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2.
Mil Med ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies demonstrate that a significant proportion of casualties do not receive pain medication prehospital after traumatic injuries. To address possible reasons, the U.S. Military has sought to develop novel delivery methods to aid in administration of pain medications prehospital. We sought to describe the dose and route of ketamine administered prehospital to help inform materiel solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously described dataset focused on prehospital data within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from 2007 to 2020. We isolated encounters in which ketamine was administered along with the amount dosed and the route of administration in nonintubated patients. RESULTS: Within our dataset, 862 casualties met inclusion for this analysis. The median age was 28 and nearly all (98%) were male. Most were battle injuries (88%) caused by explosives (54%). The median injury severity score was 10 with the extremities accounting to the most frequent seriously injured body region (38%). The mean dose via intravenous route was 50.4 mg (n = 743, 95% CI 46.5-54.3), intramuscular was 66.7 mg (n = 234, 95% CI 60.3-73.1), intranasal was 56.5 mg (n = 10, 39.1-73.8), and intraosseous was 83.3 mg (n = 34, 66.3-100.4). Most had a medic or CLS in their chain of care (87%) with air evacuation as the primary mechanism of evacuation (86%). CONCLUSIONS: The average doses administered were generally larger than the doses recommended by Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines. Currently, guidelines may underdose analgesia. Our data will help inform materiel solutions based on end-user requirements.

3.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(4): 126-137, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969143

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic shock in combat trauma remains the greatest life threat to casualties with potentially survivable injuries. Advances in external hemorrhage control and the increasing use of damage control resuscitation have demonstrated significant success in decreasing mortality in combat casualties. Presently, an expanding body of literature suggests that fluid resuscitation strategies for casualties in hemorrhagic shock that include the prehospital use of cold-stored or fresh whole blood when available, or blood components when whole blood is not available, are superior to crystalloid and colloid fluids. On the basis of this recent evidence, the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) has conducted a review of fluid resuscitation for the combat casualty who is in hemorrhagic shock and made the following new recommendations: (1) cold stored low-titer group O whole blood (CS-LTOWB) has been designated as the preferred resuscitation fluid, with fresh LTOWB identified as the first alternate if CS-LTOWB is not available; (2) crystalloids and Hextend are no longer recommended as fluid resuscitation options in hemorrhagic shock; (3) target systolic blood pressure (SBP) resuscitation goals have been redefined for casualties with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) coexisting with their hemorrhagic shock; and (4) empiric prehospital calcium administration is now recommended whenever blood product resuscitation is required.


Assuntos
Medicina Militar , Choque Hemorrágico , Hidratação , Humanos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
4.
Mil Med ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhage is the leading threat to the survival of battlefield casualties. This study aims to investigate the types of fluids and blood products administered in prehospital trauma encounters to discover the effectiveness of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously described dataset from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry with a focus on prehospital fluid and blood administration in conjunction with changes in the TCCC guidelines. We collected demographic information on each patient. We categorized receipt of each fluid type and blood product as a binary variable for each casualty and evaluated trends over 2007-2020 both unadjusted and controlling for injury severity and mechanism of injury. RESULTS: Our original dataset comprised 25,897 adult casualties from January 1, 2007 through March 17, 2020. Most (97.3%) of the casualties were male with a median age of 25. Most (95.5%) survived to hospital discharge, and 12.2% of the dataset received fluids of any kind. Medical personnel used crystalloids in 7.4% of encounters, packed red blood cells in 2.0%, and whole blood in 0.5% with very few receiving platelets or freeze-dried plasma. In the adjusted model, we noted significant year-to-year increases in intravenous fluid administration from 2014 to 2015 and 2018 to 2019, with significant decreases noted in 2008-2009, 2010-2012, and 2015-2016. We noted no significant increases in Hextend used, but we did note significant decreases in 2010-2012. For any blood product, we noted significant increases from 2016 to 2017, with decreases noted in 2009-2013, 2015-2016, and 2017-2018. Overall, we noted a general spike in all uses in 2011-2012 that rapidly dropped off 2012-2013. Crystalloids consistently outpaced the use of blood products. We noted a small upward trend in all blood products from 2017 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in TCCC guidelines did not immediately translate into changes in prehospital fluid administration practices. Crystalloid fluids continue to dominate as the most commonly administered fluid even after the 2014 TCCC guidelines changed to use of blood products over crystalloids. There should be future studies to investigate the reasons for delay in guideline implementation and efforts to improve adherence.

