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1.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current understanding of the risk of neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett's esophagus samples harboring indefinite for dysplasia (BE-IND) stems from small retrospective and pathology-registry studies. In this multicenter cohort study, we aimed to determine the incidence and prevalence of neoplasia in BE-IND. METHODS: Patients with confirmed BE-IND from 2 academic centers were included if they had no previous evidence of dysplasia and underwent endoscopic follow-up (FU) of ≥1 year. Rate of progression to neoplasia was calculated and categorized as prevalent (progression <1year of FU) and incident (progression ≥1 year of FU). Multivariable regression adjusted for relevant clinical features was performed to identify risk factors for progression. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-five patients diagnosed with BE-IND were identified between 1997 and 2017, of which 223 (48.0%) were excluded. Of the remaining 242 patients, 184 (76.0%) had no evidence of dysplasia during FU. In 23 patients (9.5%) prevalent neoplasia occurred (20 low-grade dysplasia [LGD], 2 high-grade dysplasia [HGD], 1 intramucosal cancer [IMC]), whereas 35 patients (14.5%) developed incident neoplasia (27 LGD, 5 HGD, 3 IMC), after median 1.5 years (IQR 0.6-3.2 years). The incidence rates of any neoplasia and HGD/IMC were 3.2 and 0.6 cases/100 patient-years, respectively. BE-length correlated with an increased risk of prevalent (OR, 1.18 per 1 cm; 95% CI, 1.02-1.38; P=0.033) and incident neoplasia (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P=0.016). CONCLUSION: Patients with BE-IND should be closely monitored, as nearly a quarter harbor or will shortly develop dysplasia. BE length is a clinical predictor of neoplastic progression; however, more accurate molecular biomarkers for risk stratification are warranted.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A non-endoscopic approach to Barrett's esophagus (BE) surveillance after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) would offer a less invasive method for monitoring. We assessed the test characteristics and cost-effectiveness of the Cytosponge® in post-RFA patients. METHODS: We performed a multicenter study of dysplastic BE patients after at least one round of RFA. A positive Cytosponge® before endoscopy was defined as intestinal metaplasia (IM) on cytological assessment and/or TFF3 immunohistochemistry. Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. Multivariable regression was used to estimate the odds of a positive Cytosponge® in BE. A microsimulation cost-effectiveness model was performed to assess outcomes of various surveillance strategies: endoscopy-only, Cytosponge®-only, and alternating endoscopy/Cytosponge®. RESULTS: Of 234 patients, Cytosponge® adequately sampled the distal esophagus in 175 (75%). Of the 142 with both endoscopic and histologic data, 19 (13%) had residual/recurrent BE. For detecting any residual Barrett's, Cytosponge® had a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 85%, accuracy of 84%, and ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.74. The adjusted odds of a positive Cytosponge® in BE were 17.1 (95% CI: 5.2-55.9). Cytosponge®-only surveillance dominated all the surveillance strategies, being both less costly and more effective. Cytosponge®-only surveillance required <1/4th the endoscopies, resulting in only 0.69 additional EAC cases/1,000 patients, and no increase in EAC deaths when compared to currently-practiced endoscopy-only surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: A positive Cytosponge® test was strongly associated with residual BE after ablation. While the assay needs further refinement in this context, it could serve as a cost-effective surveillance examination.

3.
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am ; 31(1): 43-58, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213799

RESUMO

The rapid increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Western populations over the past 4 decades and its associated poor prognosis, unless detected early has generated great interest in screening for the precursor lesion Barrett's esophagus (BE). Recently, there have been significant developments in imaging-based modalities and esophageal cell-sampling devices coupled with biomarker assays. In this review, the authors discuss the rationale for screening for BE and the factors to consider for targeting the at-risk population. They also explore future avenues for research in this area.

