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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 23-34, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4540

RESUMO

In a countermeasures experiment, we examined to what extent liars who learn about the Model Statement tool and about the proportion of complications (complications/complications + common knowledge details + self-handicapping strategies) can successfully adjust their responses so that they sound like truth tellers. Truth tellers discussed a trip they had made; liars fabricated a story. Participants were of Lebanese, Mexican, and South-Korean origin. Prior to the interview they did or did not receive information about (i) the working of the Model statement and (ii) three types of verbal detail: complications, common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies. We found no evidence that liars sounded like truth tellers after being informed about the Model Statement and/or types of detail we examined. Actually, veracity differences were similar across experimental conditions, with truth tellers reporting more detail and more complications and obtaining a higher proportion of complications score than liars


En un experimento de contramedidas examinamos hasta qué punto los mentirosos que reciben información sobre la Declaración modelo y la proporción de complicaciones que presenta (complicaciones / complicaciones + detalles de conocimiento general + estrategias de autoobstaculización) pueden ajustar sus respuestas con éxito para que parezca que dicen la verdad. Los que dicen la verdad declararon sobre un viaje que habían hecho; los mentirosos inventaron una historia. Los participantes eran de origen libanés, mexicano y surcoreano. Antes de la entrevista habían recibido o no información sobre (i) el funcionamiento de la Declaración modelo y (ii) tres tipos de detalles verbales: complicaciones, detalles de conocimiento general y estrategias de autoobstaculización. No encontramos evidencia de que los mentirosos se parecieran a los que dicen la verdad después de ser informados sobre la Declaración modelo y los tipos de detalle que examinamos. En realidad, las diferencias de veracidad fueron semejantes en todas las condiciones experimentales: los que decían la verdad informaron con mayor detalle y de más complicaciones y obtuvieron una mayor puntuación en la proporción de complicaciones que los mentirosos

2.
Law Hum Behav ; 43(5): 491-506, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920236

RESUMO

The Cognitive Interview (CI) has been shown repeatedly to enhance witness recall of events. The current study examined two conspicuous holes in the CI literature: (a) whether the CI improves witness descriptions specifically of a perpetrator's appearance; and (b) whether CI-elicited perpetrator descriptions help investigators to find the perpetrator. We examined these issues across three studies: In Experiment 1, 67 college students witnessed a simulated robbery and were then interviewed using either the CI or a standard police interview (SI) to elicit a description of the robber. The CI elicited almost three times as many descriptors, and at comparable levels of accuracy. These descriptions were then given to 387 college students (Experiment 2 and 3) and to 71 police officers (Experiment 3), who attempted to find the perpetrator (among a group of suspect photographs). The CI-elicited descriptors increased the rate of finding the perpetrator by almost 30% for both student and police investigators, who did not differ from one another. This study is the first to find that the CI can be properly used by police in a criminal investigation. Investigating the actual perpetrator as opposed to an innocent suspect is likely to have implications for subsequent phases of an investigation, such as increasing the base rate of including perpetrators in lineups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356902

RESUMO

We have been reliably informed by practitioners that police officers and intelligence officers across the world have started to use the Model Statement lie detection technique. In this article we introduce this technique. We describe why it works, report the empirical evidence that it works, and outline how to use it. Research examining the Model Statement only started recently and more research is required. We give suggestions for future research with the technique. The Model Statement technique is one of many recently developed verbal lie detection methods. We start this article with a short overview of the-in our view- most promising recent developments in verbal lie detection before turning our attention to the Model Statement technique.

4.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 13(3): 343-345, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716453

RESUMO

The available real-world evidence suggests that, on an initial test, eyewitness memory is often reliable. Ironically, even the DNA exoneration cases-which generally involved nonpristine testing conditions and which are usually construed as an indictment of eyewitness memory-show how reliable an initial test of eyewitness memory can be in the real world. We endorse the use of pristine testing procedures, but their absence does not automatically imply that eyewitness memory is unreliable.