5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 139-143, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of pediatric mortality in the United States. Often, these patients require supermassive transfusion (SMT), which we define as receipt of >80 mL/kg blood products, double the proposed volume for standard pediatric massive transfusion (MT). Evaluating the blood volumes, injury patterns, clinical findings, and prehospital interventions predictive for SMT are critical to reducing pediatric mortality. We describe the pediatric casualties, injury patterns, and clinical findings that comprise SMT. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed pediatric trauma data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from January 2007-2016. We stratified patients into two cohorts based on blood products received in the first 24 h after injury: 1) those who received 40-80 mL/kg (MT), or 2) those who received >80 mL/kg (SMT). We evaluated demographics, injury patterns, prehospital interventions, and clinical findings. RESULTS: Our original dataset included 3439 pediatric casualties. We identified 536 patients who met inclusion parameters (receipt of ≥40 mL/kg of blood products [whole blood, packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, or cryoprecipitate]). The MT cohort included 271 patients (50.6%), and the SMT cohort comprised 265 patients (49.4%). Survival to discharge was significantly lower (78% for SMT, 86% for MT; p < 0.011) in the SMT cohort. Multivariable analysis of injury patterns revealed serious injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale 3-6) to the extremities (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.45-3.12) and abdomen (OR 1.65, 1.08-2.53) were associated with SMT. Wound dressings (41% versus 29%; p = 0.003), tourniquets (23% vs 12%; p = 0.001), and IO access (17% vs 10%; p = 0.013) were more common in the SMT group. Age-adjusted hypotension was significantly higher in the SMT group (41%, n = 100 vs 23%, n = 59; p < 0.001) with no statistical difference detected in tachycardia (87%, n = 223 vs 87%, n = 228; p = 0.932). CONCLUSIONS: Our research demonstrates that pediatric SMT patients are at increased risk of mortality. Our study highlights the seriousness of extremity injuries in pediatric trauma patients, identifying associations between severe injuries to the extremities and abdomen with the receipt of SMT. Prehospital interventions of wound dressing, tourniquets, and IO access were more frequent in the SMT cohort. Our research determined that hypotension was associated with SMT, but tachycardia was not a reliable predictor of SMT over MT.

6.
Mil Med ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. Resuscitation with blood products is essential to restore circulating volume, repay the oxygen debt, and prevent coagulopathy. Massive transfusion (MT) occurs frequently after major trauma; a subset of casualties requires a supermassive transfusion (SMT), and thus, mobilization of additional resources remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously described dataset from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In this analysis, we isolated U.S. and Coalition casualties that received at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) or whole blood (WB). Given a lack of consensus on the definition of SMT recipients, we included those patients receiving the top quartile of PRBC and WB administered within the first 24 hours following arrival to a military treatment facility. RESULTS: We identified 25,897 adult casualties from January 1, 2007 to March 17, 2020. Within this dataset, 2,608 (9.0%) met inclusion for this analysis. The median number of total products administered within the first 24 hours was 8 units of PRBC or WB. The upper quartile was 18 units (n = 666). Compared to all other blood product recipients, patients in the SMT cohort had a higher median injury severity score (27 vs 18, P < 0.001), were most frequently injured by explosives (84.9% vs 68.6%, P < 0.001), had a higher mean emergency department (ED) pulse (128 vs 111, P < 0.001), a lower mean systolic blood pressure (122 vs 132 mm Hg, P < 0.001), and a higher mean international normalized ratio (1.68 vs 1.38, P < 0.001). SMT patients experienced lower survival to hospital discharge (85.8% vs 93.3%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to all other PRBC and WB recipients, SMT patients experienced more injury by explosives, severe injury patterns, ED vital sign derangements, and mortality. These findings may help identify those casualties who may require earlier aggressive resuscitation. However, more data is needed to define this population early in their clinical course for early identification to facilitate rapid resource mobilization. Identifying casualties who are likely to die within 24 hours compared to those who are likely to survive, may assist in determining a threshold for a SMT.