4.
Annu Rev Med ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217247

RESUMO

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a cancer syndrome associated with a significant lifetime risk of diffuse gastric cancer (DGC), a malignancy characterized by late clinical presentation and poor prognosis, as well as lobular breast cancer. HDGC is linked to germline pathogenic variants in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) that are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, in many families with DGC clustering, no genetic cause has been identified. This review discusses key elements that allow risk assessment of potential inherited DGC susceptibility. We provide a practical overview of the recommendations for surveillance and treatment of individuals at risk and patients with early disease. The review also outlines future research avenues to improve our understanding of the genetic background and natural history of the disease, the endoscopic detection of early lesions, and the outcome of prophylactic surgery in young individuals. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 72 is January 27, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

5.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154569

RESUMO

Barrett's oesophagus has been known for many years to display early changes to the genome consistent with the risk for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Recently we have shown that this information can be used without knowledge of individual gene mutations to accurately predict a patient's future risk of malignant progression.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128785

RESUMO

Esophageal sponge cytology is an endoscopy alternative well accepted by patients with extensive data for accuracy in the context of adenocarcinoma. Few studies have assessed its feasibility in asymptomatic community members, and fewer still in East Africa, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) rates are high. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a capsule-based diagnosis of esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), an ESCC precursor, which may benefit epidemiological and early detection research. We collected Cytosponge collections in 102 asymptomatic adults from Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Uptake, acceptability and safety were assessed. Participants scored acceptability immediately following the procedure and 7 days later on a scale of 0 (least) to 10 (most acceptable). Slides from paraffin-embedded cell clots were read by two pathologists for ESD and other pathologies. All participants (52 men, 50 women, aged 30-77) swallowed the device at first attempt, 100 (98%) of which gave slides of adequate cellularity. Acceptability scores were 10 (53%), 9 (24%), 8 (21%), 7 (2%) and 6 (1%), with no differences by age, sex or time of asking. Cytological findings were esophageal inflammation (4%), atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (1%), low-grade dysplasia (1%), gastritis (22%) and suspected intestinal metaplasia (6%). Setting-specific logistical and ethical considerations of study implementation are discussed. We demonstrate the safety, acceptability and feasibility of Cytosponge sampling in this setting, paving the way for innovative etiology and early-detection research. Targeted sampling strategies and biomarker development will underpin the success of such initiatives. The study protocol is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04090554).

7.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1726-1732, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895572

RESUMO

Recent studies show that aneuploidy and driver gene mutations precede cancer diagnosis by many years1-4. We assess whether these genomic signals can be used for early detection and pre-emptive cancer treatment using the neoplastic precursor lesion Barrett's esophagus as an exemplar5. Shallow whole-genome sequencing of 777 biopsies, sampled from 88 patients in Barrett's esophagus surveillance over a period of up to 15 years, shows that genomic signals can distinguish progressive from stable disease even 10 years before histopathological transformation. These findings are validated on two independent cohorts of 76 and 248 patients. These methods are low-cost and applicable to standard clinical biopsy samples. Compared with current management guidelines based on histopathology and clinical presentation, genomic classification enables earlier treatment for high-risk patients as well as reduction of unnecessary treatment and monitoring for patients who are unlikely to develop cancer.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 159(6): 2065-2076.e1, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its premalignant lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), are characterized by a strong and yet unexplained male predominance (with a male-to-female ratio in EA incidence of up to 6:1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for these conditions. However, potential sex differences in genetic associations with BE/EA remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Given strong genetic overlap, BE and EA cases were combined into a single case group for analysis. These were compared with population-based controls. We performed sex-specific GWAS of BE/EA in 3 separate studies and then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to provide summary estimates for >9 million variants for male and female individuals. A series of downstream analyses were conducted separately in male and female individuals to identify genes associated with BE/EA and the genetic correlations between BE/EA and other traits. RESULTS: We included 6758 male BE/EA cases, 7489 male controls, 1670 female BE/EA cases, and 6174 female controls. After Bonferroni correction, our meta-analysis of sex-specific GWAS identified 1 variant at chromosome 6q11.1 (rs112894788, KHDRBS2-MTRNR2L9, PBONF = .039) that was statistically significantly associated with BE/EA risk in male individuals only, and 1 variant at chromosome 8p23.1 (rs13259457, PRSS55-RP1L1, PBONF = 0.057) associated, at borderline significance, with BE/EA risk in female individuals only. We also observed strong genetic correlations of BE/EA with gastroesophageal reflux disease in male individuals and obesity in female individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The identified novel sex-specific variants associated with BE/EA could improve the understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease and the reasons for the male predominance.