Assuntos
DNA , Memória , Humanos , Rememoração Mental
5.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 13(3): 324-335, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716454

RESUMO

Although certain pockets within the broad field of academic psychology have come to appreciate that eyewitness memory is more reliable than was once believed, the prevailing view, by far, is that eyewitness memory is unreliable-a blanket assessment that increasingly pervades the legal system. On the surface, this verdict seems unavoidable: Research convincingly shows that memory is malleable, and eyewitness misidentifications are known to have played a role in most of the DNA exonerations of the innocent. However, we argue here that, like DNA evidence and other kinds of scientifically validated forensic evidence, eyewitness memory is reliable if it is not contaminated and if proper testing procedures are used. This conclusion applies to eyewitness memory broadly conceived, whether the test involves recognition (from a police lineup) or recall (during a police interview). From this perspective, eyewitness memory has been wrongfully convicted of mistakes that are better construed as having been committed by other actors in the legal system, not by the eyewitnesses themselves. Eyewitnesses typically provide reliable evidence on an initial, uncontaminated memory test, and this is true even for most of the wrongful convictions that were later reversed by DNA evidence.


Assuntos
Crime , Memória , Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Percepção Visual
6.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 12(6): 927-955, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934559

RESUMO

Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Modelos Psicológicos , Decepção , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Memória , Tortura
7.
Scand J Psychol ; 56(1): 28-37, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25382708

RESUMO

Ninety-five dental care patients participated in a quasi-experiment in which they were interviewed twice about dental visits they had made during the past ten years. Objective truth was established by analysing their dental records. The main purpose of the study was to investigate to what extent context-specific cues could facilitate particularization (i.e., recollection of events and details) of repeated and similar events. A mixed design was employed and the effects of three types of cues were explored: two types of context-specific cues vs. cues commonly used in police practise when interviewing plaintiffs. In line with our hypothesis, context-specific cues tended to be more effective for recollection of individual events than the comparison cues. In addition, context-specific cues generated more details than the comparison cues and the difference was marginally significant. Rehearsal of the memories by telling them to others was associated with an increased number of recollected events and details. The results are discussed from a legal psychology perspective with focus on recollection of repeated abuse.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Law Hum Behav ; 36(1): 68-76, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22471387

RESUMO

We tested the accuracy of Scientific Content Analysis (SCAN), a verbal lie detection tool that is used world-wide by federal law enforcement and military agencies. Sixty-one participants were requested to write down the truth, an outright lie or a concealment lie about activities they had just completed. The statements were coded with SCAN and with another verbal lie detection tool, Reality Monitoring (RM). RM discriminated significantly between truth tellers and outright liars and between truth tellers and concealment liars, whereas SCAN did not discriminate between truth tellers and either kind of liar. Implications of the findings for the suitability of SCAN as a lie detection tool are discussed.


Assuntos
Detecção de Mentiras , Revelação da Verdade , Redação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Law Hum Behav ; 35(1): 40-8, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21061052

RESUMO

We tested the accuracy of thermal imaging as a lie detection tool in airport screening. Fifty-one passengers in an international airport departure hall told the truth or lied about their forthcoming trip in an interview. Their skin temperature was recorded via a thermal imaging camera. Liars' skin temperature rose significantly during the interview, whereas truth tellers' skin temperature remained constant. On the basis of these different patterns, 64% of truth tellers and 69% of liars were classified correctly. The interviewers made veracity judgements independently from the thermal recordings. The interviewers outperformed the thermal recordings and classified 72% of truth tellers and 77% of liars correctly. Accuracy rates based on the combination of thermal imaging scores and interviewers' judgements were the same as accuracy rates based on interviewers' judgements alone. Implications of the findings for the suitability of thermal imaging as a lie detection tool in airports are discussed.