7.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731068

RESUMO

Background: Combat injury related wound infections are common. Untreated, these wound infections may progress to sepsis and septic shock leading to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Understanding infectious complications, patterns, progression, and correlated prehospital interventions is vital to understand the development of sepsis. We aim to analyze demographics, injury patterns, and interventions associated with sepsis in battlefield settings.Materials and Methods: This is a secondary analysis of previously published data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) from 2007 to 2020. We searched for casualties diagnosed with sepsis (excluding line-sepsis) throughout their initial hospitalization. Regression models were used to seek associations.Results: Our initial request yielded 28,950 encounters, of which 25,654 (88.6%) were adults that met inclusion, including 243 patients (0.9%) diagnosed with sepsis. Patients included US military (34%), non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military (33%) and humanitarian (30%) groups. Patients diagnosed with sepsis had a significantly lower survival rate than non-septic patients (78.1% vs. 95.7%, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in administration of prehospital antibiotics between septic and the general populations (10.6% vs. 12.3%, p = 0.395). Prehospital intraosseous access (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.27-1.91, p = 0.207) and packed red cell administration (1.63, 1.24-2.15, 0.029) were the interventions most associated with sepsis.Conclusions: Sepsis occurred infrequently in the DoDTR when evacuation from battlefield is not delayed, but despite increased intervention frequency, developing sepsis demonstrates a significant drop in survival rates. Future research would benefit from the development of risk mitigation measures.

8.
Mil Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The battalion aid station (BAS) has historically served as the first stop during which combat casualties would receive care beyond a combat medic. Since the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, many combat casualties have bypassed the BAS for treatment facilities capable of surgery. We describe the care provided at these treatment facilities during 2007-2020. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of previously described data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. We included encounters with the documentation of an assessment or intervention at a BAS or forward operating base from January 1, 2007 to March 17, 2020. We utilized descriptive statistics to characterize these encounters. RESULTS: There were 28,950 encounters in our original dataset, of which 3.1% (884) had the documentation of a prehospital visit to a BAS. The BAS cohort was older (25 vs. 24, P < .001) The non-BAS cohort saw a larger portion of pediatric (<18 years) patients (10.7% vs. 5.7%, P < .001). A higher proportion of BAS patients had nonbattle injuries (40% vs. 20.7%, P < .001). The mean injury severity score was higher in the non-BAS cohort (9 vs. 5, P < .001). A higher proportion of the non-BAS cohort had more serious extremity injuries (25.1% vs. 18.4%, P < .001), although the non-BAS cohort had a trend toward serious injuries to the abdomen (P = .051) and thorax (P = .069). There was no difference in survival. CONCLUSIONS: The BAS was once a critical point in casualty evacuation and treatment. Within our dataset, the overall number of encounters that involved a stop at a BAS facility was low. For both the asymmetric battlefield and multidomain operations/large-scale combat operations, the current model would benefit from a more robust capability to include storage of blood, ventilators, and monitoring and hold patients for an undetermined amount of time.

9.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(3): 66-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: United States Africa Command (US AFRICOM) is one of six US Defense Department's geographic combatant commands and is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for military relations with African nations, the African Union, and African regional security organizations. A full-spectrum combatant command, US AFRICOM is responsible for all US Department of Defense operations, exercises, and security cooperation on the African continent, its island nations, and surrounding waters. We seek to characterize blood product administration within AFRICOM using the in-transit visibility tracking tool known as TRAC2ES (TRANSCOM Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of TRAC2ES medical evacuations from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018. RESULTS: During this time, there were 963 cases recorded in TRAC2ES originating within AFRICOM, of which 10 (1%) cases received blood products. All patients were males. One was a Department of State employee, one was a military working dog, and the remainder were military personnel. Of the ten humans, seven were the result of trauma, most by way of gunshot wound, and three were due to medical causes. Among human subjects receiving blood products for traumatic injuries, a total of 5 units of type O negative whole blood, 29 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs), and 9 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were transfused. No subjects underwent massive transfusion of blood products, and only one subject received pRBCs and FFP in 1:1 fashion. All subjects survived until evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Within the TRAC2ES database, blood product administration within AFRICOM was infrequent, with some cases highlighting lack of access to adequate blood products. Furthermore, the limitations within this database highlight the need for systems designed to capture medical care performance improvement, as this database is not designed to support such analyses. A mandate for performance improvement within AFRICOM that is similar to that of the US Central Command would be beneficial if major improvements are to occur.