10.
Lancet ; 396(10247): 333-344, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus prevents progression to adenocarcinoma; however, the optimal diagnostic strategy for Barrett's oesophagus is unclear. The Cytosponge-trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a non-endoscopic test for Barrett's oesophagus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether offering this test to patients on medication for gastro-oesophageal reflux would increase the detection of Barrett's oesophagus compared with standard management. METHODS: This multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial was done in 109 socio-demographically diverse general practice clinics in England. Randomisation was done both at the general practice clinic level (cluster randomisation) and at the individual patient level, and the results for each type of randomisation were analysed separately before being combined. Patients were eligible if they were aged 50 years or older, had been taking acid-suppressants for symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux for more than 6 months, and had not undergone an endoscopy procedure within the past 5 years. General practice clinics were selected by the local clinical research network and invited to participate in the trial. For cluster randomisation, clinics were randomly assigned (1:1) by the trial statistician using a computer-generated randomisation sequence; for individual patient-level randomisation, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by the general practice clinics using a centrally prepared computer-generated randomisation sequence. After randomisation, participants received either standard management of gastro-oesophageal reflux (usual care group), in which participants only received an endoscopy if required by their general practitioner, or usual care plus an offer of the Cytosponge-TFF3 procedure, with a subsequent endoscopy if the procedure identified TFF3-positive cells (intervention group). The primary outcome was the diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus at 12 months after enrolment, expressed as a rate per 1000 person-years, in all participants in the intervention group (regardless of whether they had accepted the offer of the Cytosponge-TFF3 procedure) compared with all participants in the usual care group. Analyses were intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN68382401, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between March 20, 2017, and March 21, 2019, 113 general practice clinics were enrolled, but four clinics dropped out shortly after randomisation. Using an automated search of the electronic prescribing records of the remaining 109 clinics, we identified 13 657 eligible patients who were sent an introductory letter with 14 days to opt out. 13 514 of these patients were randomly assigned (per practice or at the individual patient level) to the usual care group (n=6531) or the intervention group (n=6983). Following randomisation, 149 (2%) of 6983 participants in the intervention group and 143 (2%) of 6531 participants in the usual care group, on further scrutiny, did not meet all eligibility criteria or withdrew from the study. Of the remaining 6834 participants in the intervention group, 2679 (39%) expressed an interest in undergoing the Cytosponge-TFF3 procedure. Of these, 1750 (65%) met all of the eligibility criteria on telephone screening and underwent the procedure. Most of these participants (1654 [95%]; median age 69 years) swallowed the Cytosponge successfully and produced a sample. 231 (3%) of 6834 participants had a positive Cytosponge-TFF3 result and were referred for an endoscopy. Patients who declined the offer of the Cytosponge-TFF3 procedure and all participants in the usual care group only had an endoscopy if deemed necessary by their general practitioner. During an average of 12 months of follow-up, 140 (2%) of 6834 participants in the intervention group and 13 (<1%) of 6388 participants in the usual care group were diagnosed with Barrett's oesophagus (absolute difference 18·3 per 1000 person-years [95% CI 14·8-21·8]; rate ratio adjusted for cluster randomisation 10·6 [95% CI 6·0-18·8], p<0·0001). Nine (<1%) of 6834 participants were diagnosed with dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus (n=4) or stage I oesophago-gastric cancer (n=5) in the intervention group, whereas no participants were diagnosed with dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus or stage I gastro-oesophageal junction cancer in the usual care group. Among 1654 participants in the intervention group who swallowed the Cytosponge device successfully, 221 (13%) underwent endoscopy after testing positive for TFF3 and 131 (8%, corresponding to 59% of those having an endoscopy) were diagnosed with Barrett's oesophagus or cancer. One patient had a detachment of the Cytosponge from the thread requiring endoscopic removal, and the most common side-effect was a sore throat in 63 (4%) of 1654 participants. INTERPRETATION: In patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux, the offer of Cytosponge-TFF3 testing results in improved detection of Barrett's oesophagus. Cytosponge-TFF3 testing could also lead to the diagnosis of treatable dysplasia and early cancer. This strategy will lead to additional endoscopies with some false positive results. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, National Institute for Health Research, the UK National Health Service, Medtronic, and the Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico , Esofagoscopia/instrumentação , Fator Trefoil-3/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esôfago de Barrett/etiologia , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): e386-e397, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758476

