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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most classical aniridia is caused by PAX6 haploinsufficiency. PAX6 missense variants can be hypomorphic or mimic haploinsufficiency. We hypothesized that missense variants also cause previously undescribed disease by altering the affinity and/or specificity of PAX6 genomic interactions. METHODS: We screened PAX6 in 372 individuals with bilateral microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC) from the Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit eye malformation cohort (HGUeye) and reviewed data from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. We performed cluster analysis on PAX6-associated ocular phenotypes by variant type and molecular modeling of the structural impact of 86 different PAX6 causative missense variants. RESULTS: Eight different PAX6 missense variants were identified in 17 individuals (15 families) with MAC, accounting for 4% (15/372) of our cohort. Seven altered the paired domain (p.[Arg26Gln]x1, p.[Gly36Val]x1, p.[Arg38Trp]x2, p.[Arg38Gln]x1, p.[Gly51Arg]x2, p.[Ser54Arg]x2, p.[Asn124Lys]x5) and one the homeodomain (p.[Asn260Tyr]x1). p.Ser54Arg and p.Asn124Lys were exclusively associated with severe bilateral microphthalmia. MAC-associated variants were predicted to alter but not ablate DNA interaction, consistent with the electrophoretic mobility shifts observed using mutant paired domains with well-characterized PAX6-binding sites. We found no strong evidence for novel PAX6-associated extraocular disease. CONCLUSION: Altering the affinity and specificity of PAX6-binding genome-wide provides a plausible mechanism for the worse-than-null effects of MAC-associated missense variants.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4630, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604926

RESUMO

Mobile genetic Elements (MEs) are segments of DNA which can copy themselves and other transcribed sequences through the process of retrotransposition (RT). In humans several disorders have been attributed to RT, but the role of RT in severe developmental disorders (DD) has not yet been explored. Here we identify RT-derived events in 9738 exome sequenced trios with DD-affected probands. We ascertain 9 de novo MEs, 4 of which are likely causative of the patient's symptoms (0.04%), as well as 2 de novo gene retroduplications. Beyond identifying likely diagnostic RT events, we estimate genome-wide germline ME mutation rate and selective constraint and demonstrate that coding RT events have signatures of purifying selection equivalent to those of truncating mutations. Overall, our analysis represents a comprehensive interrogation of the impact of retrotransposition on protein coding genes and a framework for future evolutionary and disease studies.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 933-946, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607427

RESUMO

Trio-based whole-exome sequence (WES) data have established confident genetic diagnoses in ∼40% of previously undiagnosed individuals recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study. Here we aim to use the breadth of phenotypic information recorded in DDD to augment diagnosis and disease variant discovery in probands. Median Euclidean distances (mEuD) were employed as a simple measure of similarity of quantitative phenotypic data within sets of ≥10 individuals with plausibly causative de novo mutations (DNM) in 28 different developmental disorder genes. 13/28 (46.4%) showed significant similarity for growth or developmental milestone metrics, 10/28 (35.7%) showed similarity in HPO term usage, and 12/28 (43%) showed no phenotypic similarity. Pairwise comparisons of individuals with high-impact inherited variants to the 32 individuals with causative DNM in ANKRD11 using only growth z-scores highlighted 5 likely causative inherited variants and two unrecognized DNM resulting in an 18% diagnostic uplift for this gene. Using an independent approach, naive Bayes classification of growth and developmental data produced reasonably discriminative models for the 24 DNM genes with sufficiently complete data. An unsupervised naive Bayes classification of 6,993 probands with WES data and sufficient phenotypic information defined 23 in silico syndromes (ISSs) and was used to test a "phenotype first" approach to the discovery of causative genotypes using WES variants strictly filtered on allele frequency, mutation consequence, and evidence of constraint in humans. This highlighted heterozygous de novo nonsynonymous variants in SPTBN2 as causative in three DDD probands.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2373, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147538