Assuntos
Aviação , Detecção de Mentiras , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Termografia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gestão da Segurança , Temperatura Cutânea , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 33(5-6): 321-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20875685

RESUMO

Police officers receive little or no training to conduct interviews with cooperative witnesses, and as a result they conduct interviews poorly, eliciting less information than is available and providing little support to assist victims overcome psychological problems that may have arisen from the crime. We analyze the components of a typical police interview that limits the amount of information witnesses communicate, and which militate against victims' overcoming psychological problems. We then describe an alternative interviewing protocol, the Cognitive Interview, which enhances witness recollection and also likely contributes to victims' well being. The component elements of the Cognitive Interview are described, with emphasis on those elements that likely promote better witness recollection and also help to assist victims' psychological health.


Assuntos
Cognição , Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Vítimas de Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Polícia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Atenção , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Rememoração Mental
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 134(3): 323-9, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20398882

RESUMO

We examined the efficacy of a new approach to detect truths and lies in expressing opinions: the Devil's Advocate approach. Interviewees are first asked an opinion eliciting question that asks participants to argue in favour of their personal view. This is followed by a Devil's Advocate question that asks participants to argue against their personal view. People normally think more about reasons that support rather than oppose their opinion. Therefore we expected truth tellers to provide more information and shorter latency times in their responses to the opinion eliciting question than to the Devil's Advocate question. Liars are expected to reveal the opposite pattern as the Devil's Advocate question is more compatible with their beliefs than is the opinion eliciting question. In Experiment 1, we interviewed seventeen truth tellers and liars via the Devil's Advocate approach and measured the difference in number of words and latency times to the two questions. Our hypotheses were supported. In Experiment 2, 25 observers were shown these interviews, and made qualitative judgements about the statements. Truth tellers' opinion eliciting answers were seen as more immediate and plausible and revealed more emotional involvement than their Devil's Advocate answers. No clear differences emerged in liars' answers to the two types of question. We conclude that the Devil's Advocate approach is a promising lie detection approach that deserves attention in future research.


Assuntos
Decepção , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Law Hum Behav ; 33(4): 298-307, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18561007

RESUMO

Given the crucial role of eyewitness evidence, statements should be obtained as soon as possible after an incident. This is not always achieved due to demands on police resources. Two studies trace the development of a new tool, the Self-Administered Interview (SAI), designed to elicit a comprehensive initial statement. In Study 1, SAI participants reported more correct details than participants who provided a free recall account, and performed at the same level as participants given a Cognitive Interview. In Study 2, participants viewed a simulated crime and half recorded their statement using the SAI. After a delay of 1 week, all participants completed a free recall test. SAI participants recalled more correct details in the delayed recall task than control participants.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Prova Pericial/normas , Rememoração Mental , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Law Hum Behav ; 33(2): 159-66, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18523881

RESUMO

We hypothesised that the responses of pairs of liars would correspond less with each other than would responses of pairs of truth tellers, but only when the responses are given to unanticipated questions. Liars and truth tellers were interviewed individually about having had lunch together in a restaurant. The interviewer asked typical opening questions which we expected the liars to anticipate, followed by questions about spatial and/or temporal information which we expected suspects not to anticipate, and also a request to draw the layout of the restaurant. The results supported the hypothesis, and based on correspondence in responses to the unanticipated questions, up to 80% of liars and truth tellers could be correctly classified, particularly when assessing drawings.


