Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 78
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Percept Mot Skills ; 129(1): 47-62, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913749

RESUMO

The underlying mechanism(s) of the Bilateral Deficit (BLD) phenomenon is without consensus. Methodological inconsistencies across prior works may be an important source of equivocal results and interpretations. Based on repeatability problems with the BLD measure and maximal force definition, the presence or absence of the BLD phenomenon is altered, shifting conclusions of its mechanistic cause. Our purpose in this study was to examine methodological inconsistencies in applying the BLD measure to establish optimal methods for evaluating the underlying mechanism. Eleven healthy participants engaged in one familiarity and five test sessions, completing bilateral and unilateral elbow maximal voluntary isometric contractions. We defined maximal force by averaged and absolute peak and plateau values. BLD was evident if the bilateral index (BI), the ratio of the bilateral over summed unilateral forces, was statistically different from zero. We addressed interclass correlations (ICC), Chronbach's α, standard error of the mean, and minimal detectable change between and within sessions for all force measures and BI. We evaluated all combinations of sessions (i.e., 1-2, 3-5, 5-6) and maximal forces to establish the optimal number of sessions to achieve reliability. BLD was present for test sessions, but not for familiarization. All measures of maximal force were highly reliable between and within sessions (ICC(2,1) ≥ .895). BI was only considered significantly reliable in sessions 3-5 (p < .027), defined by absolute and average plateau forces, but reliability was still quantifiably poor (absolute: ICC(2,1) = .392; average: ICC(2,1) = .375). These results demonstrate that high force reliability within and between sessions does not translate to stable and reliable BI, potentially exposing the lack of any defined BLD mechanism.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855522

RESUMO

Simulated military operational stress (SMOS) provides a useful model to better understand resilience in humans as the stress associated with caloric restriction, sleep deficits, and fatiguing exertion degrades physical and cognitive performance. Habitual physical activity may confer resilience against these stressors by promoting favorable use-dependent neuroplasticity, but it is unclear how physical activity, resilience, and corticospinal excitability (CSE) relate during SMOS. PURPOSE: To examine associations between corticospinal excitability, physical activity, and physical performance during SMOS. METHODS: Fifty-three service members (age: 26±5yrs, 13 women) completed a five day and night intervention composed of familiarization, baseline, SMOS (two nights/days), and recovery days. During SMOS, participants performed rigorous physical and cognitive activities while receiving half of normal sleep (two 2h blocks) and caloric requirements. Lower and upper limb CSE were determined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stimulus-response curves. Self-reported resilience, physical activity, military-specific physical performance (TMT) and endocrine factors were compared in individuals with high (HIGH) and low CSE based on a median split of lower limb CSE at baseline. RESULTS: HIGH had greater physical activity and better TMT performance throughout SMOS. Both groups maintained physical performance despite substantial psychophysiological stress. Physical activity, resilience, and TMT performance were directly associated with lower limb CSE. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in physical activity coincide with lower (but not upper) limb CSE. Such use-dependent corticospinal excitability directly relates to resilience and physical performance during SMOS. Future studies may use non-invasive neuromodulation to clarify the interplay among CSE, physical activity, and resilience and improve physical and cognitive performance.

4.
Sleep ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432067

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Within-subject stability of certain sleep features across multiple nights is thought to reflect the trait-like behavior of sleep. However, to be considered a trait, a parameter must be both stable and robust. Here, we examined the stability (i.e., across the same sleep opportunity periods) and robustness (i.e., across sleep opportunity periods that varied in duration and timing) of different sleep parameters. METHODS: Sixty-eight military personnel (14 W) spent 5 nights in the sleep laboratory during a simulated military operational stress protocol. After an adaptation night, participants had an 8-hour sleep opportunity (23:00-07:00) followed by 2 consecutive nights of sleep restriction and disruption which included two 2-hour sleep opportunities (01:00-03:00; 05:00-07:00) and, lastly, another 8-hour sleep opportunity (23:00-07:00). Intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to examine differences in stability and robustness across different sleep parameters. RESULTS: Sleep architecture parameters were less stable and robust than absolute and relative spectral activity parameters. Further, relative spectral activity parameters were less robust than absolute spectral activity. Absolute alpha and sigma activity demonstrated the highest levels of stability that were also robust across sleep opportunities of varying duration and timing. CONCLUSIONS: Stability and robustness varied across different sleep parameters, but absolute NREM alpha and sigma activity demonstrated robust trait-like behavior across variable sleep opportunities. Reduced stability of other sleep architecture and spectral parameters during shorter sleep episodes as well as across different sleep opportunities has important implications for study design and interpretation.