RESUMO

We aimed to develop an efficient, flexible and scalable approach to diagnostic genome-wide sequence analysis of genetically heterogeneous clinical presentations. Here we present G2P ( www.ebi.ac.uk/gene2phenotype ) as an online system to establish, curate and distribute datasets for diagnostic variant filtering via association of allelic requirement and mutational consequence at a defined locus with phenotypic terms, confidence level and evidence links. An extension to Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor (VEP), VEP-G2P was used to filter both disease-associated and control whole exome sequence (WES) with Developmental Disorders G2P (G2PDD; 2044 entries). VEP-G2PDD shows a sensitivity/precision of 97.3%/33% for de novo and 81.6%/22.7% for inherited pathogenic genotypes respectively. Many of the missing genotypes are likely false-positive pathogenic assignments. The expected number and discriminative features of background genotypes are defined using control WES. Using only human genetic data VEP-G2P performs well compared to other freely-available diagnostic systems and future phenotypic matching capabilities should further enhance performance.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Alelos , Genótipo , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
PLoS Genet ; 15(3): e1007605, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856165

RESUMO

Typical Martsolf syndrome is characterized by congenital cataracts, postnatal microcephaly, developmental delay, hypotonia, short stature and biallelic hypomorphic mutations in either RAB3GAP1 or RAB3GAP2. Genetic analysis of 85 unrelated "mutation negative" probands with Martsolf or Martsolf-like syndromes identified two individuals with different homozygous null mutations in ITPA, the gene encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase). Both probands were from multiplex families with a consistent, lethal and highly distinctive disorder; a Martsolf-like syndrome with infantile-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. Severe ITPase-deficiency has been previously reported with infantile epileptic encephalopathy (MIM 616647). ITPase acts to prevent incorporation of inosine bases (rI/dI) into RNA and DNA. In Itpa-null cells dI was undetectable in genomic DNA. dI could be identified at a low level in mtDNA without detectable mitochondrial genome instability, mtDNA depletion or biochemical dysfunction of the mitochondria. rI accumulation was detectable in proband-derived lymphoblastoid RNA. In Itpa-null mouse embryos rI was detectable in the brain and kidney with the highest level seen in the embryonic heart (rI at 1 in 385 bases). Transcriptome and proteome analysis in mutant cells revealed no major differences with controls. The rate of transcription and the total amount of cellular RNA also appeared normal. rI accumulation in RNA-and by implication rI production-correlates with the severity of organ dysfunction in ITPase deficiency but the basis of the cellulopathy remains cryptic. While we cannot exclude cumulative minor effects, there are no major anomalies in the production, processing, stability and/or translation of mRNA.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/enzimologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Catarata/enzimologia , Catarata/genética , Hipogonadismo/enzimologia , Hipogonadismo/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/enzimologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/enzimologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Pirofosfatases/deficiência , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Inosina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/enzimologia , Mutação , Linhagem , Pirofosfatases/genética , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 444-452, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A single variant in NAA10 (c.471+2T>A), the gene encoding N-acetyltransferase 10, has been associated with Lenz microphthalmia syndrome. In this study, we aimed to identify causative variants in families with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia. METHODS: Three families, including 15 affected individuals with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia, underwent analyses including linkage analysis, exome sequencing and targeted gene sequencing. The consequences of two identified variants in NAA10 were evaluated using quantitative PCR and RNAseq. RESULTS: Genetic linkage analysis in family 1 supported a candidate region on Xq27-q28, which included NAA10. Exome sequencing identified a hemizygous NAA10 polyadenylation signal (PAS) variant, chrX:153,195,397T>C, c.*43A>G, which segregated with the disease. Targeted sequencing of affected males from families 2 and 3 identified distinct NAA10 PAS variants, chrX:g.153,195,401T>C, c.*39A>G and chrX:g.153,195,400T>C, c.*40A>G. All three variants were absent from gnomAD. Quantitative PCR and RNAseq showed reduced NAA10 mRNA levels and abnormal 3' UTRs in affected individuals. Targeted sequencing of NAA10 in 376 additional affected individuals failed to identify variants in the PAS. CONCLUSION: These data show that PAS variants are the most common variant type in NAA10-associated syndromic microphthalmia, suggesting reduced RNA is the molecular mechanism by which these alterations cause microphthalmia/anophthalmia. We reviewed recognised variants in PAS associated with Mendelian disorders and identified only 23 others, indicating that NAA10 harbours more than 10% of all known PAS variants. We hypothesise that PAS in other genes harbour unrecognised pathogenic variants associated with Mendelian disorders. The systematic interrogation of PAS could improve genetic testing yields.

