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1.
Oncologist ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861486

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: This study suggests that trametinib has significant clinical activity in non-V600 BRAF mutation and BRAF fusion metastatic melanoma, albeit in a small cohort. All patients with metastatic melanoma should undergo sequencing of the BRAF gene to identify noncanonical BRAF mutations that may indicate benefit from treatment with trametinib. BACKGROUND: Non-V600 BRAF mutations and BRAF fusions in aggregate occur in approximately 5% of all melanomas. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been implicated as a possible treatment strategy for these patients. METHODS: In this open-label, multicenter, phase II study, patients with advanced melanoma harboring mutations in BRAF outside V600 (non-V600) or BRAF fusions received trametinib 2.0 mg daily. Patients were divided into cohorts based on the intrinsic catalytic activity of BRAF mutation (high, cohort A; low/unknown, cohort B). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) for patients in cohort A; secondary endpoints included ORR in cohort B, safety, and survival in both treatment arms. RESULTS: Among all patients, the ORR was 33% (three of nine patients), including 67% in cohort A and 17% in cohort B. Two patients had stable disease as best response, and six patients had some degree of tumor shrinkage. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.3 months. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in all patients (100%); most (89%) were grade 1-2. CONCLUSION: In contrast to recently described tumor-agnostic studies in a genetically similar population, trametinib had considerable activity in a small population of patients with melanoma harboring BRAF non-V600 mutations and fusions, providing rationale for sequencing in search of these genomic alterations.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832947

RESUMO

PURPOSE: No circulating biomarkers are currently available to identify patients at highest risk of recurrence after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is overexpressed in RCC and its ectodomain circulates in plasma. We investigated whether plasma KIM-1 is a prognostic biomarker in patients with localized RCC after nephrectomy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The ECOG-ACRIN E2805 (ASSURE) trial evaluated adjuvant sunitinib, sorafenib, or placebo in resected high-risk RCC. KIM-1 levels were measured from banked plasma at trial enrollment 4-12 weeks post-nephrectomy. Lognormal accelerated failure time (AFT) models were used to test for association between KIM-1 and disease-free survival (DFS) as well as overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Plasma from 418 patients was analyzed. Higher post-nephrectomy KIM-1 was associated with worse DFS across all study arms after adjustment for Fuhrman grade, T-stage, N-stage, and tumor histology (survival time ratio 0.56 for 75th vs 25th percentile of KIM-1, 95% CI 0.42-0.73, p < 0.001). The association between KIM-1 and DFS was stronger among patients with pathologic nodal involvement (p-value for interaction 0.0086). The addition of post-nephrectomy KIM-1 improved the concordance of clinical prognostic models (SSIGN concordance 0.57 vs 0.43, p = 0.05; UISS concordance 0.60 vs 0.40, p = 0.0005). Higher post-nephrectomy KIM-1 was also associated with worse overall survival (OS) after multivariable adjustment (survival time ratio 0.71 for 75th vs 25th percentile of KIM-1, 95% CI 0.56-0.91, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Post-nephrectomy plasma KIM-1 is associated with DFS and OS in RCC, and may be a biomarker for microscopic residual disease.

