cobalt-lean smaller particles associated with larger ones with an increased concentration of cobalt. The cobalt aluminate prepared showed no water-gas shift activity in the medium-shift temperature range, while the cobalt titanate sample catalysed the conversion of water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen and carbon dioxide after an extended activation period. However, this perovskite underwent vast restructuring forming metallic cobalt, a known catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction at temperatures exceeding typical conditions for the cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and anatase-TiO2. The partial reduction of the mixed-metal oxide and segregation was identified by means of post-run characterisation using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectrometry.

11.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(4): 642-656, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630936

RESUMO

High-density peptide arrays are an excellent means to profile anti-plasmodial antibody responses. Different protein intrinsic epitopes can be distinguished, and additional insights are gained, when compared with assays involving the full-length protein. Distinct reactivities to specific epitopes within one protein may explain differences in published results, regarding immunity or susceptibility to malaria. We pursued three approaches to find specific epitopes within important plasmodial proteins, (1) twelve leading vaccine candidates were mapped as overlapping 15-mer peptides, (2) a bioinformatical approach served to predict immunogenic malaria epitopes which were subsequently validated in the assay, and (3) randomly selected peptides from the malaria proteome were screened as a control. Several peptide array replicas were prepared, employing particle-based laser printing, and were used to screen 27 serum samples from a malaria-endemic area in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The immunological status of the individuals was classified as "protected" or "unprotected" based on clinical symptoms, parasite density, and age. The vaccine candidate screening approach resulted in significant hits in all twelve proteins and allowed us (1) to verify many known immunogenic structures, (2) to map B-cell epitopes across the entire sequence of each antigen and (3) to uncover novel immunogenic epitopes. Predicting immunogenic regions in the proteome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, via the bioinformatics approach and subsequent array screening, confirmed known immunogenic sequences, such as in the leading malaria vaccine candidate CSP and discovered immunogenic epitopes derived from hypothetical or unknown proteins.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Malária/imunologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Automação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Lactente , Malária/sangue , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
ACS Catal ; 9(8): 7166-7178, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064146

RESUMO

Different supporting procedures were followed to alter the nanoparticle-support interactions (NPSI) in two Co3O4/Al2O3 catalysts, prepared using the reverse micelle technique. The catalysts were tested in the dry preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO-PrOx) while their phase stability was monitored using four complementary in situ techniques, viz., magnet-based characterization, PXRD, and combined XAS/DRIFTS, as well as quasi in situ XPS, respectively. The catalyst with weak NPSI achieved higher CO2 yields and selectivities at temperatures below 225 °C compared to the sample with strong NPSI. However, relatively high degrees of reduction of Co3O4 to metallic Co were reached between 250 and 350 °C for the same catalyst. The presence of metallic Co led to the undesired formation of CH4, reaching a yield of over 90% above 300 °C. The catalyst with strong NPSI formed very low amounts of metallic Co (less than 1%) and CH4 (yield of up to 20%) even at 350 °C. When the temperature was decreased from 350 to 50 °C under the reaction gas, both catalysts were slightly reoxidized and gradually regained their CO oxidation activity, while the formation of CH4 diminished. The present study shows a strong relationship between catalyst performance (i.e., activity and selectivity) and phase stability, both of which are affected by the strength of the NPSI. When using a metal oxide as the active CO-PrOx catalyst, it is important for it to have significant reduction resistance to avoid the formation of undesired products, e.g., CH4. However, the metal oxide should also be reducible (especially on the surface) to allow for a complete conversion of CO to CO2 via the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(36): 4880-4887, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435946

RESUMO

Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting. The scene was set by the opening lecture of Prof. Enrique Iglesias (UC Berkeley) and wrapped-up with the concluding remarks by Philip Gibson (SASOL).

