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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(6): 611-616, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724833

RESUMO

The number of infants born with HIV in the United States has decreased for years, approaching the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's incidence goal for eliminating perinatal HIV transmission. We reviewed recent literature on perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. Among perinatally HIV-exposed infants (whose mothers have HIV, without regard to infants' HIV diagnosis), prenatal and natal antiretroviral use has increased, maternal HIV infection is more frequently diagnosed before pregnancy and breast-feeding is uncommon. In contrast, mothers of infants with HIV are tested at a lower rate for HIV, receive prenatal care less often, receive antiretrovirals (prenatal and natal) less often and breastfeed more often. The incidence of perinatal HIV remains 5 times as high among black than white infants. The annual number of births to women with HIV was estimated last for 2006 (8700) but has likely decreased. The numbers of women of childbearing age living with HIV and HIV diagnoses have decreased. The estimated time from HIV infection to diagnosis remains long among women and men who acquired HIV heterosexually. It is important to review the epidemiology and to continue monitoring outcomes and other health indicators for reproductive age adults living with HIV and their infants.

3.
Public Health Rep ; 133(6): 637-643, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The annual number of women with HIV infection who delivered infants in the United States was estimated to be 8700 in 2006. An accurate, current estimate is important for guiding perinatal HIV prevention efforts. Our objective was to analyze whether the 2006 estimate was consistent with the number of infants with HIV infection observed in the United States and with other data on perinatal HIV transmission. METHODS: We compared the number of infants born with HIV in 2015 (n = 53) with data on interventions to prevent perinatal HIV transmission (eg, maternal HIV diagnosis before and during pregnancy and prenatal antiretroviral use). We also estimated the annual number of deliveries to women living with HIV by using the number of women of childbearing age living with HIV during 2008-2014 and the estimated birth rate among these women. Finally, we determined any changes in the annual number of infants born to women with HIV from 2007-2015, among 19 states that reported these data. RESULTS: The low number of infants born in the United States with HIV infection and the uptake of interventions to prevent perinatal HIV transmission were not consistent with the 2006 estimate (n = 8700), even with the best uptake of interventions to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Given the birth rate among women with HIV (estimated at 7%) and the number of women aged 13-44 living with HIV during 2008-2014 (n = 111 273 in 2008, n = 96 363 in 2014), no more than about 5000 women with HIV would be giving birth. Among states consistently reporting the annual number of births to women with HIV, the number declined about 14% from 2008 to 2014. CONCLUSION: The current annual number of women with HIV infection delivering infants in the United States is about 5000, which is substantially lower than the 2006 estimate. More accurate estimates would require comprehensive reporting of perinatal HIV exposure.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/virologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(9): 583-587, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze prenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing rates over time and describe the impact of state HIV testing laws on prenatal testing. METHODS: During 2004-2011, self-reported prenatal HIV testing data for women with live births in 35 states and New York City were collected. Prevalence of testing was estimated overall and by state and year. An annual percent change was calculated in states with at least 6 years of data to analyze testing changes over time. An attorney-coder used WestlawNext to identify states with laws that direct prenatal care providers to screen all pregnant women or direct all women to be tested for HIV and document changes in laws to meet this threshold. RESULTS: The overall prenatal HIV testing rate for 2004 through 2011 combined was 75.7%. State-level data showed a wide range of testing rates (43.2%-92.8%) for 2004 through 2011 combined. In areas with 6 years of data, 4 experienced an annual drop in testing (Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, and Illinois). States that changed laws to meet the threshold generally had the highest testing rates, averaging 80%, followed by states with a preexisting law, at approximately 70%. States with no law, or no law meeting the threshold, had an average prenatal testing rate of 65%. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal HIV testing remained stable between 2004 and 2011 but remained below universal recommendations. Testing varied widely across states and was generally higher in areas that changed their laws to meet the threshold or had preexisting prenatal HIV testing laws, compared with those with no or limited prenatal HIV testing language.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 77(1): 23-30, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of HIV infection among children in the United States have been declining; however, a notable percentage of diagnoses are among those born outside the United States. The impact of foreign birth among children with diagnosed infections has not been examined in the United States. METHODS: Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National HIV Surveillance System, we analyzed data for children aged <13 years with diagnosed HIV infection ("children") in the United States (reported from 50 states and the District of Columbia) during 2008-2014, by place of birth and selected characteristics. RESULTS: There were 1516 children [726 US born (47.9%) and 676 foreign born (44.6%)]. US-born children accounted for 70.0% in 2008, declining to 32.3% in 2013, and 40.9% in 2014. Foreign-born children have exceeded US-born children in number since 2011. Age at diagnosis was younger for US-born than foreign-born children (0-18 months: 72.6% vs. 9.8%; 5-12 years: 16.9% vs. 60.3%). HIV diagnoses in mothers of US-born children were made more often before pregnancy (49.7% vs. 21.4%), or during pregnancy (16.6% vs. 13.9%), and less often after birth (23.7% vs. 41%). Custodians of US-born children were more often biological parents (71.9% vs. 43.2%) and less likely to be foster or nonrelated adoptive parents (10.4% vs. 55.1%). Of 676 foreign-born children with known place of birth, 65.5% were born in sub-Saharan Africa and 14.3% in Eastern Europe. The top countries of birth were Ethiopia, Ukraine, Uganda, Haiti, and Russia. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing number of foreign-born children with diagnosed HIV infection in the United States requires specific considerations for care and treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Etiópia/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Haiti/etnologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Federação Russa/etnologia , Uganda/etnologia , Ucrânia/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 76(5): 461-464, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An incidence of perinatally acquired HIV infection less than 1:100,000 live births is one of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) goals of the United States. Such an estimate has only been possible in recent years because regular nationwide data were lacking. METHOD: Using previously published CDC estimates of the number of infants born with HIV infection in the United States (interpolating for years for which there was no published estimate), and census data on the annual number of live-born infants, estimated incidence was calculated for 1978-2013. Exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Estimated incidence of perinatally acquired HIV infection peaked at 43.1 (95% CI: 41.1 to 45.1) in 1992 and declined rapidly after the use of zidovudine prophylaxis was recommended in 1994. In 2013, estimated incidence of perinatally acquired HIV infection in the United States was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.2), a 96% decline since the peak. CONCLUSION: Estimated incidence of perinatally acquired HIV infection in the United States in 2013 was 1.8/100,000 live births.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zidovudina/administração & dosagem
7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(5): 435-442, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28319246

