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1.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(6): 465-482, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874761

RESUMO

We collected 216 responses from sexually active MSM, transgender women, and gender-nonconforming (GNC) people of color through a web-based survey to understand the facilitators and barriers to research participation in a hypothetical LAI PrEP trial. In adjusted models, these items were found to be significantly associated with research participation likelihood: ever participated in HIV research study; comfort with taking daily pill; comfort with providing urine sample; and concerns over potential side effects of shot. Asian participants were more concerned about others knowing they were being recruited than were Black and Latinx respondents F(2, 216) = 3.98; p < .05. Asian respondents were also less comfortable with being recruited at organizations serving communities of color than Black and Latinx respondents, F(2, 216) = 5.10; p < .05. Cisgender respondents were more comfortable with being recruited by a friend or colleague than were transgender/GNC respondents, F(1, 215) = 4.8; p < .05.

2.
Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers ; 8(4): 496-505, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957315

RESUMO

Adolescent men who have sex with men (AMSM) are at high HIV risk. Condomless anal intercourse (CAI) increases HIV risk and has been associated with interpersonal power imbalances, such as asymmetries in decision-making authority, social status, and emotional dependence, between male sexual partners. AMSM experience high levels of psychological and physical victimization due to their sexual minority status. Sexual minority victimization (SMV) is similarly associated with low interpersonal power and may relate to the extent to which AMSM are vulnerable to partner influences to engage in CAI. This online survey study of AMSM 14-17 years (N = 143) tested the hypothesis that experiences and attitudes reflecting vulnerability to partner CAI influence (CAI Vulnerability) and distress in response to experienced sexual minority victimization (SMV Distress) would be positively associated with participant and partner condom non-use during anal sex (CAI frequency). Approximately 35% reported they or their partner(s) had never or rarely used a condom. Positive correlations were found among partners' CAI frequency during sex with the participant, CAI Vulnerability, and SMV Distress. Multiple regression indicated CAI Vulnerability significantly accounted for the relation between SMV Distress and partner's CAI frequency. Findings suggest that distress in response to SMV may be associated with a diminished sense of interpersonal control resulting in CAI Vulnerability and subsequent more frequent instances of partner CAI. HIV prevention strategies designed to increase condom use among AMSM have the potential to benefit from procedures aimed at increasing interpersonal sexual assertiveness and decreasing distress associated with sexual minority victimization.

3.
J Adolesc ; 93: 234-244, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: South Africa has one of the highest incidences of HIV among adolescent girls and young women (AGW), ages 15-24, and recent research has focused on developing interventions for HIV prevention. However, the South African National Health Act requires those under 18 years of age to obtain a guardian's permission to participate in research. Limiting research enrolment to AGYW who can obtain guardian consent may lead to non-representative findings. Therefore, innovative, inclusive consent approaches that protect AGYW from the risks of research are needed. METHODS: This report details the development and implementation of an approach called the in loco parentis (in place of parent) consent procedure. In loco parentis consent provides a vehicle for adolescent participation that protects adolescents from potential social harms. The in loco parentis consent procedure does not seek to obtain independent minor consent but seeks to obtain permission for the minor to participate in research from a trusted adult who is not a minor's parent or legal guardian. This report also qualitatively explores the experiences of 31 AGYW who were recruited into a behavioral HIV prevention study using this method. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the in loco parentis consent procedure is a feasible and acceptable method to inclusively AGYW in HIV research. CONCLUSIONS: The in loco parentis procedure may provide a more inclusive strategy to recruit AGYW for HIV research to increase the generalizability of findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mães , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pais , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 772236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778197

RESUMO

Background: The mental health of racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. has been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the extent to which disruptions in employment and housing, coronavirus-specific forms of victimization and racial bias independently and conjointly contributed to mental health risk among Asian, Black, and Latinx adults in the United States during the pandemic. Methods: This study reports on data from 401 Asian, Black, and Latinx adults (age 18-72) who participated in a larger national online survey conducted from October 2020-June 2021, Measures included financial and health information, housing disruptions and distress in response to employment changes, coronavirus related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias, depression and anxiety. Results: Asian participants had significantly higher levels of COVID-related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias than Black and Latinx. Young adults (<26 years old) were more vulnerable to depression, anxiety, and coronavirus victimization distress than older respondents. Having at least one COVID-related health risk, distress in response to changes in employment and housing disruptions, pandemic related victimization distress and perceived increases in racial bias were positively and significantly related to depression and anxiety. Structural equation modeling indicated COVID-related increases in racial bias mediated the effect of COVID-19 related victimization distress on depression and anxiety. Conclusions: COVID-19 has created new pathways to mental health disparities among racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. by exacerbating existing structural and societal inequities linked to race. Findings highlight the necessity of mental health services sensitive to specific challenges in employment and housing and social bias experienced by people of color during the current and future health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vítimas de Crime , Racismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego , Habitação , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686952