3.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk stratification for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) relies heavily on retrospective models, limiting their generalizability to contemporary cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To introduce a contemporary RCC prognostic model, developed using prospective, highly annotated data from a phase III adjuvant trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The model utilizes outcome data from the ECOG-ACRIN 2805 (ASSURE) RCC trial. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary outcome for the model is disease-free survival (DFS), with overall survival (OS) and early disease progression (EDP) as secondary outcomes. Model performance was assessed using discrimination and calibration tests. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 1735 patients were included in the analysis, with 887 DFS events occurring over a median follow-up of 9.6 yr. Five common tumor variables (histology, size, grade, tumor necrosis, and nodal involvement) were included in each model. Tumor histology was the single most powerful predictor for each model outcome. The C-statistics at 1 yr were 78.4% and 81.9% for DFS and OS, respectively. Degradation of the DFS, DFS validation set, and OS model's discriminatory ability was seen over time, with a global c-index of 68.0% (95% confidence interval or CI [65.5, 70.4]), 68.6% [65.1%, 72.2%], and 69.4% (95% CI [66.9%, 71.9%], respectively. The EDP model had a c-index of 75.1% (95% CI [71.3, 79.0]). CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a contemporary RCC recurrence model built and internally validated using prospective and highly annotated data from a clinical trial. Performance characteristics of the current model exceed available prognostic models with the added benefit of being histology inclusive and TNM agnostic. PATIENT SUMMARY: Important decisions, including treatment protocols, clinical trial eligibility, and life planning, rest on our ability to predict cancer outcomes accurately. Here, we introduce a contemporary renal cell carcinoma prognostic model leveraging high-quality data from a clinical trial. The current model predicts three outcome measures commonly utilized in clinical practice and exceeds the predictive ability of available prognostic models.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(3): 370-380, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma lacks validated blood-based biomarkers for monitoring and predicting treatment efficacy. Cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker; however, various detection methods have been used, and, to date, no large studies have examined the association between serial changes in ctDNA and survival after BRAF, MEK, or BRAF plus MEK inhibitor therapy. We aimed to evaluate whether baseline ctDNA concentrations and kinetics could predict survival outcomes. METHODS: In this clinical validation study, we used analytically validated droplet digital PCR assays to measure BRAFV600-mutant ctDNA in pretreatment and on-treatment plasma samples from patients aged 18 years or older enrolled in two clinical trials. COMBI-d (NCT01584648) was a double-blind, randomised phase 3 study of dabrafenib plus trametinib versus dabrafenib plus placebo in previously untreated patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. COMBI-MB (NCT02039947) was an open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 study evaluating dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma and brain metastases. Patients in cohort A of COMBI-MB had asymptomatic brain metastases, no previous local brain-directed therapy, and an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Biomarker analysis was a prespecified exploratory endpoint in both trials and performed in the intention-to-treat populations in COMBI-d and COMBI-MB. We investigated the association between mutant copy number (baseline or week 4 or zero conversion status) and efficacy endpoints (progression-free survival, overall survival, and best overall response). We used Cox models, Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests to explore the association of pretreatment ctDNA concentrations with progression-free survival and overall survival. The effect of additional prognostic variables such as lactate dehydrogenase was also investigated in addition to the mutant copy number. FINDINGS: In COMBI-d, pretreatment plasma samples were available from 345 (82%) of 423 patients and on-treatment (week 4) plasma samples were available from 224 (53%) of 423 patients. In cohort A of COMBI-MB, pretreatment and on-treatment samples were available from 38 (50%) of 76 patients with intracranial and extracranial metastatic melanoma. ctDNA was detected in pretreatment samples from 320 (93%) of 345 patients (COMBI-d) and 34 (89%) of 38 patients (COMBI-MB). When assessed as a continuous variable, elevated baseline BRAFV600 mutation-positive ctDNA concentration was associated with worse overall survival outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 1·13 [95% CI 1·09-1·18], p<0·0001 by univariate analysis), independent of treatment group and baseline lactate dehydrogenase concentrations (1·08 [1·03-1·13], p=0·0020), in COMBI-d. A ctDNA cutoff point of 64 copies per mL of plasma stratified patients enrolled in COMBI-d as high risk or low risk with respect to survival outcomes (HR 1·74 [95% CI 1·37-2·21], p<0·0001 for progression-free survival; 2·23 [1·73-2·87], p<0·0001 for overall survival) and was validated in the COMBI-MB cohort (3·20 [1·39-7·34], p=0·0047 for progression-free survival; 2·94 [1·18-7·32], p=0·016 for overall survival). In COMBI-d, undetectable ctDNA at week 4 was significantly associated with extended progression-free and overall survival, particularly in patients with elevated lactate dehydrogenase concentrations (HR 1·99 [95% CI 1·08-3·64], p=0·027 for progression-free survival; 2·38 [1·24-4·54], p=0·0089 for overall survival). INTERPRETATION: Pretreatment and on-treatment BRAFV600-mutant ctDNA measurements could serve as independent, predictive biomarkers of clinical outcome with targeted therapy. FUNDING: Novartis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(581)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597266