Assuntos
Militares , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
10.
Mil Med ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the most common cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. Balanced resuscitation with plasma, platelets, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in a 1:1:1 ratio, if whole blood (WB) is not available, is associated with optimal outcomes among patients with hemorrhage. We describe the use of balanced resuscitation among combat casualties undergoing massive transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) spanning encounters from January 1, 2007, to March 17, 2020. We included all casualties who received at least 10 units of either PRBCs or WB. We categorized casualties as recipients of plasma-balanced resuscitation if the ratio of plasma to PRBC units was 0.8 or greater; similarly, we defined platelet-balanced resuscitation as a ratio of platelets to PRBC units of 0.8 or greater. We portrayed these populations using descriptive statistics and compared characteristics between non-balanced and balanced resuscitation recipients for both plasma and platelets. RESULTS: We identified 28,950 encounters in the DODTR with documentation of prehospital activity. Massive transfusions occurred for 2,414 (8.3%) casualties, among whom 1,593 (66.0%) received a plasma-balanced resuscitation and 1,248 (51.7%) received a platelet-balanced resuscitation. During the study period, 962 (39.8%) of these patients received a fully balanced resuscitation with regard to both the plasma:PRBC and platelet:PRBC ratios. The remaining casualties did not undergo a balanced resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: While a majority of massive transfusion recipients received a plasma-balanced and/or platelet-balanced resuscitation, fewer patients received a platelet-balanced resuscitation. These findings suggest that more emphasis in training and supply may be necessary to optimize blood product resuscitation ratios.

11.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 25-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Battlefield first responders (BFR) are the first non-medical personnel to render critical lifesaving interventions for combat casualties, especially for massive hemorrhage where rapid control will improve survival. Soldiers receive medical instruction during initial entry training (IET) and unit-dependent medical training, and by attending the Combat Lifesaver (CLS) course. We seek to describe the interventions performed by BFRs on casualties with only BFRs listed in their chain of care within the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a dataset from the PHTR from 2003-2019. We excluded encounters with a documented medical officer, medic, or unknown prehospital provider at any time in their chain of care during the Role 1 phase to isolate only casualties with BFR medical care. RESULTS: Of the 1,357 encounters in our initial dataset, we identified 29 casualties that met inclusion criteria. Pressure dressing was the most common intervention (n=12), followed by limb tourniquets (n=4), IV fluids (n=3), hemostatic gauze (n=2), and wound packing (n=2). Bag-valve-masks, chest seals, extremity splints, and nasopharyngeal airways (NPA) were also used (n=1 each). Notably absent were backboards, blizzard blankets, cervical collars, eye shields, pelvic splints, hypothermia kits, chest tubes, supraglottic airways (SGA), intraosseous (I/O) lines, and needle decompression (NDC). CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited training, BFRs employ vital medical skills in the prehospital setting. Our data show that BFRs largely perform medical interventions within the scope of their medical knowledge and training. Better datasets with efficacy and complication data are needed.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Socorristas , Medicina Militar , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Torniquetes
12.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 63-68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449863