RESUMO

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome that is characterised by a high prevalence of diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer. It is largely caused by inactivating germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CDH1, although pathogenic variants in CTNNA1 occur in a minority of families with HDGC. In this Policy Review, we present updated clinical practice guidelines for HDGC from the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium (IGCLC), which recognise the emerging evidence of variability in gastric cancer risk between families with HDGC, the growing capability of endoscopic and histological surveillance in HDGC, and increased experience of managing long-term sequelae of total gastrectomy in young patients. To redress the balance between the accessibility, cost, and acceptance of genetic testing and the increased identification of pathogenic variant carriers, the HDGC genetic testing criteria have been relaxed, mainly through less restrictive age limits. Prophylactic total gastrectomy remains the recommended option for gastric cancer risk management in pathogenic CDH1 variant carriers. However, there is increasing confidence from the IGCLC that endoscopic surveillance in expert centres can be safely offered to patients who wish to postpone surgery, or to those whose risk of developing gastric cancer is not well defined.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos
12.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102877, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective treatment for dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE), but recurrence can occur after initial response. Currently there is uncertainty about how to best define histological remission. A DNA methylation panel on esophageal samples was previously shown to have high diagnostic accuracy for BE. We aimed to investigate this biomarker panel in the assessment of response to RFA treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) biopsies from patients with BE before and after RFA treatment. We quantified the extent of intestinal metaplasia (IM) based on number of glands with goblet cells (IM-Score) and expression of the intestinal factor trefoil factor-3 (TFF3-Score). Promoter methylation of 3 genes (ZNF345, TFP12, ZNF569) was measured by methylight (Meth-Score) throughout the RFA treatment pathway. FINDINGS: We included 45 patients (11 non-dysplastic BE, 14 low-grade dysplasia, 20 high-grade dysplasia/intramucosal cancer). Meth-Scores were significantly higher in BE with and without dysplasia and GEJ with IM compared to GEJ without IM (P<·001). Meth-scores significantly correlated with the extent of IM at the GEJ measured both with IM-Scores (rho=66·0%, P<·001), and TFF3-Scores (rho=75·6%, P<·001). In patients with residual IM at the GEJ, RFA re-treatment brought about a 7·6-fold reduction in the methylation levels. The Meth-score had an area under the ROC curve of 95·1% (95%CI 91·1% - 99·1%) differentiating BE from normal GEJ. INTERPRETATION: A DNA methylation panel can discriminate between the extent of histological IM in esophageal and junctional biopsies and could be used to objectively quantify residual disease following RFA.

13.
Endoscopy ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Endoscopic surveillance is recommended in patients with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) who refuse or want to delay surgery. Because early signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) can be inconspicuous, the current surveillance endoscopy protocol entails 30 random biopsies, which are time-consuming. This study aimed to compare single-bite and double-bite techniques in HDGC surveillance. METHODS : Between October 2017 and December 2018, consecutive patients referred for HDGC surveillance were prospectively randomized to the single- or double-bite arm. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield for SRCC foci. Secondary outcomes were: procedural time for random biopsies; comfort score; biopsy size; and quality of specimens, the latter assessed by the presence of muscularis mucosa, crush artifact, and proportion usable for diagnostic assessment. RESULTS : 25 patients were randomized to the single-bite arm and 23 to the double-bite arm. SRCC foci were detected in three and four patients in the single- and double-bite arms, respectively (P = 0.70). The procedural time for the double-bite arm (12 minutes, interquartile range [IQR] 4) was significantly shorter than for the single-bite arm (15 minute, IQR 6; P = 0.01), but comfort scores were similar. The size of the biopsies in the double-bite arm was significantly smaller than in single-bite arm (2.5 mm vs. 3.0 mm; P < 0.001) but this did not affect the presence of muscularis mucosa (P = 0.73), artifact level (P = 0.11), and diagnostic utility (P = 0.051). CONCLUSION : For patients undergoing HDGC surveillance, the double-bite technique is significantly faster than the single-bite technique. The diagnostic yield for SRCC and the biopsy quality were similar across both groups.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3166, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576827