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), can deliver durable antitumor effects, most patients with cancer fail to respond. Recent studies suggest that ICI efficacy correlates with a higher load of tumor-specific neoantigens and development of vitiligo in patients with melanoma. Here, we report that patients with low melanoma neoantigen burdens who responded to ICI had tumors with higher expression of pigmentation-related genes. Moreover, expansion of peripheral blood CD8+ T cell populations specific for melanocyte antigens was observed only in patients who responded to anti-PD-1 therapy, suggesting that ICI can promote breakdown of tolerance toward tumor-lineage self-antigens. In a mouse model of poorly immunogenic melanomas, spreading of epitope recognition toward wild-type melanocyte antigens was associated with markedly improved anti-PD-1 efficacy in two independent approaches: introduction of neoantigens by ultraviolet (UV) B radiation mutagenesis or the therapeutic combination of ablative fractional photothermolysis plus imiquimod. Complete responses against UV mutation-bearing tumors after anti-PD-1 resulted in protection from subsequent engraftment of melanomas lacking any shared neoantigens, as well as pancreatic adenocarcinomas forcibly overexpressing melanocyte-lineage antigens. Our data demonstrate that somatic mutations are sufficient to provoke strong antitumor responses after checkpoint blockade, but long-term responses are not restricted to these putative neoantigens. Epitope spreading toward T cell recognition of wild-type tumor-lineage self-antigens represents a common pathway for successful response to ICI, which can be evoked in neoantigen-deficient tumors by combination therapy with ablative fractional photothermolysis and imiquimod.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that downstream inhibition with an MEK inhibitor, such as binimetinib, might be efficacious for NRAS-mutated cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled in the NCI-MATCH trial master protocol underwent tumor biopsy and molecular profiling by targeted next-generation sequencing. Patients with NRAS-mutated tumors, except melanoma, were enrolled in subprotocol Z1A, a single-arm study evaluating binimetinib 45 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A post hoc analysis examined the association of NRAS mutation type with outcome. RESULTS: In total, 47 eligible patients with a refractory solid tumor harboring a codon 12, 13, or 61 NRAS mutation were treated. Observed toxicity was moderate, and 30% of patients discontinued treatment because of binimetinib-associated toxicity. The ORR was 2.1% (1/47 patients). A patient with malignant ameloblastoma harboring a codon 61 NRAS mutation achieved a durable partial response (PR). A patient with NRAS codon 61-mutated colorectal cancer had an unconfirmed PR, and two other patients with NRAS codon 61-mutated colorectal had stable disease for at least 12 months. In an exploratory analysis, patients with colorectal cancer bearing a NRAS codon 61 mutation (n = 8) had a significantly longer OS (P = 0.03) and PFS (P = 0.007) than those with codon 12 or 13 mutations (n = 16). CONCLUSIONS: Single-agent binimetinib did not show promising efficacy in NRAS-mutated cancers. The observation of increased OS and PFS in patients with codon 61 NRAS-mutated colorectal cancer merits further investigation.

7.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2000673, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492980

RESUMO

The multidisciplinary team is the primary means for delivery of complex cancer care in the United States. Considerable variability exists in how multidisciplinary teams operate across the landscape of oncology, including variation in represented specialties and specifics of the shared medical decision-making process. Here, we describe operations of a multidisciplinary clinic focused on the management of nonmelanoma skin cancer, formed as a joint effort between departments at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. We describe deployment of a flexible Web-based operational tool created on the Research Electronic Data Capture platform to facilitate provider coordination and tracking and visualization of the patient census, offering a new perspective on optimization of the multidisciplinary workflow. To help promote further discussion, we have made the data dictionary for the operational tool and R code for the accompanying data visualization dashboard freely available online for download and customization.