5.
J Appl Biomech ; 37(4): 343-350, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051696

RESUMO

The objective was to examine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on lower-extremity joint angles and intralimb coordination in recruit-aged women. Twelve women walked, ran, and forced marched at body weight and with loads of +25%, and +45% of body weight on an instrumented treadmill with infrared cameras. Joint angles were assessed in the sagittal plane. Intralimb coordination of the thigh-shank and shank-foot couple was assessed with continuous relative phase. Mean absolute relative phase (entire stride) and deviation phase (stance phase) were calculated from continuous relative phase. At heel strike, forced marching exhibited greater (P < .001) hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion compared with running. At mid-stance, knee flexion (P = .007) and ankle dorsiflexion (P = .04) increased with increased load magnitude for all locomotion patterns. Forced marching (P = .009) demonstrated a "stiff-legged" locomotion pattern compared with running, evidenced by the more in-phase mean absolute relative phase values. Running (P = .03) and walking (P = .003) had greater deviation phase than forced marching. Deviation phase increased for running (P = .03) and walking (P < .001) with increased load magnitude but not for forced marching. With loads of >25% of body weight, forced marching may increase risk of injury due to inhibited energy attenuation up the kinetic chain and lack of variability to disperse force across different supportive structures.


Assuntos
Marcha , Caminhada , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Extremidade Inferior
6.
Gait Posture ; 88: 22-27, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military personnel in combat roles often perform gait tasks with additional load, which can affect the contributions of joint mechanical work (positive and negative). Furthermore, different locomotion patterns can also affect joint specific work contributions. While mean behavior of joint work is important to understanding gait, changes in joint kinetic modulation, or the regulation/control of stride-to-stride joint work variability is necessary to elucidate locomotor system function. Suboptimal modulation exhibited as a stochastic time-series (large fluctuation followed by an opposite smaller fluctuation) could potentially affect locomotion efficiency and portend injury risk. It remains unclear how the locomotor system responds to a combination of load perturbations and varying locomotion patterns. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on joint positive/negative work and joint work modulation in healthy, active, recruit-aged women? METHODS: Eleven healthy, active, recruit-aged (18-33 years) women ran and forced-marched (walking at a velocity an individual would typically jog) in bodyweight (BW), an additional 25 % of BW (+25 %BW) and an additional 45 % of BW (+45 %BW) conditions at a velocity above their gait transition velocity. Joint work was calculated as the time integral of joint power. Joint work modulation was assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on consecutive joint work time-series. RESULTS: Joint work contributions shifted proximally for forced-marching demonstrated by lesser (p < .001) positive/negative ankle work but greater (p = .001) positive hip work contributions compared to running. Running exhibited optimal positive ankle work modulation compared to forced-marching (p = .040). Knee and ankle negative joint work modulation was adversely impacted compared to the hip during forced-marching (p < .001). SIGNIFICANCE: Employing forced-marching gait while under loads of 25 and 45 % of BW reduces the ability of the plantar-flexors and knee extensors to optimally contribute to energy absorption and propulsion in recruit-aged women, potentially reducing metabolic efficiency and increasing injury risk.


