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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most classical aniridia is caused by PAX6 haploinsufficiency. PAX6 missense variants can be hypomorphic or mimic haploinsufficiency. We hypothesized that missense variants also cause previously undescribed disease by altering the affinity and/or specificity of PAX6 genomic interactions. METHODS: We screened PAX6 in 372 individuals with bilateral microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC) from the Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit eye malformation cohort (HGUeye) and reviewed data from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. We performed cluster analysis on PAX6-associated ocular phenotypes by variant type and molecular modeling of the structural impact of 86 different PAX6 causative missense variants. RESULTS: Eight different PAX6 missense variants were identified in 17 individuals (15 families) with MAC, accounting for 4% (15/372) of our cohort. Seven altered the paired domain (p.[Arg26Gln]x1, p.[Gly36Val]x1, p.[Arg38Trp]x2, p.[Arg38Gln]x1, p.[Gly51Arg]x2, p.[Ser54Arg]x2, p.[Asn124Lys]x5) and one the homeodomain (p.[Asn260Tyr]x1). p.Ser54Arg and p.Asn124Lys were exclusively associated with severe bilateral microphthalmia. MAC-associated variants were predicted to alter but not ablate DNA interaction, consistent with the electrophoretic mobility shifts observed using mutant paired domains with well-characterized PAX6-binding sites. We found no strong evidence for novel PAX6-associated extraocular disease. CONCLUSION: Altering the affinity and specificity of PAX6-binding genome-wide provides a plausible mechanism for the worse-than-null effects of MAC-associated missense variants.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(11.5): 1414-1416, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766017

RESUMO

Over the past several decades, tremendous progress has been made in the treatment of follicular lymphoma. The addition of rituximab to chemotherapy led to significant improvements in survival in the 1990s. Current standard of care in advanced-stage, previously untreated follicular lymphoma is rituximab plus chemotherapy, sometimes followed by rituximab maintenance. Now, as more research is conducted in the field of chemotherapy-free treatment, Dr. Richard I. Fisher discussed the importance of carefully constructed phase II or III trials at the NCCN 2019 Annual Congress: Hematologic Malignancies. He maintained that a nonchemotherapy treatment regimen comprising rituximab + lenalidomide can be considered in carefully selected patients, and that it is currently the only chemotherapy-free treatment that should be recommended.

6.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(6): 356-364.e3, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are frequently expressed in T-cell lymphomas. This provides a rationale for exploration of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the management of T-cell lymphomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase II single-arm multicenter trial, patients with relapsed or refractory systemic T-cell lymphoma were treated with 200 mg pembrolizumab intravenously every 21 days. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints were response rate, overall survival, response duration, and safety. We assessed PD-L1, p-AKT expression, and peripheral blood immune cells as potential predictive biomarkers. RESULTS: Of 18 enrolled patients, 13 were evaluable for the primary endpoint. The trial was halted early after a preplanned interim futility analysis. The overall response rate was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%-55%); 4 patients achieved a complete response (27%; 95% CI, 5%-49%). The median PFS was 3.2 months (95% CI, 1.2-3.7 months), and the median overall survival was 10.6 months (95% CI, 3.2-100 months). The median duration of response was 2.9 months (95% CI, 0-10.1 months). Two of the 4 complete responders remain in remission > 15 months. Rash was the most common adverse event (17%; n = 3). The most common ≥ grade 3 treatment-emergent adverse events were rash and pneumonitis (11%; n = 2 each). Neither PD-L1 nor p-AKT expression were associated with outcomes. However, a higher relative frequency of CD4+ T lymphocytes pre-treatment was associated with improved PFS (hazard ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.74). CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab demonstrated modest single-agent activity in relapsed or refractory T-cell lymphoma.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(13): 1037-1040, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026409
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(21): 1790-1799, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939090