RESUMO

Offline and online racial discrimination has been associated with mental health problems among adolescents of color. Pandemic shelter-at-home policies and the reignited racial justice movement increased the use of social media among youth of color, potentially exposing them to social media racial discrimination. Yet, it is unclear which aspects of social media significantly contributed to youth exposure to racial discrimination and associated mental health issues during this period. This study assessed the relationships among social media use (hours, racial intergroup contact, and racial justice civic engagement), individual and vicarious social media discrimination (defined as personally directed versus observing discrimination directed at others), and mental health among 115 black, 112 East/Southeast Asian, 79 Indigenous, and 101 Latinx adolescents (N = 407, 82.31% female, aged 15-18 years, M = 16.47, SD = 0.93). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicate that hours of use and racial justice civic engagement were associated with increased social media racial discrimination, depressive symptoms, anxiety, alcohol use disorder, and drug use problems. Furthermore, individual social media racial discrimination fully mediated the relationship between racial justice civic publication and depressive and alcohol use disorder. Vicarious social media racial discrimination fully mediated the relationship between racial justice activity coordination with depressive symptoms, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder. Alternative SEM models indicate that exposure to individual and vicarious social media racial discrimination increased depressive symptoms and drug use problems among youth of color, further increasing their social media use frequency and racial justice civic publication. The findings call for strategies to mitigate the effects of social media racial discrimination in ways that support adolescents' racial justice civic engagement and mental health.

6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(6): 2335-2346, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374874

RESUMO

The increasingly ubiquitous use of sexting among adolescent girls underscores the importance of empirical data on their sexting behaviors, motivations, and outcomes. To date, the majority of sexting studies have been conducted online; however, little is known about the extent to which responding to such socially sensitive questions may cause participant discomfort or distress. Research on this question is critical since in the absence of empirical data, institutional review boards (IRBs) may permit or place restrictions on online sexting studies based on an under- or overestimation of adolescent participation risk. The current online study asked 210 girls (aged 14-18 years, 55% non-Hispanic White, with sexting experience in the past 12 months) who previously registered to take online surveys on (1) their anticipated comfort in responding to a sexting survey include items on sexting motivations, positive and negative sexting consequences, and related sexual behaviors; (2) their perceptions of sexting research benefits/harms; and (3) comfort discussing similar topics in everyday life and with health professionals. Overall, participants were comfortable responding to sexting survey questions, rated sexting research as high benefits and low risks, and felt about the same as or more comfortable completing a sexting survey than discussing similar topics with peers, parents, or healthcare professionals. Findings suggest that anonymous online sexting studies can be classified as minimal risk research for adolescent girls and provide empirical support for IRB decisions to waive guardian permission for participation in such studies.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sleep Health ; 7(4): 459-467, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates race-related disparities in sleep duration and quality among diverse young adults during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN & SETTING: Online cross-sectional study of young adults in the United States in April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: About 547 American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN), Asian, Black, Latinx, and White young adults ages 18-25 years. MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed measures of sleep duration and quality, coronavirus victimization distress, depression, age, sex/gender, employment status, essential worker status, student status, residential region, socioeconomic status, concerns about contracting coronavirus and CDC health risks. RESULTS: Black young adults reported the largest disparity in sleep duration and quality. For sleep duration, AIAN, Asian, White, and Latinx young adults reported approximately one additional hour of sleep compared to Black respondents. Mediation analyses suggest that disparities in sleep duration between Asian and Black young adults may be explained by the higher likelihood of Black respondents being essential workers. For sleep quality, Latinx, White, AIAN, and Asian young adults reported higher levels than Black respondents. Including coronavirus victimization distress as an intervening pathway decreased the effect for Asian and White respondents on sleep quality, suggesting that coronavirus victimization distress partially explains Black and Asian, as well as Black and White differences in sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Black young adults reported the shortest sleep duration and lowest levels of sleep quality relative to AIAN, Asian, Latinx and White peers. Interpersonal experiences of coronavirus victimization and structural inequities may partially explain disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nativos do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Urban Health ; 98(4): 469-480, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948781