Assuntos
Marcha , Caminhada , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
7.
Physiol Behav ; 236: 113413, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the impact of 48 h of simulated military operational stress (SMOS) on executive function, in addition to the role of trait resilience (RES) and aerobic fitness (FIT) on executive function performance. Associations between executive function and neuropeptide-Y (NPY), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), oxytocin, and α-klotho (klotho) were assessed to elucidate potential biomarkers that may contribute to cognitive performance during a multi-factorial stress scenario. METHODS: Fifty-four service members (SM) (26.4 ± 5.4 years, 178.0 ± 6.5 cm, 85.2 ± 14.0 kg) completed the 5-day protocol, including daily physical exertion and 48 h of restricted sleep and caloric intake. Each morning subjects completed a fasted blood draw followed by Cognition, a 10-part cognitive test battery assessing executive function. SMs were grouped into tertiles [low (L-), moderate (M-), high (H-)] based on Connor Davidson Resilience Score (RES) and V˙O2peak (FIT). Repeated measures ANOVA were run to analyze the effect of day on cognitive performance and biomarker concentration. Separate two-way mixed ANOVAs were run to determine the interaction of group by day on cognitive function. Friedman test with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons were used if assumptions for ANOVA were not met. Associations between changes in biomarkers and cognitive performance were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric correlation coefficients. RESULTS: SMOS reduced SM vigilance -11.3% (p < 0.001) and working memory -5.6% (p = 0.015), and increased risk propensity +9.5% (p = 0.005). H-RES and H-FIT SMs demonstrated stable vigilance across SMOS (p > 0.05). Vigilance was compromised during SMOS in L- and M-RES (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively) as well as L- and M-FIT (p = 0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). SMOS reduced circulating concentrations of α-klotho -7.2% (p = 0.004), NPY -6.4% (p = 0.001), and IGF-I -8.1% (p < 0.001) from baseline through the end of the protocol. BDNF declined -19.2% after the onset of sleep and caloric restriction (p = 0.005) with subsequent recovery within 48 h. Oxytocin remained stable (p > 0.05). Several modest associations between neuroendocrine biomarkers and cognitive performance were identified. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates H-FIT and H-RES may buffer the impact of SMOS on vigilance. SMOS negatively impacted circulating neuroendocrine biomarkers. While BDNF returned to baseline concentrations by the end of the 5 d protocol, NPY, IGF-I, and α-klotho may require a longer recovery period. These data suggest that the military may benefit by training and/or selection processes targeting at augmenting trait resilience and aerobic fitness for increased readiness.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Militares , Biomarcadores , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Aptidão Física
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of a personal trainer's sex on self-efficacy and fitness in woman clients. METHODS: Women (n: 28; mean ± SD; age, 41.6 ± 15.0 yrs.; height, 153.49 ± 28.11cm; BMI, 25.9 ± 6.4 kg•m-2) completed a perceptual scale of self-efficacy (BARSE) and fitness tests before and after a training program. Trainers (men and women) met one-on-one with the volunteers on a biweekly basis for 8 weeks. Univariate analyses of change scores and repeated measures analysis of variance with Fisher's LSD pairwise comparisons tested changes in dependent variables by trainer sex. RESULTS: Significant increases were seen in (mean ± SE; change for men trainers; change for woman trainers): self-efficacy (7.3 ± 3.4; 7.3 ± 2.7%); leg press strength (18.2 ± 3.7; 16.4 ± 3.3 kg); seated row (6.1 ± 1.5; 5.3 ± 1.3 kg); muscular endurance in 60° flexion hold (20.5 ± 5.8; 24.8 ± 5.0 sec) and wall-sit (19.9 ± 6.4; 33.5 ± 5.8 sec); but not flexibility (V-sit, 7.11 ± 5.51; 4.23 ± 4.50 cm). Chest press strength significantly increased for women trainers only (2.7 ± 2.2; 5.3 ± 1.8 kg). Despite this, there were no significant differences for any variable in the change from pre-to-post based on the sex of the trainer. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and woman-led training was effective for increasing markers of self-efficacy and fitness in woman clients.

10.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 36(5): E345-E354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the extant literature on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in military service members and veterans using network analysis based on a comprehensive search of original, peer-reviewed research articles involving human participants published between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Specifically, we employed network analysis to evaluate associations in the following areas: (1) peer-reviewed journals, (2) authors, (3) organizations/institutions, and (4) relevant key words. PARTICIPANTS: Included studies were published in peer-reviewed journals available on Web of Science database, using US military service members or veterans. DESIGN: Bibliometric network analytical review. MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes for each analysis included number of articles, citations, total link strength, and clusters. RESULTS: The top publishing journals were (1) Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, (2) Military Medicine, (3) Brain Injury, (4) Journal of Neurotrauma, and (5) Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. The top publishing authors were (1) French, (2) Lange, (3) Cooper, (4) Vanderploeg, and (5) Brickell. The top research institutions were (1) Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, (2) Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, (3) University of California San Diego, (4) Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and (5) Boston University. The top co-occurring key words in this analysis were (1) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (2) persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS), (3) blast injury, (4) postconcussion syndrome (PCS), and (5) Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this network analysis indicate a clear focus on veteran health, as well as investigations on chronic effects of mTBI. Research in civilian mTBI indicates that delaying treatment for symptoms and impairments related to mTBI may not be the most precise treatment strategy. Increasing the number of early, active, and targeted treatment trials in military personnel could translate to meaningful improvements in clinical practices for managing mTBI in this population.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Militares , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Humanos
11.
J Neurophysiol ; 125(4): 1006-1021, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596734