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Alliance/CALGB 50303 (NCT00118209), an intergroup, phase III study, compared dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) with standard rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) as frontline therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received six cycles of DA-EPOCH-R or R-CHOP. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary clinical objectives included response rate, overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2013, 524 patients were registered; 491 eligible patients were included in the final analysis. Most patients (74%) had stage III or IV disease; International Prognostic Index (IPI) risk groups included 26% IPI 0 to 1, 37% IPI 2, 25% IPI 3, and 12% IPI 4 to 5. At a median follow-up of 5 years, PFS was not statistically different between the arms (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.27; P = .65), with a 2-year PFS rate of 78.9% (95% CI, 73.8% to 84.2%) for DA-EPOCH-R and 75.5% (95% CI, 70.2% to 81.1%) for R-CHOP. OS was not different (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.59; P = .64), with a 2-year OS rate of 86.5% (95% CI, 82.3% to 91%) for DA-EPOCH-R and 85.7% (95% CI, 81.4% to 90.2%) for R-CHOP. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were more common (P < .001) in the DA-EPOCH-R arm than the R-CHOP arm, including infection (16.9% v 10.7%, respectively), febrile neutropenia (35.0% v 17.7%, respectively), mucositis (8.4% v 2.1%, respectively), and neuropathy (18.6% v 3.3%, respectively). Five treatment-related deaths (2.1%) occurred in each arm. CONCLUSION: In the 50303 study population, the more intensive, infusional DA-EPOCH-R was more toxic and did not improve PFS or OS compared with R-CHOP. The more favorable results with R-CHOP compared with historical controls suggest a potential patient selection bias and may preclude generalizability of results to specific risk subgroups.

10.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(8): 1934-1941, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628511

RESUMO

Phase II data suggest a benefit to autotransplantation for aggressive T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) in first remission; randomized trials have yet to validate this. We performed a retrospective analysis of aggressive T-NHL patients in the intergroup randomized consolidative autotransplant trial (SWOG 9704). Of the 370 enrolled, 40 had T-NHL: 12 were not randomized due to ineligibility (n = 1), choice (n = 2), or progression (n = 9), leaving 13 randomized to control and 15 to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Two ASCT patients refused transplant and one failed mobilization. The 5-year landmark PFS/OS estimates for ASCT vs. control groups were 40% vs. 38% (p = .56), and 40% vs. 45% (p = .98), respectively. No difference was seen based on IPI, or histologic subtype. Only 1/7 receiving BCNU-based therapy survived vs. 4/5 receiving TBI. Aggressive T-NHL autotransplanted in first remission did not appear to benefit from consolidative ASCT. This and the 30% who dropped out pre-randomization mostly to progression, suggests that improved induction regimens be developed.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(6): 471-480, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell lymphoma characterized by cyclin D1 expression. Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) consolidation after induction chemotherapy is often used for eligible patients; however, the benefit remains uncertain in the rituximab era. Herein we retrospectively assessed the impact of AHCT consolidation on survival in a large cohort of transplantation-eligible patients age 65 years or younger. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied transplantation-eligible adults age 65 years or younger with newly diagnosed MCL treated between 2000 and 2015. The primary objective was to assess for improved progression-free survival (PFS) with AHCT consolidation and secondarily to assess for improved overall survival (OS). Cox multivariable regression analysis and propensity score-weighted (PSW) analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data were collected from 25 medical centers for 1,254 patients; 1,029 met inclusion criteria. Median follow-up for the cohort was 76 months. Median PFS and OS were 62 and 139 months, respectively. On unadjusted analysis, AHCT was associated with improved PFS (75 v 44 months with v without AHCT, respectively; P < .01) and OS (147 v 115 months with v without AHCT, respectively; P < .05). On multivariable regression analysis, AHCT was associated with improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.66; P < .01) and a trend toward improved OS (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; P = .06). After PSW analysis, AHCT remained associated with improved PFS (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.84; P < .05) but not improved OS (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.1; P = .2). CONCLUSION: In this large cohort of younger, transplantation-eligible patients with MCL, AHCT consolidation after induction was associated with significantly improved PFS but not OS after PSW analysis. Within the limitations of a retrospective analysis, our findings suggest that in younger, fit patients, AHCT consolidation may improve PFS.