RESUMO

Collective sex venues (places where people have sex in groups or in the presence of others, such as bathhouses or sex clubs) are locations where SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to occur. We conducted an online survey to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among 342 sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals who had attended collective sex venues (CSV) in New York City (NYC) in the prior year. Almost 1 in 10 (9.9%) participants reported having received a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection or antibodies. Although a minority (27.5%) of participants reported being comfortable attending a CSV during the COVID-19 pandemic, multivariable ordinal logistic regression found that willingness was higher among participants who had taken the survey later in the pandemic (aOR = 2.90, CI95% 1.90 to 4.43), who attended CSV at higher frequencies (aOR = 1.94, CI95% 1.26 to 2.99), who used substances at CSV (aOR = 1.98, CI95% 1.22 to 3.23), and who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection or antibodies (aOR = 2.27, CI95% 1.17 to 4.39). In open survey answers, participants described reasons for or against attending CSV during the pandemic, as well as risk reduction strategies that would make them more comfortable attending (e.g., screening for test results, doing temperature checks, holding outdoor events, or restricting events to lower risk sexual practices). SGM individuals who attend CSV might be at increased risk for COVID-19. Public health officials should provide CSV organizers and attendees with guidelines on how to prevent or minimize transmission risk in the context of pandemics such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 720, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial number of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within stable couples. Biomedical prevention (pre-exposure prophylaxis, PrEP) and treatment (antiretroviral therapy, ART) can provide benefits to sexual partners and can be used to prevent infection within HIV serodiscordant couples. However, research is typically focused on individuals, not dyads, even when the intervention may directly or indirectly impact sexual partners. Gaps remain in understanding best practices for recruitment, informed consent, and intervention implementation in studies involving HIV prevention and treatment among heterosexual serodiscordant couples. This qualitative study was undertaken to understand and describe decision-making and dyadic-level influence among members of serodiscordant couples regarding (1) participation in a dyadic-based research study involving HIV self-testing and access to PrEP, and (2) utilization of PrEP and ART. METHODS: This qualitative study was nested within an observational cohort study assessing the acceptability of home-based couples' HIV self-testing and uptake of dyadic care for serodiscordant couples involving facilitated referral for HIV-positive partners and access to PrEP for HIV-negative partners. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted among a subset of study participants (n = 22) as well as individuals involved in serodiscordant relationships who chose not to participate (n = 9). Interviews focused on couples' decision-making regarding study participation and dyadic-level influence on medication use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated from Kiswahili into English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three major themes were identified: (1) HIV as "two people's secret" and the elevated role of partner support in serodiscordant relationships; (2) the intersectional role of HIV-status and gender on decision-making; (3) the relational benefits of PrEP, including psychosocial benefits for the couple that extend beyond prevention. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that couples made joint decisions regarding study participation and uptake of HIV-related medication. Relational autonomy and dyadic-level influence should be considered within research and programs involving HIV serodiscordant couples.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais , Tanzânia
11.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 16(1-2): 78-87, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307932

RESUMO

HIV cure research carries serious risks and negligible benefits. We investigated how participants understand these risks and what influences their willingness to participate. Through internet-based and in-person convenience sampling, 86 HIV+ participants completed an experimental survey. Participants were randomized to read a standard consent form describing a hypothetical HIV cure study or one adapted using Fuzzy Trace Theory-a decision-making model to facilitate complex information processing. We measured consent understanding and cognitive (e.g., safe/harmful) and affective (e.g., concerning, satisfying) evaluations of HIV cure research. Participants who read the adapted consent form had improved consent understanding, but only positive affective evaluations were associated with a willingness to participate. Consent processes can use decision-making theories to facilitate comprehension of study information.


Assuntos
Termos de Consentimento , Infecções por HIV , Compreensão , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Leitura , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
AIDS Behav ; 25(5): 1606-1618, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247336

RESUMO

Adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is challenging for adolescent males who have sex with males (AMSM). Once adult trials comparing oral to longer lasting injectable PrEP are completed, there will be a need for adolescent studies. However, lack of data on adolescent consent capacity may sustain guardian permission requirements identified as a barrier to AMSM participation in prior PrEP trials. This online study assessed AMSM's (14-17 years) consent capacity for these trials, comparing performance to MSM (18-19 years) for whom guardian permission is not required. Applying the MacCAT-CR, participants (N = 214) viewed a video and mock consent form followed by open-ended and yes/no items. Cognitive diagnostic models and means testing analyses supported AMSM capacity to consent to these trials: 16-17 and most 14-15 year-olds, demonstrated consent understanding, appreciation and reasoning at 18-19 year-old levels. Data also identified vulnerabilities requiring attention during informed consent.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(4): 1641-1650, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078710