RESUMO

Traumatic musculoskeletal injury (MSI) may involve changes in corticomotor structure and function, but direct evidence is needed. To determine the corticomotor basis of MSI, we examined interactions among skeletomotor function, corticospinal excitability, corticomotor structure (cortical thickness and white matter microstructure), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS)-induced plasticity. Nine women with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL) 3.2 ± 1.1 yr prior to the study and 11 matched controls (CON) completed an MRI session followed by an offline plasticity-probing protocol using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study design. iTBS was applied to the injured (ACL) or nondominant (CON) motor cortex leg representation (M1LEG) with plasticity assessed based on changes in skeletomotor function and corticospinal excitability compared with sham iTBS. The results showed persistent loss of function in the injured quadriceps, compensatory adaptations in the uninjured quadriceps and both hamstrings, and injury-specific increases in corticospinal excitability. Injury was associated with lateralized reductions in paracentral lobule thickness, greater centrality of nonleg corticomotor regions, and increased primary somatosensory cortex leg area inefficiency and eccentricity. Individual responses to iTBS were consistent with the principles of homeostatic metaplasticity; corresponded to injury-related differences in skeletomotor function, corticospinal excitability, and corticomotor structure; and suggested that corticomotor adaptations involve both hemispheres. Moreover, iTBS normalized skeletomotor function and corticospinal excitability in ACL. The results of this investigation directly confirm corticomotor involvement in chronic loss of function after traumatic MSI, emphasize the sensitivity of the corticomotor system to skeletomotor events and behaviors, and raise the possibility that brain-targeted therapies could improve recovery.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Traumatic musculoskeletal injuries may involve adaptive changes in the brain that contribute to loss of function. Our combination of neuroimaging and theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) revealed distinct patterns of iTBS-induced plasticity that normalized differences in muscle and brain function evident years after unilateral knee ligament rupture. Individual responses to iTBS corresponded to injury-specific differences in brain structure and physiological activity, depended on skeletomotor deficit severity, and suggested that corticomotor adaptations involve both hemispheres.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Tratos Piramidais/fisiopatologia , Músculo Quadríceps/lesões , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ruptura/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543307

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Research into sport-related concussion (SRC) has grown substantially over the past decade, yet no authors to date have synthesized developments over this critical time period. OBJECTIVE: To apply a network-analysis approach in evaluating trends in the SRC literature using a comprehensive search of original, peer-reviewed research articles involving human participants published between January 1, 2010, and December 15, 2019. DESIGN: Narrative review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Bibliometric maps were derived from a comprehensive search of all published, peer-reviewed SRC articles in the Web of Science database. A clustering algorithm was used to evaluate associations among journals, organizations or institutions, authors, and key words. The online search yielded 6130 articles, 528 journals, 7598 authors, 1966 organizations, and 3293 key words. RESULTS: The analysis supported 5 thematic clusters of journals: (1) biomechanics/sports medicine (n = 15), (2) pediatrics/rehabilitation (n = 15), (3) neurotrauma/neurology/neurosurgery (n = 11), (4) general sports medicine (n = 11), and (5) neuropsychology (n = 7). The analysis identified 4 organizational clusters of hub institutions: (1) University of North Carolina (n = 19), (2) University of Toronto (n = 19), (3) University of Michigan (n = 11), and (4) University of Pittsburgh (n = 10). Network analysis revealed 8 clusters for SRC key words, each with a central topic area: (1) epidemiology (n = 14), (2) rehabilitation (n = 12), (3) biomechanics (n = 11), (4) imaging (n = 10), (5) assessment (n = 9), (6) mental health/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (n = 9), (7) neurocognition (n = 8), and (8) symptoms/impairments (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that during the past decade SRC research has (1) been published primarily in sports medicine, pediatric, and neuro-focused journals, (2) involved a select group of researchers from several key institutions, and (3) concentrated on new topical areas, including treatment or rehabilitation and mental health.