Assuntos
Entrevistas como Assunto , Detecção de Mentiras , Direito Penal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 32(11): 1007-16, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19027162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A single study tested the hypothesis that simulated practice interviews for investigative interviewers of children are more effective when the role of the child respondent is played by trained actors (i.e., postgraduate psychology students) than untrained fellow participants (i.e., child protection workers). METHOD: The interviewers included 50 child protection service workers. Each interviewer received instruction in the use of open-ended questions and then engaged in two simulated practice interviews. The role of the child respondent in the practice interviews was played by either a trained psychology student or an untrained fellow participant. The key outcome measure was the proportion of open-ended questions, which was assessed immediately prior to and after the practice sessions, as well as 12 weeks post-training. RESULTS: Interviewers who had practiced with trained actors had higher post-training performance (M=.83, SD=.12) compared to those who had practiced with untrained fellow participants (M=.73, SD=.13, p<.05), even at the 12-week follow up (M actors=.66, SD=.25; M untrained actors=.49, SD=.23, p<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Training programs that make better use of practice opportunities (e.g., by using trained respondents) will be more effective in improving the performance of investigative interviewers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A single study investigated the relative effectiveness of two simulated practice exercises for professionals who interview children about abuse. This research is relevant to professionals who design investigative interviewer training programs because it indicates that practical exercises, which are currently chosen on an 'ad hoc' or convenience basis, can vary markedly in their effectiveness in encouraging adherence to open questions.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Competência Clínica , Entrevista Psicológica , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Psicologia da Criança/educação , Serviço Social/educação , Análise de Variância , Austrália , Criança , Educação Continuada/métodos , Humanos , Psicologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 129(1): 1-7, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18504035

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that suspects in real-life interviews do not display stereotypical signs of nervous behaviours, even though they may be experiencing high detection anxiety. We hypothesised that these suspects may have experienced cognitive load when lying and that this cognitive load reduced their tonic arousal, which suppressed signs of nervousness. We conducted two experiments to test this hypothesis. Tonic electrodermal arousal and blink rate were examined during task-induced (Experiment 1) and deception-induced cognitive load (Experiment 2). Both increased cognitive difficulty and deception resulted in decreased tonic arousal and blinking. This demonstrated for the first time that when lying results in heightened levels of cognitive load, signs of nervousness are decreased. We discuss implications for detecting deception and more wide-ranging phenomena related to emotional behaviour.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Atenção , Crime/psicologia , Detecção de Mentiras , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adolescente , Adulto , Piscadela , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Psicofísica , Pensamento
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 32(2): 213-27, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18313750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effectiveness of two types of instructor feedback (relative to no feedback) on investigative interviewers' ability to adhere to open-ended questions in simulated practice interviews about child abuse. METHOD: In one condition, feedback was provided at the end of each practice interview. In the other, the instructor stopped the interviewer at various stages during the practice interviews to provide feedback. The relative effect of these conditions was examined by measuring interviewers' performance in a standardized mock interview paradigm immediately prior to, immediately after, and 12 weeks after the practice and feedback sessions. RESULTS: Prior to and 12 weeks after the practice sessions were administered, there was no significant difference in participants' adherence to open-ended questions irrespective of the nature of the feedback, or whether feedback was received. At the immediate post-practice assessment interval, however, the participants who received feedback during the practice interviews performed better (M proportion of open-ended questions=.85, SD=.13) than the other participants (post-interview feedback M=.67, SD=.18, p<.001; no feedback M=.56, SD=.16, p<.001). This heightened use of open-ended questions was associated with a greater tendency among the interviewees to provide abuse-related details in response to open-ended questions (M=.91, SD=.11) compared to the other participants (post-interview feedback M=.77, SD=.15, p<.05; no feedback M=.69, SD=.16, p=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Different types of feedback can be differentially effective in training child abuse investigators to adhere to open-ended questions. The benefits of any training program, however, are likely to be short-lived without ongoing practice. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A single study compared the relative effectiveness of two types of instructor feedback (relative to no feedback) on investigative interviewers' ability to adhere to open-ended questions in simulated practice interviews about child abuse. This research is relevant to trainers of investigative interviewers because there is currently large variability in the type of feedback employed in training programs. This study is one of the first to empirically demonstrate that different types of feedback may be differentially effective in improving the performance of investigative interviewers.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Retroalimentação , Entrevista Psicológica , Ensino , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Law Hum Behav ; 32(3): 253-65, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17694424