18.
Faraday Discuss ; 197: 243-268, 2017 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28198896

RESUMO

Highly monodisperse cobalt crystallites, supported on Stöber silica spheres, as model catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were exposed to simulated high conversion environments in the presence and absence of CO utilising an in house developed in situ magnetometer. The catalyst comprising the smallest crystallites in the metallic state (average diameter of 3.2 nm) experienced pronounced oxidation whilst the ratio of H2O to H2 was increased stepwise to simulate CO conversions from 26% up to complete conversion. Direct exposure of this freshly reduced catalyst to a high conversion Fischer-Tropsch environment resulted in almost spontaneous oxidation of 40% of the metallic cobalt. In contrast, a model catalyst with cobalt crystallites of 5.3 nm only oxidised to a small extent even when exposed to a simulated conversion of over 99%. The largest cobalt crystallites were rather stable and only experienced measurable oxidation when subjected to H2O in the absence of H2. This size dependency of the stability is in qualitative accordance with reported thermodynamic calculations. However, the cobalt crystallites showed an unexpected low susceptibility to oxidation, i.e. only relatively high ratios of H2O to H2 partial pressure caused oxidation. Similar experiments in the presence of CO revealed the significance of the actual Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on the metallic surface as the dissociation of CO, an elementary step in the Fischer-Tropsch mechanism, was shown to be a prerequisite for oxidation. Direct oxidation of cobalt to CoO by H2O seems to be kinetically hindered. Thus, H2O may only be capable of indirect oxidation, i.e. high concentrations prevent the removal of adsorbed oxygen species on the cobalt surface leading to oxidation. However, a spontaneous direct oxidation of cobalt at the interface between the support and the crystallites by H2O forming presumably cobalt silicate type species was observed in the presence and absence of CO. The formation of these metal-support compounds is in accordance with conducted thermodynamic predictions. None of the extreme Fischer-Tropsch conditions initiated hydrothermal sintering. Seemingly, the formation of metal-support compounds stabilised the metallic crystallites and/or higher partial pressures of CO are required to increase the concentration of mobile, cobalt oxide-type species on the metallic surface.

19.
Faraday Discuss ; 197: 269-285, 2017 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197581

RESUMO

The preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide has been identified as an effective route to remove trace amounts of CO (approx. 0.5-1.0 vol%) in the H2-rich reformate gas stream after the low-temperature water-gas shift. Instead of noble metal-based catalysts, Co3O4-based catalysts were investigated in this study as cheaper and more readily available alternatives. This study aimed at investigating the effect of crystallite size on the mass- and surface area-specific CO oxidation activity as well as on the reduction behaviour of Co3O4. Model Co3O4 catalysts with average crystallite sizes between 3 and 15 nm were synthesised using the reverse micelle technique. Results from the catalytic tests revealed that decreasing the size of the Co3O4 crystallites increased the mass-specific CO oxidation activity in the 50-200 °C temperature range. On the other hand, the surface area-specific CO oxidation activity displayed a volcano-type behaviour where crystallites with an average size of 8.5 nm were the most active within the same temperature range. In situ characterisation in the magnetometer revealed that the Co3O4 crystallites are partially reduced to metallic Co above 225 °C with crystallites larger than 7.5 nm showing higher degrees of reduction under the H2-rich environment of CO-PrOx. In situ PXRD experiments further showed the presence of CoO concurrently with metallic fcc Co in all the catalysts during the CO-PrOx runs. In all experiments, the formation of fcc Co coincided with the formation of CH4. Upon decreasing the reaction temperature below 250 °C under the reaction gas, both in situ techniques revealed that the fcc Co previously formed is partially re-oxidised to CoO.

20.
ACS Omega ; 2(7): 3913-3920, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023708

RESUMO

B-cell epitope sequences from Zika virus (ZIKV) NS1 protein have been identified using epitope prediction tools. Mapping these sequences onto the NS1 surface reveals two major conformational epitopes and a single linear one. Despite an overall average sequence identity of ca. 55% between the NS1 from ZIKV and the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, epitope sequences were found to be highly conserved. Nevertheless, nonconserved epitope-flanking residues are responsible for a dramatically divergent electrostatic surface potential on the epitope regions of ZIKV and DENV2 serotypes. These findings suggest that strategies for differential diagnostics on the basis of short linear NS1 sequences are likely to fail due to immunological cross-reactions. Overall, results provide the molecular basis of differential discrimination between Zika and DENVs by NS1 monoclonal antibodies.

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