RESUMO

Although men who have sex with men (MSM) within rural communities are disproportionately impacted by HIV, limited HIV research and programmatic resources are directed to these communities within the U.S. There is a need for improved behavioral data collection methods to obtain more detailed information on the relationship between rural environments, sexual behavior, and substance use. Utilization of mobile health (mHealth) technologies, such as ecologic momentary assessment (EMA), has been advocated for; however, limited research has evaluated its utility among rural MSM. Forty MSM residing in rural Oklahoma were recruited to complete in-depth interviews related to participating online/mobile-based HIV prevention research. Men described a willingness to participate in HIV and substance use studies that use EMA methodologies for data collection; however, they raised various research-related concerns. In particular, participants indicated potential privacy and confidentiality concerns related to the use of the mobile technology-based EMA in public and the storage of data by researchers. Given the varying degree of sexual orientation and substance use disclosure by participants, rural MSM were largely concerned with being inadvertently "outed" within their communities. Men described the various strategies they could employ to protect private information and methods to minimize research risk. Study findings suggest that EMA is an acceptable research methodology for use among rural MSM in the context of HIV and sexual health information, when privacy and confidentiality concerns are adequately addressed. Input from community members and stakeholders is necessary to identify potential areas of concerns for participants prior to data collection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , População Rural , Comportamento Sexual , Tecnologia
14.
Ethics Behav ; 30(7): 481-495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041608

RESUMO

Online research has become a critical recruitment modality for understanding and reducing health disparities among hidden populations most at risk for HIV infection. There is a lack of consensus and guidelines for the responsible conduct of online recruitment for HIV risk populations. Using semi-structured phone interviews, this study drew on the experiences of principal investigators (PIs) engaged in online HIV research to illuminate scientific and ethical benefits and challenges of social media recruitment. Using Thematic Analysis five major themes emerged: sampling advantages and disadvantages; challenges of data integrity; control of privacy protections; researcher competence and responsibility; and resources.

15.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 41, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use poses a barrier to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men living with HIV (PLWH) shoulder much of the health burden resulting from the methamphetamine and HIV syndemic. Smartphones are nearly ubiquitous in the USA and may be promising vehicles for delivering interventions for ART adherence and drug use cessation. However, the acceptability of using applications to collect sensitive information and deliver feedback in this population has not been adequately explored. OBJECTIVE: This study examined minority PLWH's appraisals of the risks of participating in smartphone-based research to promote ART adherence in the context of methamphetamine use and explored their views on appropriate steps to mitigate perceived risks of participation. METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted among Black and Hispanic PLWH who use methamphetamine. Of the 13 participants, 5 had previously participated in a smartphone-based observational study of ART adherence and substance use. Discussants provided feedback on smartphone-based research, including receiving probes for HIV medication adherence, mood, and substance use as well as feedback on passive location-tracking for personalized messages. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded and analyzed using the qualitative software MAXQDA. RESULTS: Participants expressed confidentiality concerns related to potential unintentional disclosure of their HIV status and methamphetamine use and to possible legal consequences. They additionally expressed concerns around the invasiveness of daily assessments and the potential of methamphetamine use questions to trigger cravings. To mitigate these concerns, they suggested maintaining participant privacy by indirectly asking sensitive questions, focusing on positive behaviors (e.g., number of days sober), allowing user-initiated reporting of location to tailor messages, and ensuring adequate data protections. In addition to financial compensation, participants cited altruism (specifically, continuing a tradition of volunteerism in HIV research) as a motivator for potentially engaging in such research. CONCLUSIONS: Minority PLWH have concerns regarding the use of smartphones for ART adherence and methamphetamine sobriety intervention research. However, minority PLWH are likely to participate if studies include appropriate protections against risks to confidentiality and experimental harm and are designed to offer future benefit to themselves and other PLWH.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/complicações , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Focais , Redução do Dano , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Smartphone
16.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(3): 180-189, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358768