RESUMO

Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015). Estimates were adjusted for delay in diagnosis and reporting by weighting each reported case based on a model incorporating time from birth to diagnosis and report. Analysis was performed from April 1 to August 15, 2016. Exposures: Maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral medication, including maternal receipt prenatally or during labor/delivery and infant receipt postnatally. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of perinatally acquired HIV infection in infants born in the United States. Infant and maternal characteristics, including receipt of perinatal HIV testing, treatment, and prophylaxis. Results: The estimated annual number of perinatally infected infants born in the United States decreased from 216 (95% CI, 206-230) in 2002 to 69 (95% CI, 60-83) in 2013. Among perinatally HIV-infected children born in 2002-2013, 836 (63.0%) of the mothers identified as black or African American and 243 (18.3%) as Hispanic or Latino. A total of 236 (37.5%) of the mothers had HIV infection diagnosed before pregnancy in 2002-2005 compared with 120 (51.5%) in 2010-2013; the proportion of mother-infant pairs receiving all 3 recommended arms of antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment (prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal) was 22.4% in 2002-2005 and 31.8% in 2010-2013, with approximately 179 (28.4%) (2002-2005) and 94 (40.3%) (2010-2013) receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment during pregnancy. Five Southern states (Florida, Texas, Georgia, Louisiana, and Maryland) accounted for 687 (38.0%) of infants born with HIV infection in the United States during the overall period. According to national data for live births, the incidence of perinatal HIV infection among infants born in the United States in 2013 was 1.75 per 100 000 live births. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite reduced perinatal HIV infection in the United States, missed opportunities for prevention were common among infected infants and their mothers in recent years. As of 2013, the incidence of perinatal HIV infection remained 1.75 times the proposed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission goal of 1 per 100 000 live births.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
AIDS Care ; 29(7): 858-865, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132520