8.
Genome Res ; 29(2): 159-170, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587507

RESUMO

Mutations that perturb normal pre-mRNA splicing are significant contributors to human disease. We used exome sequencing data from 7833 probands with developmental disorders (DDs) and their unaffected parents, as well as more than 60,000 aggregated exomes from the Exome Aggregation Consortium, to investigate selection around the splice sites and quantify the contribution of splicing mutations to DDs. Patterns of purifying selection, a deficit of variants in highly constrained genes in healthy subjects, and excess de novo mutations in patients highlighted particular positions within and around the consensus splice site of greater functional relevance. By using mutational burden analyses in this large cohort of proband-parent trios, we could estimate in an unbiased manner the relative contributions of mutations at canonical dinucleotides (73%) and flanking noncanonical positions (27%), and calculate the positive predictive value of pathogenicity for different classes of mutations. We identified 18 patients with likely diagnostic de novo mutations in dominant DD-associated genes at noncanonical positions in splice sites. We estimate 35%-40% of pathogenic variants in noncanonical splice site positions are missing from public databases.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Exoma , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Science ; 362(6419): 1161-1164, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409806

RESUMO

We estimated the genome-wide contribution of recessive coding variation in 6040 families from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. The proportion of cases attributable to recessive coding variants was 3.6% in patients of European ancestry, compared with 50% explained by de novo coding mutations. It was higher (31%) in patients with Pakistani ancestry, owing to elevated autozygosity. Half of this recessive burden is attributable to known genes. We identified two genes not previously associated with recessive developmental disorders, KDM5B and EIF3F, and functionally validated them with mouse and cellular models. Our results suggest that recessive coding variants account for a small fraction of currently undiagnosed nonconsanguineous individuals, and that the role of noncoding variants, incomplete penetrance, and polygenic mechanisms need further exploration.

11.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242502

RESUMO

Absence of part or all of the iris, aniridia, is a feature of several genetically distinct conditions. This review focuses on iris development and then the clinical features and molecular genetics of these iris malformations. Classical aniridia, a panocular eye malformation including foveal hypoplasia, is the archetypal phenotype associated with heterozygous PAX6 loss-of-function mutations. Since this was identified in 1991, many genetic mechanisms of PAX6 inactivation have been elucidated, the commonest alleles being intragenic mutations causing premature stop codons, followed by those causing C-terminal extensions. Rarely, aniridia cases are associated with FOXC1, PITX2 and/or their regulatory regions. Aniridia can also occur as a component of many severe global eye malformations. Gillespie syndrome-a triad of partial aniridia, non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and intellectual disability-is phenotypically and genotypically distinct from classical aniridia. The causative gene has recently been identified as ITPR1. The same characteristic Gillespie syndrome-like iris, with aplasia of the pupillary sphincter and a scalloped margin, is seen in ACTA2-related multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome. WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumour, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies and mental retardation/intellectual disability), is caused by contiguous deletion of PAX6 and WT1 on chromosome 11p. Deletions encompassing BDNF have been causally implicated in the obesity and intellectual disability associated with the condition. Lastly, we outline a genetic investigation strategy for aniridia in light of recent developments, suggesting an approach based principally on chromosomal array and gene panel testing. This strategy aims to test all known aniridia loci-including the rarer, life-limiting causes-whilst remaining simple and practical.