RESUMO

Mutational processes acting on cancer genomes can be traced by investigating mutational signatures. Because high sequencing costs limit current studies to small numbers of good-quality samples, we propose a robust, cost- and time-effective method, called mutREAD, to detect mutational signatures from small quantities of DNA, including degraded samples. We show that mutREAD recapitulates mutational signatures identified by whole genome sequencing, and will ultimately allow the study of mutational signatures in larger cohorts and, by compatibility with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , DNA de Neoplasias/isolamento & purificação , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Biologia Computacional , Primers do DNA , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
EBioMedicine ; 56: 102765, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cancer risk in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is difficult to estimate. Histologic dysplasia has strong predictive power, but can be missed by random biopsies. Other clinical parameters have limited utility for risk stratification. We aimed to assess whether a molecular biomarker panel on targeted biopsies can predict neoplastic progression of BO. METHODS: 203 patients with BO were tested at index endoscopy for 9 biomarkers (p53 and cyclin A expression; aneuploidy and tetraploidy; CDKN2A (p16), RUNX3 and HPP1 hypermethylation; 9p and 17p loss of heterozygosity) on autofluorescence-targeted biopsies and followed-up prospectively. Data comparing progressors to non-progressors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses using survival curves, Cox-proportional hazards and logistic regression models. FINDINGS: 127 patients without high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) at index endoscopy were included, of which 42 had evidence of any histologic progression over time. Aneuploidy was the only predictor of progression from non-dysplastic BO (NDBO) to any grade of neoplasia (p = 0.013) and HGD/OAC (p = 0.002). Aberrant p53 expression correlated with risk of short-term progression within 12 months, with an odds ratio of 6.0 (95% CI: 3.1-11.2). A panel comprising aneuploidy and p53 had an area under the receiving operator characteristics curve of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59-0.77) for prediction of any progression. INTERPRETATION: Aneuploidy is the only biomarker that predicts neoplastic progression of NDBO. Aberrant p53 expression suggests prevalent dysplasia, which might have been missed by random biopsies, and warrants early follow up.

16.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(1): E37-E48, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133440