8.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 17, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies carried out in vitro and in a mouse model have shown that BRAF inhibitors enhance the effects of IFN-α on BRAFV600E melanoma cells through the inhibition of ERK. Therefore, the combination of vemurafenib and IFN-α in patients with BRAFV600E melanoma may provide therapeutic benefits; MEK inhibition may prevent the reactivation of the MAPK pathway induced by BRAF inhibitor resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a phase I study, adult patients with advanced BRAFV600-mutated melanoma were treated with vemurafenib + PEG-IFN-α-2b or vemurafenib + cobimetinib + PEG-IFN-α-2b, to assess the safety of the combination and the upregulation of IFN-α/ß receptor-1 (IFNAR1). RESULTS: Eight patients were treated; 59 adverse events with four serious ones (three related to study treatments) were reported. Patients with a pre-treatment IFNAR1 expression on ≤ 35% melanoma cells had a median progression-free survival of 12.0 months (range: 5.6-18.4 months) and a median overall survival of 31.0 months (range: 19.8-42.2 months), while patients with a pre-treatment IFNAR1 expression on > 35% of melanoma cells had a median progression-free survival of 4.0 months (range: 0-8.8; p = 0.03), and a median overall survival of 5 months (p = 0.02). Following treatment, responders had higher levels of growth-suppressor genes, including GAS1 and DUSP1, and genes involved in a metabolically robust immune response, including FAP. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the overall safety of the vemurafenib + PEG-IFN-α-2b + cobimetinib combination. IFNAR1 expression levels correlated with response to treatment, including survival. Vemurafenib + PEG-IFN-α-2b + cobimetinib would have difficulty finding a niche in the current treatment scenario for advanced melanoma, but we speculate that our findings may contribute to identify subjects particularly responsive to treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01959633). Registered 10 October 2013, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01959633.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414132

RESUMO

Five years ago, the Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) conducted an assessment of the challenges and opportunities facing the melanoma research community and patients with melanoma. Since then, remarkable progress has been made on both the basic and clinical research fronts. However, the incidence, recurrence, and death rates for melanoma remain unacceptably high and significant challenges remain. Hence, the MRF Scientific Advisory Council and Breakthrough Consortium, a group that includes clinicians and scientists, reconvened to facilitate intensive discussions on thematic areas essential to melanoma researchers and patients alike, prevention, detection, diagnosis, metastatic dormancy and progression, response and resistance to targeted and immune-based therapy, and the clinical consequences of COVID-19 for patients with melanoma and providers. These extensive discussions helped to crystalize our understanding of the challenges and opportunities facing the broader melanoma community today. In this report, we discuss the progress made since the last MRF assessment, comment on what remains to be overcome, and offer recommendations for the best path forward.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(2): 271-278, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377972

RESUMO

Importance: In the National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial, agents targeting genetic tumor abnormalities are administered to patients. In the NCI-MATCH subprotocol EAY131-Y trial, patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated metastatic tumor received the pan-AKT inhibitor capivasertib. Objective: To assess the objective response rate (ORR) of capivasertib in patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated tumor. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between July 13, 2016, and August 10, 2017, patients in the NCI-MATCH trial were enrolled and assigned to the subprotocol EAY131-Y nonrandomized trial. Patients included adults with an AKT1 E17K-mutated metastatic tumor that had progressed with standard treatment, and these patients were assigned to receive capivasertib. Tumor assessments were repeated every 2 cycles. Data analysis of this evaluable population was performed from November 8, 2019, to March 12, 2020. Interventions: The study treatment was capivasertib, 480 mg, orally twice daily for 4 days on and 3 days off weekly in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effect. If patients continued hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer, the capivasertib dose was 400 mg. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the ORR (ie, complete response [CR] and partial response) according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria, version 1.1. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS, overall survival, and safety. Results: In total, 35 evaluable and analyzable patients were included, of whom 30 were women (86%), and the median (range) age was 61 (32-73) years. The most prevalent cancers were breast (18 [51%]), including 15 patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive/ERBB2-negative and 3 with triple-negative disease, and gynecologic (11 [31%]) cancers. The ORR rate was 28.6% (95% CI, 15%-46%). One patient with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma achieved a CR and remained on therapy at 35.6 months. Patients with confirmed partial response had the following tumor types: 7 had HR-positive/ERBB2-negative breast cancer, 1 had uterine leiomyosarcoma, and 1 had oncocytic parotid gland carcinoma and continued receiving treatment at 28.8 months. Sixteen patients (46%) had stable disease as the best response, 2 (6%) had progressive disease, and 7 (20%) were not evaluable. With a median follow-up of 28.4 months, the overall 6-month PFS rate was 50% (95% CI, 35%-71%). Capivasertib was discontinued because of adverse events in 11 of 35 patients (31%). Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events included hyperglycemia (8 [23%]) and rash (4 [11%]). One grade 4 hyperglycemic adverse event was reported. Conclusions and Relevance: This nonrandomized trial found that, in patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated tumor treated with capivasertib, a clinically significant ORR was achieved, including 1 CR. Clinically meaningful activity with single-agent capivasertib was demonstrated in refractory malignant neoplasms, including rare cancers. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00700882.