13.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(1): 36-44, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013782

RESUMO

Perceptual-motor coordination relies on the accurate coupling of the perceptual and movement systems. However, individuals must also be able to recalibrate to perturbations to perceptual and movement capabilities. We examined the effects of fatigue and load carriage on perceptual-motor coordination for a maximal leaping task. 23 participants completed an incremental fatigue protocol (light to fatiguing intensity stages) on two separate occasions (loaded/unloaded). At baseline and the end of every stage of the protocol, participants made perceptual judgments for the affordance of leaping. The accuracy of responses and reaction times were calculated and mean differences were assessed across exercise intensity and load carriage conditions. No interaction of exercise intensity and load carriage was detected, or main effect of load carriage. A main, quadratic effect of exercise intensity was detected on reaction times, with times decreasing through the moderate stage and increasing through post-fatigue. No effect of exercise/fatigue was detected on perceptual accuracy. The results indicate that exercise at high intensities through fatigue has a significant effect on perceptual-motor calibration. Contrastingly, in response to an action-scaled task, individuals can adequately recalibrate to increased load carriage.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Tempo de Reação , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 582219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042981

RESUMO

Introduction: During cyclical steady state ambulation, such as walking, variability in stride intervals can indicate the state of the system. In order to define locomotor system function, observed variability in motor patterns, stride regulation and gait complexity must be assessed in the presence of a perturbation. Common perturbations, especially for military populations, are load carriage and an imposed locomotion pattern known as forced marching (FM). We examined the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on motor variability, stride regulation and gait complexity during bipedal ambulation in recruit-aged females. Methods: Eleven healthy physically active females (18-30 years) completed 1-min trials of running and FM at three load conditions: no additional weight/bodyweight (BW), an additional 25% of BW (BW + 25%), and an additional 45% of BW (BW + 45%). A goal equivalent manifold (GEM) approach was used to assess motor variability yielding relative variability (RV; ratio of "good" to "bad" variability) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine gait complexity on stride length (SL) and stride time (ST) parameters. DFA was also used on GEM outcomes to calculate stride regulation. Results: There was a main effect of load (p = 0.01) on RV; as load increased, RV decreased. There was a main effect of locomotion (p = 0.01), with FM exhibiting greater RV than running. Strides were regulated more tightly and corrected quicker at BW + 45% compared (p < 0.05) to BW. Stride regulation was greater for FM compared to running. There was a main effect of load for gait complexity (p = 0.002); as load increased gait complexity decreased, likewise FM had less (p = 0.02) gait complexity than running. Discussion: This study is the first to employ a GEM approach and a complexity analysis to gait tasks under load carriage. Reduction in "good" variability as load increases potentially exposes anatomical structures to repetitive site-specific loading. Furthermore, load carriage magnitudes of BW + 45% potentially destabilize the system making individuals less adaptable to additional perturbations. This is further evidenced by the decrease in gait complexity, which all participants demonstrated values similarly observed in neurologically impaired populations during the BW + 45% load condition.

15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(10): 2743-2750, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956262