RESUMO

Background: Screening for Barrett's Oesophagus (BE) relies on endoscopy which is invasive and has a low yield. This study aimed to develop and externally validate a simple symptom and risk-factor questionnaire to screen for patients with BE. Methods: Questionnaires from 1299 patients in the BEST2 case-controlled study were analysed: 880 had BE including 40 with invasive oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and 419 were controls. This was randomly split into a training cohort of 776 patients and an internal validation cohort of 523 patients. External validation included 398 patients from the BOOST case-controlled study: 198 with BE (23 with OAC) and 200 controls. Identification of independently important diagnostic features was undertaken using machine learning techniques information gain (IG) and correlation based feature selection (CFS). Multiple classification tools were assessed to create a multi-variable risk prediction model. Internal validation was followed by external validation in the independent dataset. Findings: The BEST2 study included 40 features. Of these, 24 added IG but following CFS, only 8 demonstrated independent diagnostic value including age, gender, smoking, waist circumference, frequency of stomach pain, duration of heartburn and acid taste and taking of acid suppression medicines. Logistic regression offered the highest prediction quality with AUC (area under the receiver operator curve) of 0.87. In the internal validation set, AUC was 0.86. In the BOOST external validation set, AUC was 0.81. Interpretation: The diagnostic model offers valid predictions of diagnosis of BE in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux, assisting in identifying who should go forward to invasive testing. Overweight men who have been taking stomach medicines for a long time may merit particular consideration for further testing. The risk prediction tool is quick and simple to administer but will need further calibration and validation in a prospective study in primary care. Funding: Charles Wolfson Trust and Guts UK.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1682-1697.e1, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) are heterogeneous and often preceded by Barrett's esophagus (BE). Many genomic changes have been associated with development of BE and EAC, but little is known about epigenetic alterations. We performed epigenetic analyses of BE and EAC tissues and combined these data with transcriptome and genomic data to identify mechanisms that control gene expression and genome integrity. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we collected tissue samples and clinical data from 150 BE and 285 EAC cases from the Oesophageal Cancer Classification and Molecular Stratification consortium in the United Kingdom. We analyzed methylation profiles of all BE and EAC tissues and assigned them to subgroups using non-negative matrix factorization with k-means clustering. Data from whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome studies were then incorporated; we performed integrative methylation and RNA-sequencing analyses to identify genes that were suppressed with increased methylation in promoter regions. Levels of different immune cell types were computed using single-sample gene set enrichment methods. We derived 8 organoids from 8 EAC tissues and tested their sensitivity to different drugs. RESULTS: BE and EAC samples shared genome-wide methylation features, compared with normal tissues (esophageal, gastric, and duodenum; controls) from the same patients and grouped into 4 subtypes. Subtype 1 was characterized by DNA hypermethylation with a high mutation burden and multiple mutations in genes in cell cycle and receptor tyrosine signaling pathways. Subtype 2 was characterized by a gene expression pattern associated with metabolic processes (ATP synthesis and fatty acid oxidation) and lack methylation at specific binding sites for transcription factors; 83% of samples of this subtype were BE and 17% were EAC. The third subtype did not have changes in methylation pattern, compared with control tissue, but had a gene expression pattern that indicated immune cell infiltration; this tumor type was associated with the shortest time of patient survival. The fourth subtype was characterized by DNA hypomethylation associated with structure rearrangements, copy number alterations, with preferential amplification of CCNE1 (cells with this gene amplification have been reported to be sensitive to CDK2 inhibitors). Organoids with reduced levels of MGMT and CHFR expression were sensitive to temozolomide and taxane drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In a comprehensive integrated analysis of methylation, transcriptome, and genome profiles of more than 400 BE and EAC tissues, along with clinical data, we identified 4 subtypes that were associated with patient outcomes and potential responses to therapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Esôfago de Barrett/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Mucosa Esofágica/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Esôfago de Barrett/tratamento farmacológico , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Ciclina E/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Nat Genet ; 52(3): 306-319, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024998

RESUMO

About half of all cancers have somatic integrations of retrotransposons. Here, to characterize their role in oncogenesis, we analyzed the patterns and mechanisms of somatic retrotransposition in 2,954 cancer genomes from 38 histological cancer subtypes within the framework of the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) project. We identified 19,166 somatically acquired retrotransposition events, which affected 35% of samples and spanned a range of event types. Long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1; L1 hereafter) insertions emerged as the first most frequent type of somatic structural variation in esophageal adenocarcinoma, and the second most frequent in head-and-neck and colorectal cancers. Aberrant L1 integrations can delete megabase-scale regions of a chromosome, which sometimes leads to the removal of tumor-suppressor genes, and can induce complex translocations and large-scale duplications. Somatic retrotranspositions can also initiate breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, leading to high-level amplification of oncogenes. These observations illuminate a relevant role of L1 retrotransposition in remodeling the cancer genome, with potential implications for the development of human tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia
20.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 74-83, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907488

RESUMO

The poor outcomes in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) prompted us to interrogate the pattern and timing of metastatic spread. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 388 samples across 18 individuals with EAC showed, in 90% of patients, that multiple subclones from the primary tumor spread very rapidly from the primary site to form multiple metastases, including lymph nodes and distant tissues-a mode of dissemination that we term 'clonal diaspora'. Metastatic subclones at autopsy were present in tissue and blood samples from earlier time points. These findings have implications for our understanding and clinical evaluation of EAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Evolução Clonal , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Genômica/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/secundário , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
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