RESUMO

Among combat casualties with survivable injuries, the most common cause of mortality is massive hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to identify the accuracy of shock index (SI) and pulse pressure (PP) for predicting receipt of massive transfusion and death on the battlefield. The study searched the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from January 2007 to August 2016 using a series of procedural codes to identify casualties which has been previously described. This is a secondary analysis of casualties analyzing SI. This study analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and regression analyses. Within that dataset, there were 15,540 that were US Forces (75.1%), Coalition Forces (14.5%) or contractors (10.3%)-of which, 1,261 (7.9%) underwent massive transfusion. On ROC analyses for SI, this study found an overall optimal threshold at 0.91 with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89 with a sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.87 for predicting massive transfusion. The study found an optimal threshold of 0.91 with an AUC of 0.76 with a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.82 for predicting death. On ROC analyses for PP, the study found an overall optimal threshold at 48 with an AUC of 0.71 with a sensitivity of 0.56 and specificity of 0.76 for predicting massive transfusion. The study found an optimal threshold of 44 with an AUC of 0.75 with a sensitivity of 0.60 and specificity of 0.82 for predicting death. SI and PP may accurately predict receipt of massive transfusion and of mortality in a combat casualty population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Afeganistão , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Iraque , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 44-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most battlefield deaths occur in the prehospital setting prior to reaching surgical and hospital care. Described are casualties captured by the Joint Trauma System (JTS) in the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) module of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR), from inception through May 2019. METHODS: The JTS was queried for all PHTR encounters and associated data from inception (January 2003) through May 2019. The PHTR captures data on Role 1 prehospital care which encompasses treatment prior to arrival at a Role 2 with or without forward surgical team or Role 3 combat support hospital. Two unique patient identifiers were used to link DODTR outcome data to each PHTR encounter. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: We obtained a total of 1,357 encounters from the PHTR. Of these encounters, we successfully linked 52.2% (709/1357) to the DODTR for outcome data. Encounters spanned from 2003 to 2019, with most (69.5%) occurring from 2012 to 2014. Many casualties were in the 18-25 (25.5%) or 26-33 (27.0%) age ranges, male (99.2%), injured by explosive (47.1%) or firearm (34.8%), enlisted (44.8%), and US military conventional (24.1%) and special operations (23.9%) forces. Of those linked to the DODTR, demographics were similar, most casualties sustained battle injuries (87.1%), the majority of which survived (99.1%). CONCLUSIONS: We described 1,357 encounters within the PHTR, most of which were US casualties and casualties injured by explosives. This renewed effort by the JTS to capture more casualties for inclusion into the registry has nearly doubled the proportion of available encounters for analysis. This analysis lays the foundation for in-depth analyses targeting areas for optimizing Role 1 prehospital combat casualty care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Militares , Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros
14.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S286-S293, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of death in trauma patients with most fatalities occurring before reaching a higher level of care-this applies to both the civilian setting and the military combat setting. Hemostatic resuscitation with increased emphasis on blood transfusion while limiting use of crystalloids has become routine in trauma care. However, the prehospital setting-especially in combat-presents unique challenges with regard to storage, transport, and administration. We sought to evaluate available technology on the market for storage and administration technology that is relevant to the prehospital setting. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a market review of available technology through subject-matter expert inquiry, reviews of published literature, reviews of Federal Drug Administration databases, internal military publications, and searches of Google. RESULTS: We reviewed and described a total of 103 blood transporters, 22 infusers, and 6 warmers. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of on-scene fatality in trauma patients and recent developments in trauma care demonstrate the need for prehospital transfusion. These transfusions have been logistically prohibited in many operations. We have reviewed the current commercially available equipment and recommended pursuit of equipment that improves accessibility to field transfusion. Current technology has limited applicability for the prehospital setting and is further limited for the military setting.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Transportes , Animais , Bancos de Sangue/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue/instrumentação , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Hospitais , Humanos , Transportes/instrumentação
15.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S2-S7, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole blood therapy-which contains the ideal balance of components, and particularly fresh whole blood-has been shown to be beneficial in adult trauma. It remains unclear whether there is potential benefit in the pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of previously published data analyzing pediatric casualties undergoing massive transfusion in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. Pediatric patients with traumatic injury who were transfused at least one blood product were included in the analysis. We compared children who received component therapy exclusively to those who received any amount of warm fresh whole blood. RESULTS: Of the 3439 pediatric casualties within our dataset, 1244 were transfused at least one blood product within the first 24 h. There were 848 patients without severe head injury. Within this cohort, 23 children received warm fresh whole blood overall, 20 of whom did not have severe head injury. In an adjusted analysis, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for survival for warm fresh whole blood recipients was 2.86 (0.40-20.45). After removing children with severe brain injury, there was an independent association with improved survival for warm fresh whole blood recipients with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 58.63 (2.70-1272.67). DISCUSSION: Our data suggest that warm fresh whole blood may be associated with improved survival in children without severe head injury. Larger prospective studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of whole blood in children with severe traumatic bleeding.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
16.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; PB 8-21-04/05/06(PB 8-21-04-05-06): 32-37, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failed airway management is the second leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. The prehospital trauma registry (PHTR) after action-review (AAR) allows for unique perspectives and an enhanced analysis of interventions performed. We analyzed AAR comments related to airway interventions performed in deployed settings to examine and identify trends in challenges related to airway management in combat. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed all AAR comments included for airway interventions reported in the Joint Trauma System PHTR. We applied unstructured qualitative methods to analyze themes within these reports and generated descriptive statistics to summarize findings related to airway management. RESULTS: Out of 705 total casualty encounters in the PHTR system between January 2013 and September 2014, 117 (16.6%) had a documented airway intervention. From this sample, 17 (14.5%) had accompanying AAR comments for review. Most patients were identified as host nation casualties (94%, n =16), male (88%, n = 15), and prioritized as urgent evacuation (100%, n = 17). Twenty-five airway interventions were described in the AAR comments, the most being endotracheal intubation (52%, n = 13), followed by ventilation management (28%, n = 7), and cricothyroidotomy (12%, n = 3). Comments indicated difficulties with surgical procedures and suboptimal anatomy identification. CONCLUSIONS: AAR comments focused primarily on cricothyroidotomy, endotracheal intubation, and ventilation management, citing needs for improvement in technique and anatomy identification. Future efforts should focus on training methods for these interventions and increased emphasis on AAR completion.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Afeganistão , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Sistema de Registros
17.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-04/05/06): 72-77, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is crucial to force protection and preservation. Innovation in PPE has shifted injury patterns, with protected body regions accounting for decreased proportions of battlefield trauma relative to unprotected regions. Little is known regarding the PPE in use by warfighters at the time of injury. METHODS: We queried the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) for all encounters from 2003-2019. This is a sub-analysis of casualties with documented PPE at the time of medical encounter. When possible, encounters were linked to the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for outcome data. Serious injuries are defined as an abbreviated injury scale of 3 or greater. RESULTS: Of 1,357 total casualty encounters in the PHTR, 83 were US military with documented PPE. We link 62 of this cohort to DODTR. The median composite Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 6 (Interquartile range (IQR) 4-21), and 11 casualties (18%) had an ISS >25. The most seriously injured body regions were the extremities (21%), head/neck (16%), thorax (16%), and abdomen (10%). PPE worn at time of injury included helmet (91%), eye protection (73%), front (75%) and rear plates (77%), left/right plates (65%), tactical vest (46%), groin protection (12%), neck protection (6%), pelvic shield (3%), and deltoid protection (3%). CONCLUSION: Our data set demonstrates that the extremities were the most commonly injured body region, followed by head/neck, and thorax. PPE designed for the extremities and neck are also among the least commonly worn protective equipment.