12.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(3): 135-141, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Copanlisib is a phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor approved for the third-line treatment of follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Although the drug is generally well-tolerated, it can be associated with several unique and potentially serious adverse effects (AEs). Two of the most common toxicities not seen with other PI3K inhibitors include hyperglycemia and hypertension, which primarily occur during infusion and resolve shortly thereafter, and likely relate to targeting the PI3K alpha isoform. Other toxicities less commonly observed with copanlisib than with other approved drugs in this class include non-infectious pneumonitis, infections, diarrhea and colitis, and hepatobiliary toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel composed of experts in lymphoma, diabetes, and hypertension convened to develop guidance pertaining to the administration of copanlisib and the management of the AEs associated with copanlisib treatment. RESULTS: Recommendations were formulated pertaining to the management of AEs associated with copanlisib treatment, particularly infusion-related hyperglycemia and hypertension, noninfectious pneumonitis, infections, diarrhea, and colitis. The recommendations herein reflect the consensus of the members of this panel, all of whom contributed to these suggested approaches to patient supportive care. CONCLUSION: There are a number of challenges associated with the use of copanlisib. Infusion-related hypertension and hyperglycemia occur frequently, although they are transient, reversible, and rarely of clinical significance; this report provides guidance as to their management.

13.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 218: 149-157, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582896

RESUMO

Liposomal delivery systems (LDSs) have been at the forefront of medicinal nanotechnology for over three decades. Increasing LDS association to target cells and cargo delivery is crucial to bolstering overall nanodrug efficacy. Our laboratory aims to develop LDSs for molecular therapeutics aimed at vascular pathology. We have previously established a liposome platform that is an effective delivery system for RNA interference in vascular cell types by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) decorated liposomes bearing an octa-arginine (R8) cell penetrating peptide (CPP). Further tailoring liposome membranes to mimic vascular cell membrane lipid constituents may be a promising strategy for increasing cargo delivery. Here we aimed to develop liposomal formulations that could make use of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylserine (PS), naturally occurring lipid species that are known to influence vascular cell function, as a facile and efficient means to increase nanodrug efficacy without compromising clinical viability. We investigated the ability of DAG and PS to amplify the cellular uptake of our previously established LDS platform loaded with small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) cargo. Cellular fluorescence microscopy experiments were performed in conjunction with quantitative cell association assays and cytotoxicity assays to analyze the effect of DAG/PS on the differential delivery of fluorescently-tagged liposomes to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and on liposomal-mediated toxicity. In these studies, significant, dose-dependent increases in association to target cells were observed, as well as cell-type specific effects on cell viability. The stability and encapsulation-efficiency of the DAG/PS-modified LDSs were analyzed by standard nanoparticle characterization methods, and siRNA transfection efficacy was quantified to gauge delivery potential as a function of DAG/PS modification. Our results suggest that the signaling lipids tested here imbue our LDS architectures with increased therapeutic potential, without compromising stability, encapsulation efficiency, or biocompatibility, thus presenting a natural strategy to increase nanodrug efficacy and specificity.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais/química , Músculo Liso Vascular/química , Nanopartículas/química , Fosfatidilserinas/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Aorta/citologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Estrutura Molecular , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO20181801309, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475669
15.
Waste Manag ; 79: 214-222, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343748

RESUMO

Pyrolysis of human feces renders the waste free of pathogens and is a potential method of treating fecal sludge waste collected from non-sewered systems. Slow pyrolysis experiments were conducted on human feces and the char yield and gas evolution quantified at 1-10 °C/min heating rates. Char yield ranged from 35.1 to 35.8% (dry mass basis), while the gas yield ranged from 17.2 to 29.6% (dry mass basis). The pyrolysis gases detected were CO, CO2, CH4, C2H6, and H2. These non-condensable gases contained a higher heating value (HHV) ranging from 7.2 to 22.8 MJ/Nm3. Kinetic analysis was done by a pyrolysis reaction model free method (Isoconversional) as well as a DAEM (Distributed Activated Energy Model) method that assumes many irreversible first order reactions. Both yielded very close values for activation energy ranging from 141 kJ/mol to 409 kJ/mol, with half of the biomass conversion happening at 241.5 ±â€¯2.9 kJ/mol. The findings of the research provide useful technical information that can guide the design of a pyrolysis system to treat fecal waste. Social acceptance and scale-up issues need to be addressed through further research.