12.
Pediatrics ; 141(Suppl 5): S485-S490, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610177

RESUMO

The sodium leak channel nonselective protein (NALCN) is a regulator of the pacemaker neurons that are responsible for rhythmic behavior (including respiration), maintaining the resting membrane potential, and are required for action potential production. NALCN-null mice show early death associated with disrupted respiratory rhythms, characterized by frequent and profound apneas. We report 3 children (2 siblings) with compound heterozygous mutations in NALCN associated with developmental impairment, hypotonia, and central sleep-disordered breathing causing apneas. Supplemental oxygen normalized the respiratory rhythm. NALCN mutations have been previously reported to cause severe hypotonia, speech impairment, and cognitive delay as well as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and facial dysmorphism. Nonsynonymous changes in the 2 affected extracellular loops may be responsible for the deleterious effect on the stability of the respiratory rhythm. Although oxygen is known to be a stabilizer of respiratory rhythm in central apnea in children, its role in NALCN dysfunction requires further investigation.

13.
Lancet ; 391(10129): 1483-1492, 2018 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of post-neonatal infant death in high-income countries. Central respiratory system dysfunction seems to contribute to these deaths. Excitation that drives contraction of skeletal respiratory muscles is controlled by the sodium channel NaV1.4, which is encoded by the gene SCN4A. Variants in NaV1.4 that directly alter skeletal muscle excitability can cause myotonia, periodic paralysis, congenital myopathy, and myasthenic syndrome. SCN4A variants have also been found in infants with life-threatening apnoea and laryngospasm. We therefore hypothesised that rare, functionally disruptive SCN4A variants might be over-represented in infants who died from SIDS. METHODS: We did a case-control study, including two consecutive cohorts that included 278 SIDS cases of European ancestry and 729 ethnically matched controls without a history of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neurological disease. We compared the frequency of rare variants in SCN4A between groups (minor allele frequency <0·00005 in the Exome Aggregation Consortium). We assessed biophysical characterisation of the variant channels using a heterologous expression system. FINDINGS: Four (1·4%) of the 278 infants in the SIDS cohort had a rare functionally disruptive SCN4A variant compared with none (0%) of 729 ethnically matched controls (p=0·0057). INTERPRETATION: Rare SCN4A variants that directly alter NaV1.4 function occur in infants who had died from SIDS. These variants are predicted to significantly alter muscle membrane excitability and compromise respiratory and laryngeal function. These findings indicate that dysfunction of muscle sodium channels is a potentially modifiable risk factor in a subset of infant sudden deaths. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research, the British Heart Foundation, Biotronik, Cardiac Risk in the Young, Higher Education Funding Council for England, Dravet Syndrome UK, the Epilepsy Society, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health, and the Mayo Clinic Windland Smith Rice Comprehensive Sudden Cardiac Death Program.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4/genética , Morte Súbita do Lactente/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4/fisiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(11): 1217-1227, 2018 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of postneonatal mortality. Genetic heart diseases (GHDs) underlie some cases of SIDS. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the spectrum and prevalence of GHD-associated mutations as a potential monogenic basis for SIDS. METHODS: A cohort of 419 unrelated SIDS cases (257 male; average age 2.7 ± 1.9 months) underwent whole exome sequencing and a targeted analysis of 90 GHD-susceptibility genes. The yield of "potentially informative," ultra-rare variants (minor allele frequency <0.00005) in GHD-associated genes was assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 53 of 419 (12.6%) SIDS cases had ≥1 "potentially informative," GHD-associated variant. The yield was 14.9% (21 of 141) for mixed-European ancestry cases and 11.5% (32 of 278) for European ancestry SIDS cases. Infants older than 4 months were more likely to host a "potentially informative" GHD-associated variant. There was significant overrepresentation of ultra-rare nonsynonymous variants in European SIDS cases (18 of 278 [6.5%]) versus European control subjects (30 of 973 [3.1%]; p = 0.013) when combining all 4 major cardiac channelopathy genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, and RYR2). According to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines, only 18 of 419 (4.3%) SIDS cases hosted a "pathogenic" or "likely pathogenic" variant. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 15% of more than 400 SIDS cases had a "potentially informative" variant in a GHD-susceptibility gene, predominantly in the 4- to 12-month age group. Only 4.3% of cases possessed immediately clinically actionable variants. Consistent with previous studies, ultra-rare, nonsynonymous variants within the major cardiac channelopathy-associated genes were overrepresented in SIDS cases in infants of European ethnicity. These findings have major implications for the investigation of SIDS cases and families.