Assuntos
Militares , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Sistema de Registros
18.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-04/05/06): 66-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood products are often a life-saving intervention for both traumatic and medical indications. The United States Indo-Pacific Command (INDOPACOM) is the largest Geographic Combat Command (GCC). Procurement of blood products that meet the US military healthcare standards throughout this region is challenging. Yet, the frequency to which this life-saving intervention is administered remains unclear. We seek to describe blood product administration throughout INDOPACOM. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously described dataset from the US Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) Regulating Command and Control and Evacuation System (TRAC2ES) from 2008 to 2018. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2018, there were 4,217 cases in TRAC2ES originating within INDOPACOM, of which 173 (4%) cases involved blood product transfusion. The largest percentage for patients receiving a blood transfusion was 19-29 years old (29%), followed by patients under a year (21%). Most (66%) of the patients classified as male. Almost half of the patients (49%) were dependents of members of service in parallel with the young patient ages. Anemia (23%) and trauma (20%) , mostly non-combat related, were the largest proportions of indications. The common blood product used was packed red cells (72%) followed by fresh frozen plasma (16%). CONCLUSIONS: Blood products were administered to nearly 1 out of every 25 patients transported within INDOPACOM, which highlights the need for reliable methods for obtaining and maintaining blood products. Given INDOPACOM's vast area of responsibility and possibility for a peer-to-peer war, finding optimal methods to transport and store blood and blood products is imperative.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Militares , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 690-695, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125048