11.
Sci Adv ; 6(46)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188016

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) show promise, but most patients do not respond. We identify and validate biomarkers from extracellular vesicles (EVs), allowing non-invasive monitoring of tumor- intrinsic and host immune status, as well as a prediction of ICI response. We undertook transcriptomic profiling of plasma-derived EVs and tumors from 50 patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ICI, and validated with an independent EV-only cohort of 30 patients. Plasma-derived EV and tumor transcriptomes correlate. EV profiles reveal drivers of ICI resistance and melanoma progression, exhibit differentially expressed genes/pathways, and correlate with clinical response to ICI. We created a Bayesian probabilistic deconvolution model to estimate contributions from tumor and non-tumor sources, enabling interpretation of differentially expressed genes/pathways. EV RNA-seq mutations also segregated ICI response. EVs serve as a non-invasive biomarker to jointly probe tumor-intrinsic and immune changes to ICI, function as predictive markers of ICI responsiveness, and monitor tumor persistence and immune activation.

12.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 20(12): 757, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046838

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

13.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1557-1563, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020648

RESUMO

Immune and targeted therapies achieve long-term survival in metastatic melanoma; however, new treatment strategies are needed to improve patients' outcomes1,2. We report on the efficacy, safety and biomarker analysis from the single-arm safety run-in (part 1; n = 9) and biomarker (part 2; n = 27) cohorts of the randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 COMBI-i trial (NCT02967692) of the anti-PD-1 antibody spartalizumab, in combination with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib. Patients (n = 36) had previously untreated BRAF V600-mutant unresectable or metastatic melanoma. In part 1, the recommended phase 3 regimen was identified based on the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs; primary endpoint): 400 mg of spartalizumab every 4 weeks plus 150 mg of dabrafenib twice daily plus 2 mg of trametinib once daily. Part 2 characterized changes in PD-L1 levels and CD8+ cells following treatment (primary endpoint), and analyzed additional biomarkers. Assessments of efficacy and safety were key secondary endpoints (median follow-up, 24.3 months). Spartalizumab plus dabrafenib and trametinib led to an objective response rate (ORR) of 78%, including 44% complete responses (CRs). Grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were experienced by 72% of patients. All patients had temporary dose modifications, and 17% permanently discontinued all three study drugs due to TRAEs. Early progression-free survival (PFS) events were associated with low tumor mutational burden/T cell-inflamed gene expression signature (GES) or high immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) GES levels at baseline; an immunosuppressive TME may also preclude CR. Overall, the efficacy, safety and on-treatment biomarker modulations associated with spartalizumab plus dabrafenib and trametinib are promising, and biomarkers that may predict long-term benefit were identified.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(33): 3883-3894, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Therapeutically actionable molecular alterations are widely distributed across cancer types. The National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial was designed to evaluate targeted therapy antitumor activity in underexplored cancer types. Tumor biopsy specimens were analyzed centrally with next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a master screening protocol. Patients with a tumor molecular alteration addressed by a targeted treatment lacking established efficacy in that tumor type were assigned to 1 of 30 treatments in parallel, single-arm, phase II subprotocols. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor biopsy specimens from 5,954 patients with refractory malignancies at 1,117 accrual sites were analyzed centrally with NGS and selected immunohistochemistry in a master screening protocol. The treatment-assignment rate to treatment arms was assessed. Molecular alterations in seven tumors profiled in both NCI-MATCH trial and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of primary tumors were compared. RESULTS: Molecular profiling was successful in 93.0% of specimens. An actionable alteration was found in 37.6%. After applying clinical and molecular exclusion criteria, 17.8% were assigned (26.4% could have been assigned if all subprotocols were available simultaneously). Eleven subprotocols reached their accrual goal as of this report. Actionability rates differed among histologies (eg, > 35% for urothelial cancers and < 6% for pancreatic and small-cell lung cancer). Multiple actionable or resistance-conferring tumor mutations were seen in 11.9% and 71.3% of specimens, respectively. Known resistance mutations to targeted therapies were numerically more frequent in NCI-MATCH than TCGA tumors, but not markedly so. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated feasibility of screening large numbers of patients at numerous accruing sites in a complex trial to test investigational therapies for moderately frequent molecular targets. Co-occurring resistance mutations were common and endorse investigation of combination targeted-therapy regimens.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5493, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127906