RESUMO

Krajewski, KT, Bansbach, HM, McLean, L, McKenzie, C, Rawcliffe, A, Graham, SM, Flanagan, SD, Pourmoghaddam, A, Dettmer, M, and Connaboy, C. Effects of short-term unilateral strength training on measures of postural control when wearing "operationally relevant" backpack loads. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2743-2750, 2020-To examine the effects of "operationally relevant" loads on postural stability and to determine the effects of unilateral and bilateral strength training programs on postural stability in healthy, recruit-aged men. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (UL; n = 7) or bilateral (BL; n = 8) strength training group, which performed strength training 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects completed the following pretest and post-test assessments: 1 repetition maximum in bilateral (1RM-BL) and unilateral (1RM-UL) stance positions and bilateral and unilateral balance tasks with eyes open and eyes closed. Balance tasks were performed over 3 loading conditions: body mass (BM), 50% BM, and 70% BM. Sample entropy (SE) and root mean square (RMS) were calculated from the center of pressures collected during each balance assessment. The UL strength training group showed significant improvement after training in both 1RM-UL (p < 0.01) and 1RM-BL (p < 0.01). The BL strength training group only showed significant improvement in 1RM-BL (p = 0.01). There was a significant main effect of load on RMS (p < 0.05) across all balance tasks with RMS increasing with increasing load. Sample entropy was found to decrease with increasing load in the unilateral eyes open and bilateral stance tasks. Significant increases in strength (∼10 to -29%) were observed; however, increased strength alone is not enough to mitigate the effects of load carriage on the postural control, even when training is performed in stance positions that are posturally challenging. Therefore, "operationally relevant" loads negatively impact postural stability in novice load carriers when assessing nonlinear measures.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569125

RESUMO

Beckner, ME, Pihoker, AA, Darnell, ME, Beals, K, Lovalekar, M, Proessl, F, Flanagan, SD, Arciero, PJ, Nindl, BC, and Martin, BJ. Effects of multi-ingredient preworkout supplements on physical performance, cognitive performance, mood state, and hormone concentrations in recreationally active men and women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Performance enhancement supplement research has primarily focused on the effectiveness of individual ingredients, rather than the combination. This study investigated the acute effects of 2 multi-ingredient preworkout supplements (MIPS), with beta-alanine and caffeine (BAC) and without (NBAC), compared with placebo (PLA) on anaerobic performance, endurance capacity, mood state, cognitive function, vascular function, and anabolic hormones. Thirty exercise-trained individuals (24.4 ± 4.9 years, 15 men and 15 women) completed a fatiguing exercise protocol on 3 separate occasions, 30 minutes after ingestion of BAC, NBAC, or PLA. Outcomes were analyzed using one-way or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, as appropriate (alpha = 0.05). Anaerobic power was greater when supplementing with NBAC (10.7 ± 1.2 W·kg) and BAC (10.8 ± 1.4 W·kg) compared with PLA (10.4 ± 1.2 W·kg) (p = 0.014 and p = 0.022, respectively). BAC improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak time to exhaustion (p = 0.006), accompanied by an increase in blood lactate accumulation (p < 0.001), compared with PLA. Both NBAC and BAC demonstrated improved brachial artery diameter after workout (p = 0.041 and p = 0.005, respectively), but PLA did not. L-arginine concentrations increased from baseline to postsupplement consumption of BAC (p = 0.017). Reaction time significantly decreased after exercise for all supplements. There was no effect of supplement on mood states. Exercise-trained individuals looking to achieve modest improvements in power and endurance may benefit from consuming MIPS before exercise.

17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(15): 1799-1805, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412332

RESUMO

Clinically feasible metrics, that can inform the concussion recovery decision making process by evaluating a unique domain beyond current testing domains (e.g., balance, neurocognition, symptoms, vestibular/ocular function) are still in need. The purpose of this study was to compare perceptual-motor control in adolescent athletes ≤21 days of sport-related concussion and healthy controls and evaluate the association of perceptual-motor control to the outcomes of commonly-used sport-related concussion clinical assessments. Athletes (age: 12-18 years) with sport-related concussion (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 24) completed the Perception-Action Coupling Task (PACT), whose outcomes are mean reaction, movement, initiation, response time, and accuracy. ImPACT outcomes are verbal/visual memory scores, motor processing speed, and reaction time. Vestibular-Ocular Motor Screen (VOMS) outcomes are symptoms from: smooth pursuit, horizontal/vertical saccades, near-point of convergence, horizontal/vestibular ocular-reflex, and visual motion sensitivity. CONCUSSED demonstrated ~5% deficit in overall perceptual-motor accuracy during PACT compared to CONTROLS (p = 0.03). PACT accuracy negatively correlated with smooth pursuits(r = -0.29), and horizontal (r = -0.35)/vertical (r = -0.30) saccades. The C5.0 decision tree determined PACT accuracy was the most relevant predictor of sport-related concussion when no visual motion sensitivity symptoms were reported and Visual Memory was >66. Perceptual-motor control tests may complement current sport-related concussion assessments when neurocognition and vestibular/ocular motor system are not grossly impaired.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia
18.
J Biomech ; 105: 109772, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279931