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The intraosseous (IO) route is one of the primary means of vascular access in critically ill and injured patients. The most common sites used are the proximal humerus, proximal tibia, and sternum. Sternal IO placement remains an often-overlooked option in emergency and prehospital medicine. Due to the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq the use of sternal IOs have increased. METHODS: The authors conducted a limited review, searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases for "sternal IO," "sternal intraosseous," and "intraosseous" without specific date limitations. A total of 47 articles were included in this review. RESULTS: Sternal IOs are currently FDA approved for ages 12 and older. Sternal IO access offers several anatomical, pharmacokinetic, hemodynamic, and logistical advantages over peripheral intravenous and other IO points of access. Sternal IO use carries many of the same risks and limitations as the humeral and tibial sites. Sternal IO gravity flow rates are sufficient for transfusing blood and resuscitation. In addition, studies demonstrated they are safe during active CPR. CONCLUSION: The sternal IO route remains underutilized in civilian settings. When considering IO vascular access in adults or older children, medical providers should consider the sternum as the recommended IO access, particularly if the user is a novice with IO devices, increased flow rates are required, the patient has extremity trauma, or administration of a lipid soluble drug is anticipated.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Infusões Intraósseas , Esterno , Humanos , Infusões Intraósseas/instrumentação , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos , Medição de Risco
20.
Ir Vet J ; 74(1): 17, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hot-iron disbudding is a common management procedure to prevent horn growth in calves. The study objective was to examine effect of age, breed and sex on horn bud size of dairy-bred and suckler-bred calves at time of disbudding. RESULTS: The left and right horn bud size (diameter and height in mm) of 279 calves, including dairy-bred Holstein-Friesian (Male (M) = 88) and 191 suckler-bred (86 Charolais, CH; (M = 39, Female (F) = 47), 67 Limousin, LM; (M = 32, F = 35) and 38 Simmental, SI; (M = 22, F = 16) sired)) was measured using a digital calliper at time of disbudding. Calves were retrospectively assigned to two age categories at time of disbudding: 1), 14 to 28 days (d) old and 2), 29 to 60 d old. Holstein-Friesian M calves had a greater horn bud diameter (16.97 v.14.45 mm) and height (7.79 v. 5.00 mm) compared to suckler-bred M calves (P < 0.01), with no difference (P > 0.05) among the suckler-bred calves. Suckler-bred M calves had a greater horn bud diameter (14.46 vs 13.29 mm) and height (5.01 vs 3.88 mm) compared to suckler-bred F calves (P < 0.05). The slopes of the lines of best fit show that horn bud diameter and height increased with age (P < 0.05) for HF, SI male and CH female calves while there was no relationship with age (P > 0.05) for CH and LM male calves, or for SI and LM female calves. Linear regression of age with diameter and with height for each breed and sex showed high variability in the data as indicated by R-squared values ranging from 0.003-0.41 indicating that in the case of the diameter and the height, the weight of the fitting effect was poor. CONCLUSIONS: Calf age is not a good predictor of horn bud size and recommendations for the disbudding of calves should be based on horn bud size and not on age. The implications of these findings are that calves should be disbudded while horn development is still at the bud stage and when the bud is large enough to be easily palpable/visible, but not so large that disbudding could lead to severe tissue trauma.

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