16.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1442-1451, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224647

RESUMO

The etiological spectrum of ultra-rare developmental disorders remains to be fully defined. Chromatin regulatory mechanisms maintain cellular identity and function, where misregulation may lead to developmental defects. Here, we report pathogenic variations in MSL3, which encodes a member of the chromatin-associated male-specific lethal (MSL) complex responsible for bulk histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac) in flies and mammals. These variants cause an X-linked syndrome affecting both sexes. Clinical features of the syndrome include global developmental delay, progressive gait disturbance, and recognizable facial dysmorphism. MSL3 mutations affect MSL complex assembly and activity, accompanied by a pronounced loss of H4K16ac levels in vivo. Patient-derived cells display global transcriptome alterations of pathways involved in morphogenesis and cell migration. Finally, we use histone deacetylase inhibitors to rebalance acetylation levels, alleviating some of the molecular and cellular phenotypes of patient cells. Taken together, we characterize a syndrome that allowed us to decipher the developmental importance of MSL3 in humans.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2918-2925, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is curable by involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) in < 50% of patients with stage I to II disease. We hypothesized that adding systemic therapy to IFRT would improve long-term progression-free survival (PFS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled trial enrolled patients with stage I to II low-grade FL after staging computed tomography scans and bone marrow biopsies. 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) was not mandatory. Patients were randomly assigned to either arm A (30 Gy IFRT alone) or arm B (IFRT plus six cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone [CVP]). From 2006, rituximab was added to arm B (R-CVP). RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2012, 150 patients were enrolled, 75 per arm. In arm B, 44 patients were allocated to receive CVP and 31 were allocated to receive R-CVP. At randomization, 75% had stage I, the median age was 57 years, 52% were male, and 48% were PET staged. With a median follow-up of 9.6 years (range, 3.1 to 15.8 years), PFS was superior in arm B (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.95; P = .033). Ten-year PFS rates were 59% (95% CI, 46% to 74%) and 41% (95% CI, 30% to 57%) for arms B and A, respectively. Patients in arm B who received R-CVP had markedly superior PFS compared with contemporaneous patients in arm A (hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.97; P = .045). Fewer involved regions ( P = .047) and PET staging ( P = .056) were associated with better PFS. Histologic transformation occurred in four and 10 patients in arms B and A, respectively ( P = .1). Ten deaths occurred in arm A versus five in arm B, but overall survival was not significantly different ( P = .40; 87% and 95% at 10 years, respectively). CONCLUSION: Systemic therapy with R-CVP after IFRT reduced relapse outside radiation fields and significantly improved PFS. IFRT followed by immunochemotherapy is more effective than IFRT in early-stage FL.

18.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900417

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS; OMIM 615879), also known as the DNMT3A-overgrowth syndrome, is an overgrowth intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2014 with a report of 13 individuals with constitutive heterozygous DNMT3A variants. Here we have undertaken a detailed clinical study of 55 individuals with de novoDNMT3A variants, including the 13 previously reported individuals. An intellectual disability and overgrowth were reported in >80% of individuals with TBRS and were designated major clinical associations. Additional frequent clinical associations (reported in 20-80% individuals) included an evolving facial appearance with low-set, heavy, horizontal eyebrows and prominent upper central incisors; joint hypermobility (74%); obesity (weight ³2SD, 67%); hypotonia (54%); behavioural/psychiatric issues (most frequently autistic spectrum disorder, 51%); kyphoscoliosis (33%) and afebrile seizures (22%). One individual was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia in teenage years. Based upon the results from this study, we present our current management for individuals with TBRS.