RESUMO

Timely linkage to HIV care (LTC) following an HIV diagnosis is especially important for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal transmission and improve maternal health. However, limited data are available on LTC among U.S. pregnant women. Our analysis aimed to identify HIV diagnoses among childbearing age (CBA) women (15-44 years old) by pregnancy status and to compare LTC of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV-infected non-pregnant women. We analyzed 2013 CDC-funded HIV testing data from 61 health departments and 151 directly funded community-based organizations among CBA women. LTC includes linkage at any time after an HIV diagnosis and within 90 days after HIV diagnosis. Pearson's chi-square was used to compare LTC of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data were analyzed using SAS v9.3. Among the 1,379,860 HIV testing events among CBA women in 2013, 0.3% (n = 3690) were HIV-positive. Among all HIV-positive diagnoses with an available pregnancy status (n = 1987), 7%, (n = 138) were pregnant. Among women with pregnancy status data, LTC any time after an HIV-positive diagnosis was 73.2% for pregnant women and 60.7% for non-pregnant women. LTC within 90 days was 71.7% for pregnant women and 56.2% for non-pregnant women. Pregnancy was associated with LTC any time (p < 0.01) and within 90 days of diagnosis (p < 0.01). Compared with non-pregnant women, a higher proportion of pregnant women with HIV were linked to care overall, and linked within 90 days. Pregnancy appears to facilitate better LTC, but improvements are needed for women overall and pregnant women specifically.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Public Health Rep ; 129 Suppl 1: 33-42, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24385647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We identified the level and type of program collaboration and service integration (PCSI) among HIV prevention programs in 59 CDC-funded health department jurisdictions. METHODS: Annual progress reports (APRs) completed by all 59 health departments funded by CDC for HIV prevention activities were reviewed for collaborative and integrated activities reported by HIV programs for calendar year 2009. We identified associations between PCSI activities and funding, AIDS diagnosis rate, and organizational integration. RESULTS: HIV programs collaborated with other health department programs through data-related activities, provider training, and providing funding for sexually transmitted disease (STD) activities in 24 (41%), 31 (53%), and 16 (27%) jurisdictions, respectively. Of the 59 jurisdictions, 57 (97%) reported integrated HIV and STD testing at the same venue, 39 (66%) reported integrated HIV and tuberculosis testing, and 26 (44%) reported integrated HIV and viral hepatitis testing. Forty-five (76%) jurisdictions reported providing integrated education/outreach activities for HIV and at least one other disease. Twenty-six (44%) jurisdictions reported integrated partner services among HIV and STD programs. Overall, the level of PCSI activities was not associated with HIV funding, AIDS diagnoses, or organizational integration. CONCLUSIONS: HIV programs in health departments collaborate primarily with STD programs. Key PCSI activities include integrated testing, integrated education/outreach, and training. Future assessments are needed to evaluate PCSI activities and to identify the level of collaboration and integration among prevention programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Relações Interinstitucionais , Administração em Saúde Pública , /organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Governo Local , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Matern Child Health J ; 18(3): 648-56, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23836013

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to estimate prenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening rates prior to and on admission to labor and delivery (L&D) and to examine factors associated with HIV screening, including hospital policies, with a comparison of HIV and hepatitis B prenatal screening practices and hospital policies. In March 2006, a survey of hospitals (n = 190) and review of paired maternal and infant medical records (n = 4,762) were conducted in 50 US states, DC, and Puerto Rico. Data from the survey and medical record review were analyzed using SAS software v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). HIV testing before delivery occurred among 3,438 women (73.9%); African American and Hispanic women were more likely to be tested than white women [aOR 2.22, 95% CI (1.6-3.1) and aOR 1.55, 95% CI (1.1-2.2), respectively]. Among women without previous HIV testing, 138 (16.6%) were tested after admission to labor and delivery. Policies to test women with undocumented HIV status in at delivery were present in 65 (36.3%) hospitals. HIV testing after admission to L&D was more likely in hospitals with policies to test women with undocumented HIV status [aOR 5.91, 95% CI (2.0-17.8)]. Overall, policies and screening practices for HIV were consistently less prevalent than those for hepatitis B. Many women are not being routinely screened for HIV before or at delivery. Women with unknown HIV status were more likely to be tested in L&D in hospitals with testing policies.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Trabalho de Parto , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
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