RESUMO

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and risk of disease progression remains largely undefined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load from participants with a diverse range of COVID-19 disease severity, including those requiring hospitalization, outpatients with mild disease, and individuals with resolved infection. We detected SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNA in 27% of hospitalized participants, and 13% of outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. Amongst the participants hospitalized with COVID-19, we report that a higher prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 plasma viral load is associated with worse respiratory disease severity, lower absolute lymphocyte counts, and increased markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein and IL-6. SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, especially plasma viremia, are associated with increased risk of mortality. Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 viral loads may aid in the risk stratification of patients with COVID-19, and therefore its role in disease pathogenesis should be further explored.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/virologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/virologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3946, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770055

RESUMO

Melanomas can switch to a dedifferentiated cell state upon exposure to cytotoxic T cells. However, it is unclear whether such tumor cells pre-exist in patients and whether they can be resensitized to immunotherapy. Here, we chronically expose (patient-derived) melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observe strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population. These fractions are refractory also to T cells recognizing non-differentiation antigens, as well as to BRAF + MEK inhibitors. NGFRhi cells induce the neurotrophic factor BDNF, which contributes to T cell resistance, as does NGFR. In melanoma patients, a tumor-intrinsic NGFR signature predicts anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, and NGFRhi tumor fractions are associated with immune exclusion. Lastly, pharmacologic NGFR inhibition restores tumor sensitivity to T cell attack in vitro and in melanoma xenografts. These findings demonstrate the existence of a stable and pre-existing NGFRhi multitherapy-refractory melanoma subpopulation, which ought to be eliminated to revert intrinsic resistance to immunotherapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 294, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to identify patient subgroups with distinct postprogression overall survival (ppOS) outcomes and investigate the impact of original treatment assignment and initial postprogression treatment (ppRx) on ppOS. METHODS: Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was performed to model relationships between prespecified covariates and ppOS in patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma who had experienced progressive disease (PD) following treatment with cobimetinib plus vemurafenib, vemurafenib monotherapy, or dacarbazine in the BRIM-2, BRIM-3, BRIM-7, and coBRIM studies. Prognostic subgroups identified by RPA were then applied to pooled treatment cohorts. The primary endpoint was ppOS, defined as time from first PD to death from any cause. RESULTS: RPA identified baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), baseline disease stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status at PD, and ppRx as significant prognostic factors for ppOS. Median ppOS was longest in patients with normal baseline LDH, stage M1c disease at baseline, and ppRx with immunotherapy or targeted therapy (12.2 months; 95% CI 10.3-16.1) and shortest in those with elevated baseline LDH > 2 × upper limit of normal (2.3 months; 95% CI 1.8-2.7). Original treatment assignment did not impact ppOS. Across treatment cohorts, patients treated with immunotherapy or targeted therapy after PD had better ppOS than those given other treatments. CONCLUSION: A combination of factors at baseline (LDH, disease stage) and PD (performance status, ppRx) impact ppOS outcomes. ppRx with immunotherapy or targeted therapy is an independent prognostic factor for improved overall survival following progression regardless of original treatment. Trial registration The trials included in this analysis are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00949702 (BRIM-2), NCT01006980 (BRIM-3), NCT01271803 (BRIM-7), and NCT01689519 (coBRIM).