RESUMO

In two experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (a) the difference between liars and truth tellers will be greater when interviewees report their stories in reverse order than in chronological order, and (b) instructing interviewees to recall their stories in reverse order will facilitate detecting deception. In Experiment 1, 80 mock suspects told the truth or lied about a staged event and did or did not report their stories in reverse order. The reverse order interviews contained many more cues to deceit than the control interviews. In Experiment 2, 55 police officers watched a selection of the videotaped interviews of Experiment 1 and made veracity judgements. Requesting suspects to convey their stories in reverse order improved police observers' ability to detect deception and did not result in a response bias.


Assuntos
Cognição , Decepção , Rememoração Mental , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal , Revelação da Verdade
18.
Law Hum Behav ; 31(5): 499-518, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17211691

RESUMO

In Experiment 1, we examined whether three interview styles used by the police, accusatory, information-gathering and behaviour analysis, reveal verbal cues to deceit, measured with the Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and Reality Monitoring (RM) methods. A total of 120 mock suspects told the truth or lied about a staged event and were interviewed by a police officer employing one of these three interview styles. The results showed that accusatory interviews, which typically result in suspects making short denials, contained the fewest verbal cues to deceit. Moreover, RM distinguished between truth tellers and liars better than CBCA. Finally, manual RM coding resulted in more verbal cues to deception than automatic coding of the RM criteria utilising the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software programme. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of the three police interview styles on the ability to detect deception. Sixty-eight police officers watched some of the videotaped interviews of Experiment 1 and made veracity and confidence judgements. Accuracy scores did not differ between the three interview styles; however, watching accusatory interviews resulted in more false accusations (accusing truth tellers of lying) than watching information-gathering interviews. Furthermore, only in accusatory interviews, judgements of mendacity were associated with higher confidence. We discuss the possible danger of conducting accusatory interviews.


Assuntos
Decepção , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Detecção de Mentiras , Polícia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido
19.
Law Hum Behav ; 30(3): 329-45, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16718581

RESUMO

The present experiment is the first empirical test of the Behaviour Analysis Interview (BAI), an interview technique developed by F. E. Inbau, J. E. Reid, J. P. Buckley, & B. C. Jayne (2001) designed to evoke different verbal and non-verbal responses from liars and truth-tellers. Inbau et al. expect liars to be less helpful than truth-tellers in investigations and to exhibit more nervous behaviours. Just the opposite predictions, however, follow from the deception literature, which notes that liars take their credibility less for granted and are therefore more aware of their responses and their impact on others. This suggests that liars' answers should be more helpful than truth-tellers' answers, and liars' non-verbal responses should appear more relaxed than truth-tellers' non-verbal responses. In the present experiment, 40 participants (undergraduate students) lied or told the truth about an event during a BAI interview. The interviews were coded according to Inbau et al.'s guidelines. The results showed that, compared to liars, truth-tellers (a) were more naive and evasive when explaining the purpose of the interview, and (b) were less likely to name someone who they felt certain did not commit the crime. Truth-tellers also exhibited more nervous behaviours. The results were consistent with the predictions of the deception literature, and directly opposed to the predictions of BAI.


Assuntos
Decepção , Pesquisa Empírica , Entrevista Psicológica , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Appl Psychol ; 89(6): 1106-12, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15584846

RESUMO

Concern that lineup administrators can influence eyewitness identifications has led researchers to suggest implementing double-blind testing, an idea that police resist. Using a typical eyewitness paradigm (video event followed by photographic identification test), the present study demonstrated that an alternative technique, minimizing the level of contact between lineup administrators and witnesses, could reduce false identifications without reducing hits. Specifically, witnesses were more likely to make decisions consistent with lineup administrator expectations when the level of contact between the administrator and the witness was high than when it was low. These results are explained within the experimenter expectancy framework. Implications for applied settings are discussed.


Assuntos
Crime , Repressão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
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