19.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(3): e102-e108, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite an abundance of therapeutic options, advanced-stage follicular lymphoma remains incurable. Furthermore, the ideal sequence and absolute benefit of post-induction therapy is unclear. We designed SWOG S0801 to assess the efficacy and safety of consolidative radioimmunotherapy and sequential maintenance rituximab following chemoimmunotherapy. METHODS: For this single-arm, phase 2, multicentre study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of stage III, IV, or bulky stage II follicular lymphoma, grades 1, 2, or 3a, who had not received previous therapy, from from 20 institutions within the United States National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Network. Patients were assigned to a 5-year treatment plan consisting of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide [750 mg/m2], doxorubicin [50 mg/m2], vincristine [1·4 mg/m2], and prednisone or prednisolone [100 mg]) every 21 days for up to six cycles, with rituximab 375 mg/m2 given on day 1 of cycles 1-4, followed by 131iodine tositumomab radioimmunotherapy and subsequent maintenance rituximab 375 mg/m2 within 12 weeks after the sixth cycle of R-CHOP, every 3 months for up to 4 years. The primary endpoint was 3-year progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population and the per-protocol population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00770224. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2009, and Dec 15, 2010, we enrolled 84 evaluable patients, of whom 73 completed R-CHOP and radioimmunotherapy. Of 69 patients who registered to maintenance therapy, only 41 completed the 4-year rituximab maintenance treatment. Progression-free survival at 3 years was 90% (95% CI 82-95). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events included neutropenia in 48 (57%) patients, leucopenia in 34 (40%) patients, thrombocytopenia in 17 (20%) patients, and febrile neutropenia in 14 (17%) patients. Nine patients had possible treatment-related deaths during the study from secondary or unknown causes (n=3), cirrhosis (n=1), cardiac arrest (n=1), and secondary malignancies (n=4). Secondary malignancies occurred in seven patients, including two sarcomas, two colorectal carcinomas, two acute myelogenous leukaemias, and one case of renal-cell carcinoma. INTERPRETATION: SWOG S0801 showed near universal responses following chemoimmunotherapy and radioimmunotherapy. However, most discontinuations occurred during maintenance therapy, suggesting that rituximab over a 4-year span is not feasible for many patients. Nonetheless, this sequential therapeutic strategy resulted in good overall outcomes for patients, including a low incidence of early disease progression. FUNDING: The National Cancer Institute and GlaxoSmithKline.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Radioimunoterapia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Medula Óssea/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Radioimunoterapia/métodos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(7): 697-703, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356608

RESUMO

Purpose SWOG S0016 was a phase III randomized study that compared the safety and efficacy of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) with CHOP-RIT (CHOP followed by consolidation with iodine-133-tositumomab radioimmunotherapy) for previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma. Understanding the long-term outcome of patients provides a benchmark for novel treatment regimens for FL. Patients and Methods Between 2001 and 2008, 531 previously untreated patients with FL were randomly assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or six cycles of CHOP-RIT. Patients with advanced-stage disease (bulky stage II, III, or IV) of any pathologic grade (1, 2, or 3) were eligible. Results After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 10-year estimates of progression-free and overall survival were 49% and 78% among all patients, respectively. Patients in the CHOP-RIT arm had significantly better 10-year progression-free survival compared with patients in the R-CHOP arm (56% v 42%; P = .01), but 10-year overall survival was not different between the two arms (75% v 81%; P = .13). There was no significant difference between the CHOP-RIT and R-CHOP arms in regard to incidence of second malignancies (15.1% v 16.1%; P = .81) or myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (4.9% v 1.8%; P = .058). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidences of death resulting from second malignancies were not different (7.1% v 3.2%; P = .16), but cumulative incidence of death resulting from myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia was higher in the CHOP-RIT arm compared with the R-CHOP arm (4% v 0.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Given these outstanding outcomes, immunochemotherapy should remain the standard induction approach for patients with high-risk FL until long-term follow-up of alternative approaches demonstrates superiority.

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