15.
Nature ; 555(7698): 611-616, 2018 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562236

RESUMO

We previously estimated that 42% of patients with severe developmental disorders carry pathogenic de novo mutations in coding sequences. The role of de novo mutations in regulatory elements affecting genes associated with developmental disorders, or other genes, has been essentially unexplored. We identified de novo mutations in three classes of putative regulatory elements in almost 8,000 patients with developmental disorders. Here we show that de novo mutations in highly evolutionarily conserved fetal brain-active elements are significantly and specifically enriched in neurodevelopmental disorders. We identified a significant twofold enrichment of recurrently mutated elements. We estimate that, genome-wide, 1-3% of patients without a diagnostic coding variant carry pathogenic de novo mutations in fetal brain-active regulatory elements and that only 0.15% of all possible mutations within highly conserved fetal brain-active elements cause neurodevelopmental disorders with a dominant mechanism. Our findings represent a robust estimate of the contribution of de novo mutations in regulatory elements to this genetically heterogeneous set of disorders, and emphasize the importance of combining functional and evolutionary evidence to identify regulatory causes of genetic disorders.


Assuntos
Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Evolução Molecular , Exoma , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Nat Rev Genet ; 19(5): 253-268, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398702

RESUMO

The majority of rare diseases affect children, most of whom have an underlying genetic cause for their condition. However, making a molecular diagnosis with current technologies and knowledge is often still a challenge. Paediatric genomics is an immature but rapidly evolving field that tackles this issue by incorporating next-generation sequencing technologies, especially whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, into research and clinical workflows. This complex multidisciplinary approach, coupled with the increasing availability of population genetic variation data, has already resulted in an increased discovery rate of causative genes and in improved diagnosis of rare paediatric disease. Importantly, for affected families, a better understanding of the genetic basis of rare disease translates to more accurate prognosis, management, surveillance and genetic advice; stimulates research into new therapies; and enables provision of better support.

17.
Nat Rev Genet ; 19(5): 325, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456250

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrg.2017.116.

18.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 767, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440723

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published, Wendy Bickmore and Madapura Pradeepa were incorrectly not indicated as corresponding authors. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the paper.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 329-332, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379197

RESUMO

We found that the clinical phenotype associated with BRD4 haploinsufficiency overlapped with that of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), which is most often caused by mutation of NIPBL. More typical CdLS was observed with a de novo BRD4 missense variant, which retained the ability to coimmunoprecipitate with NIPBL, but bound poorly to acetylated histones. BRD4 and NIPBL displayed correlated binding at super-enhancers and appeared to co-regulate developmental gene expression.

20.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1216-1223, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323667

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Given the rapid pace of discovery in rare disease genomics, it is likely that improvements in diagnostic yield can be made by systematically reanalyzing previously generated genomic sequence data in light of new knowledge. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis in the United Kingdom-wide Deciphering Developmental Disorders study, where in 2014 we reported a diagnostic yield of 27% through whole-exome sequencing of 1,133 children with severe developmental disorders and their parents. We reanalyzed existing data using improved variant calling methodologies, novel variant detection algorithms, updated variant annotation, evidence-based filtering strategies, and newly discovered disease-associated genes. RESULTS: We are now able to diagnose an additional 182 individuals, taking our overall diagnostic yield to 454/1,133 (40%), and another 43 (4%) have a finding of uncertain clinical significance. The majority of these new diagnoses are due to novel developmental disorder-associated genes discovered since our original publication. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of coupling large-scale research with clinical practice, and of discussing the possibility of iterative reanalysis and recontact with patients and health professionals at an early stage. We estimate that implementing parent-offspring whole-exome sequencing as a first-line diagnostic test for developmental disorders would diagnose >50% of patients.

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