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(33): 3895-3904, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRAFV600 mutations are commonly found in melanoma and thyroid cancers and to a lesser degree in other tumor types. Subprotocol H (EAY131-H) of the NCI-MATCH platform trial sought to investigate the selective BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with solid tumors, lymphomas, or multiple myeloma whose tumors harbored a BRAFV600 mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: EAY131-H is an open-label, single-arm study. Patients with melanoma, thyroid, or colorectal cancer were excluded; patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were later excluded in an amendment. Patients received dabrafenib 150 mg twice per day and trametinib 2 mg per day continuously until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary end point was centrally assessed objective response rate (ORR); secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS, and overall survival. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were enrolled, and 29 were included in the primary efficacy analysis as prespecified in the protocol. Median age was 59 years, and 45% of the patients had received ≥ 3 lines of therapy. The confirmed ORR was 38% (90% CI, 22.9% to 54.9%) with P < .0001 against a null rate of 5%, and PFS was 11.4 months (90% CI, 8.4 to 16.3 months); responses were seen in 7 distinct tumor types. Seven patients had a duration of response of > 12 months, including 4 patients with a duration of response of > 24 months. An additional 8 patients had a PFS > 6 months. The median overall survival was 28.6 months. Reported adverse events were comparable to those noted in previously reported profiles of dabrafenib and trametinib. CONCLUSION: This study met its primary end point, with an ORR of 38% (P < .0001) in this mixed histology, pretreated cohort. This promising activity warrants additional investigations in BRAFV600-mutated tumors outside of currently approved indications.

19.
Cancer Discov ; 10(9): 1282-1295, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499221

RESUMO

Older patients with melanoma (>50 years old) have poorer prognoses and response rates to targeted therapy compared with young patients (<50 years old), which can be driven, in part, by the aged microenvironment. Here, we show that aged dermal fibroblasts increase the secretion of neutral lipids, especially ceramides. When melanoma cells are exposed to the aged fibroblast lipid secretome, or cocultured with aged fibroblasts, they increase the uptake of lipids via the fatty acid transporter FATP2, which is upregulated in melanoma cells in the aged microenvironment and known to play roles in lipid synthesis and accumulation. We show that blocking FATP2 in melanoma cells in an aged microenvironment inhibits their accumulation of lipids and disrupts their mitochondrial metabolism. Inhibiting FATP2 overcomes age-related resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibition in animal models, ablates tumor relapse, and significantly extends survival time in older animals. SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that melanoma cells take up lipids from aged fibroblasts, via FATP2, and use them to resist targeted therapy. The response to targeted therapy is altered in aged individuals because of the influences of the aged microenvironment, and these data suggest FATP2 as a target to overcome resistance.See related commentary by Montal and White, p. 1255.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1241.

20.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 112-121, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necuparanib, a rationally engineered low-molecular-weight heparin, combined with gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel showed an encouraging safety and oncologic signal in a phase Ib trial. This randomised multicentre phase II trial evaluates the addition of necuparanib or placebo to gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel in untreated metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligibility included 18 years, histologically or cytologically confirmed metastatic PDAC, measurable disease and Eastern Co-Operative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1. Patients were randomly assigned to necuparanib (5 mg/kg subcutaneous injection once daily) or placebo (subcutaneous injection once daily) and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel on days 1, 8 and 15 of 28-day cycles. The primary end-point was median overall survival (OS), and secondary end-points included median progression-free survival, response rates and safety. RESULTS: One-hundred ten patients were randomised, 62 to necuparanib arm and 58 to placebo arm. The futility boundary was crossed at a planned interim analysis, and the study was terminated by the Data Safety Monitoring Board. The median OS was 10.71 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.95-11.96) for necuparanib arm and 9.99 months (95% CI: 7.85-12.85) for placebo arm (hazard ratio: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.66-1.89, P-value: 0.671). The necuparanib arm had a higher incidence of haematologic toxicity relative to placebo patients (83% and 70%). CONCLUSION: The addition of necuparanib to standard of care treatment for advanced PDAC did not improve OS. Safety was acceptable. No further development of necuparanib is planned although targeting the coagulation cascade pathway remains relevant in PDAC. NCT01621243.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heparitina Sulfato/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
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