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent among female soldiers, resulting in limited duty and long term adverse ambulatory effects. A proposed mechanism to the development of knee OA is the assiduous execution of load carriage tasks. Soldiers are often required to maintain a walking gait with load at velocities beyond their gait transition velocity (GTV) known as forced marching. The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on relative knee total joint moment (KTJM) in healthy recruit-aged women. The secondary aims are to determine knee total joint moment limb differences and to determine the interactive effect of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on the percent contributions of each plane of motion moment. Individuals were tasked with running and forced marching at 10% above their GTV at body weight (BW) and with an additional 25% and 45% of their BW. KTJM was analyzed at two specific gait events of heel-strike and mid-stance. At heel-strike, forced marching exhibited greater KTJM compared to run for all load conditions but running had greater KTJM than forced marching at mid-stance. The forced marching pattern exhibited larger KTJM for the dominant limb at both gait events compared to running. Lastly, at mid-stance the knee adduction moment percent (KAM%) contribution was greater for forced marching compared to running. The forced marching pattern demonstrates joint kinetics that may be more deleterious with prolonged exposure. Likewise, forced marching induced KAM% similar to those already suffering from knee OA.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga
19.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322188

RESUMO

Isolated ginsenoside metabolites such as Compound K (CK) are of increasing interest to consumer and clinical populations as safe and non-pharmacological means to enhance psychomotor performance constitutively and in response to physical or cognitive stress. Nevertheless, the influence of CK on behavioral performance and EEG measures of cortical activity in humans is undetermined. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study, dose-dependent responses to CK (placebo, 160 and 960 mg) were assessed after 2 weeks of supplementation in nineteen healthy men and women (age: 39.9 ± 7.9 year, height 170.2 ± 8.6 cm, weight 79.7 ± 11.9 kg). Performance on upper- and lower-body choice reaction tests (CRTs) was tested before and after intense lower-body anaerobic exercise. Treatment- and stress-related changes in brain activity were measured with high-density EEG based on event-related potentials, oscillations, and source activity. Upper- (-12.3 ± 3.5 ms, p = 0.002) and lower-body (-12.3 ± 4.9 ms, p = 0.021) response times improved after exercise, with no difference between treatments (upper: p = 0.354; lower: p = 0.926). Analysis of cortical activity in sensor and source space revealed global increases in cortical arousal after exercise. CK increased activity in cortical regions responsible for sustained attention and mitigated exercise-induced increases in arousal. Responses to exercise varied depending on task, but CK appeared to reduce sensory interference from lower-body exercise during an upper-body CRT and improve the general maintenance of task-relevant sensory processes.

20.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(19): 2102-2112, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340548

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in military populations and share numerous symptoms. Functional graph theory studies demonstrate altered small-world brain networks in mTBI and PTSD, but little is known about structural covariance networks or the potentially distinct topology of mTBI-PTSD comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain structural covariance networks in healthy active duty military service members (CON) to those with PTSD, mTBI, and mTBI-PTSD. Seventy-six service members (31 CON, 14 PTSD, 12 mTBI, 19 mTBI-PTSD) completed clinical questionnaires and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cortical thickness-derived adjacency matrices were used to determine structural covariance network topologies. Pairwise comparisons for characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, modularity (global), closeness centrality (nodal), and local efficiency were made across a range of network densities (5-35%) using non-parametric permutation tests. All clinical groups showed greater levels of arousal, stress, anxiety, and depression compared with CON. Global network analysis revealed greater clustering and local efficiency in PTSD compared with CON, whereas nodal analysis indicated altered path lengths and closeness centrality in fronto-limbic areas with mTBI-PTSD. Global and nodal graph outcomes suggest distinct pathophysiological manifestations of mTBI, PTSD, and mTBI-PTSD in structural brain networks. Greater network segregation and nodal differences in fronto-limbic areas may be tied to emotional fluctuations.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conectoma , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...