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Along with the benefits of eHealth HIV interventions are challenges to participant privacy and confidentiality inherent in the use of online strategies. This paper reviews current guidelines and recent publications to identify ethical issues and suggested solutions in recruitment, data management, and informed consent. RECENT FINDINGS: Across eHealth HIV research, recruitment, data collection, and storage efforts to protect informational risk highlight the tension between the investigators' ability to protect participant confidentiality and the evolving informational risk posed by the online platforms on which they are operating. Adequately addressing these challenges requires updating technical competencies and educating participants on their own responsibilities to guard against privacy violations. Additional protections are required when interventions involve peer or community support, especially with minors. The rapid progression of technology presents challenges in solidifying best practices for future interventions. This article draws on published works describing investigator experiences to contribute to the ongoing development of guidance in this area.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade/ética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Privacidade , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Telemedicina/ética
17.
Health Psychol ; 39(1): 21-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent males who have sex with males (AMSMs) account for high numbers of new HIV diagnoses. To date, surveillance data have been limited to diagnosed cases of HIV, resulting in an underestimation of risk and burden among AMSMs unwilling or unable to access HIV testing. This study identified facilitators and barriers to AMSMs' participation in future surveillance studies involving HIV testing. METHOD: AMSMs (n = 198) aged 14 to 17 years participated. The majority identified as non-Hispanic White or Latinx, had a least 1 male sex partner, and self-reported HIV negative. Participants read an online survey beginning with a vignette describing a hypothetical HIV surveillance study requiring HIV testing. They then completed questions assessing likelihood to participate, perceived research benefits and risks, attitudes toward HIV risk, prior HIV health services, and parental awareness of sexual orientation. RESULTS: Approximately 40% indicated strong willingness to participate. Willingness was positively related to perceived HIV risk, free access to HIV testing, counseling and referral if testing positive, confidentiality protections, and lack of access to a trusted physician. Having to tell others if one tested positive for HIV and requirements for guardian permission were significant participation barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of HIV testing in surveillance studies is essential for accurate estimation of HIV incidence and prevalence among AMSMs. Successful recruitment of sexual minority youth into sexual health surveillance research will require procedures tailored to youth's health care needs and concerns, including adequate HIV counseling, referral to treatment if seropositive, and attention to concerns regarding guardian permission. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 30(4S): 116-129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735725

RESUMO

African American women living with HIV (WLWH) in the U.S. South encounter heightened marginalization due to the complex intersections of race, gender, poverty, and HIV status. Social vulnerabilities experienced by individuals and communities in daily life have the potential to sharpen ethical tensions in the context of research. Thus, conducting ethical research requires attention to the contextual challenges and concerns of diverse research populations to tailor participant protections to a particular sociocultural context. Using principles from the Belmont Report, the present report draws on data from a qualitative study with 42 African American WLWH in the South by highlighting the first author's accounts of ethical challenges that emerged during data collection. Findings suggest that engaging participants in their natural environments can inform the development of ethical research strategies germane to women's lived experiences. Study findings also contribute to empirical guidance for investigators engaging marginalized populations in scientific research.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Ética em Pesquisa , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Temas Bioéticos , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
19.
Ethics Behav ; 29(8): 607-620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579222

RESUMO

This study documents how people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural Puerto Rico perceive payments for participating in HIV epidemiological studies. In-depth interviews were conducted among a subset (n = 40) of active PWID older than 18 years of age who had been previously enrolled in a much larger study (N = 360). Findings suggest that financial compensation was the main motivation for initially enrolling in the parent study. Then, as trust in the researchers developed, participants came to perceive compensation as part of a reciprocal exchange in which they assisted researchers by providing a trustful account of their experiences and researchers reciprocated with financial support.

20.
Am J Community Psychol ; 64(1-2): 9-20, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355974

RESUMO

Individuals responsible for carrying out research within their diverse communities experience a critical need for research ethics training materials that align with community values. To improve the capacity to meet local human subject protections, we created the research Ethics Training for Health in Indigenous Communities (rETHICS), a training curriculum aligned within American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) context, culture, and community-level ethical values and principles. Beginning with the Belmont Report and the Common Rule that defines research with human subjects (46 CFR 45), the authors convened three different expert panels (N = 37) to identify Indigenous research values and principles common across tribal communities. The resulting culturally grounded curriculum was then tested with 48 AI/AN individuals, 39 who also had recorded debriefing interviews. Using a thematic analysis, we coded the qualitative feedback from the expert panel discussions and the participant debriefings to assess content validity. Participants identified five foundational constructs needed to ensure cultural-grounding of the AI/AN-specific research training curriculum. These included ensuring that the module was: (a) framed within an AI/AN historical context; (b) reflected Indigenous moral values; (c) specifically linked AI/AN cultural considerations to ethical procedures; (d) contributed to a growing Indigenous ethics; and (e) provided Indigenous-based ethics tools for decision making. Using community-based consultation and feedback from participants led to a culturally grounded training curriculum that teaches research ethical principles and procedures for conducting research with AI/ANs. The curriculum is available for free and the community-based process used can be adapted for other cultural groups.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/ética , Ética em Pesquisa/educação , Índios Norte-Americanos , Competência Cultural/educação , Competência Cultural/ética , Currículo , Tomada de Decisões , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/ética
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